Ignacio Martin-Loeches

Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Trinity College Dublin | TCD · Department of Clinical Medicine

Professor

About

563
Publications
148,771
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
16,001
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2014 - present
St. James's Hospital
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (563)
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent multicenter studies identified COVID-19 as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, no large multicenter study has compared the incidence of IPA between COVID-19 and influenza patients. Objectives To determine the incidence of putative IPA in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, compared with influenza pa...
Article
Purpose of review: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) may concern up to one third of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss the diagnostic criteria, the pathogenesis, the risk factors, the incidence, the impact on outcome, and the diagnostic and therapeutic management of C...
Article
Background: The Fungal Infections Definitions in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients (FUNDICU) project aims to provide standard sets of definitions for invasive fungal diseases in critically ill, adult patients. Objectives: To summarize the available evidence on the diagnostic performance of clinical scores and laboratory tests for invasive candi...
Article
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) represents a real need for the present days. There is a huge amount of discussion around personalised medicine and probably this is very relevant in determining the right concentration of antibiotics in some populations. Patients with the most severe spectrum of infections, sepsis and septic shock, currently have w...
Article
Objective To determine whether the prior usage of the flu vaccine is a risk factor for bacterial co-infection in patients with severe influenza. Design This was a retrospective observational cohort study of subjects admitted to the ICU. A propensity score matching, and logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders were carried out to eval...
Article
Objective To determine the incidence and impact of Aspergillus spp. isolation (AI) on ICU mortality in critically ill patients with severe influenza pneumonia during the first 24 h of admission. Design Secondary analysis of an observational and prospective cohort study. Setting ICUs voluntary participating in the Spanish severe Influenza pneumoni...
Preprint
Background Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) are common in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The aim of this ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter observational retrospective study is to assess the relationship between corticosteroid adjuvant administration and the incidence of VA-LRTI. Methods Plan...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with high morbidity and health care costs, yet diagnosis remains a challenge. Analysis of airway microbiota by amplicon sequencing provides a possible solution, as pneumonia is characterised by a disruption of the microbiome. However, studies evaluating the diagnostic capabilities of...
Article
Resumen El rápido incremento en las resistencias a los antibióticos entre los bacilos gram negativos (BGN), especialmente en cepas de enterobacterias, P. aeruginosa y A. baumannii, con elevados patrones de resistencia, plantea una enorme amenaza para los sistemas de salud en todo el mundo. En la última década diferentes antibióticos han sido desarr...
Article
Background: Prolonged recovery is common after SARs-CoV-2 infection, however the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning Long COVID syndrome remain unknown. VWF-ADAMTS13 imbalance, dysregulated angiogenesis and immuno-thrombosis are hallmarks of acute COVID-19. We hypothesized that VWF-ADAMTS13 imbalance persists in convalescence together with...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients has been reported to be 30% (deep vein thrombosis 20% and pulmonary embolism 18%). This has been shown to be higher in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Prophylactic anticoagulation may be sufficient at ward level, but not in intensive care. A retrospective chart review was undertaken in...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Dexamethasone is the only drug that has consistently reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, especially in patients needing oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. However, there is a growing concern about the relation of dexamethasone with the unprecedented rates of ICU-acquired respiratory tract infections (ICU-RTI) observed in pa...
Article
Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) are useful biomarkers to differentiate bacterial from viral or fungal infections, although the association between them and co-infection or mortality in COVID-19 remains unclear. Methods: The study represents a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia to 8...
Preprint
Background Optimal time to intubate patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is controversial. Whereas some authors recommend trying noninvasive respiratory support before intubate, others argue that delaying intubation can cause patient-self-induced lung injury and worsen the prognosis. We hypothesized that delayed intubation would increase the risk mor...
Article
Full-text available
Due to multiple risk factors, the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill COVID-19 patients has been reported in a range of 7.6% to 86%. The rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in this cohort has been reported at 4% to 30%. We undertook a retrospective chart review of 276 patients who were admitted to intensive care in a larg...
Article
Full-text available
COVID pneumonitis can cause patients to become critically ill. They may require intensive care and mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a concern. This review aims to discuss the topic of ventilator-associated pneumonia in this group. Several reasons have been proposed to explain the elevated rates of VAP in critically ill COV...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Published studies suggest physical recovery from the COVID-19 is complex, with many individuals experiencing persistent symptoms. There is a paucity of data investigating the longer-term trajectory of physical recovery from COVID-19. Methods: A prospective longitudinal design was utilised to investigate the impact COVID-19 has on phy...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a wide spectrum of disease severity. Identifying the immunological characteristics of severe disease and the risk factors for their development are important in the management of COVID-19. This study aimed to identify and rank clinical and immunological features associated with progression to severe COVID-19 in order to...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, and almost 396 million people have been infected around the globe. Latin American countries have been deeply affected, and there is a lack of data in this regard. This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and factors associated with ICU admission due to COVID-...
Article
Full-text available
Background : The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in Ireland with the first confirmed positive case in March 2020. In the early stages of the pandemic clinicians and researchers in two affiliated Dublin hospitals identified the need for a COVID-19 biobanking initiative to support and enhance research into the disease. Thro...
Article
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at high risk for healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) due to the high prevalence of invasive procedures and devices, induced immunosuppression, comorbidity, frailty and increased age. Over the past decade we have seen a successful reduction in the incidence of HAI related to invasive procedures and device...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder, which occurs due to a single gene mutation. It has multisystemic manifestations, affecting millions of people worldwide. The effect of SCD on joints and musculature can overlap with clinical features of autoimmune disease (AD). It is therefore difficult for clinical haematologists and physicians t...
Article
Background Pressure injuries are a frequent complication in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, especially in those with comorbid conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yet no epidemiological data on pressure injuries in critically ill COPD patients are available. Objective To assess the prevalence of ICU-acquired pressur...
Article
Background Patients with severe COVID-19 develop a febrile pro-inflammatory cytokinemia with accelerated progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report the results of a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) for moderate-to-severe A...
Article
Purpose of review: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is known as a major worldwide health concern considering it has been shown to account for 78% of infection-related deaths in the USA. It is a common cause for hospitalization with a continued incidence rise in the elderly, high mortality rate and long-term sequelae in critically ill patients. S...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Intra-abdominal infections represent the second most frequently acquired infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. Candida spp. may be responsible for up to 10-30% of cases. This study assesses risk factors for development of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) among patients admitted to...
Article
Purpose of review: We aim to examine the most recent findings in the area of invasive pulmonary fungal infections to determine the appropriate/and or lack of prevention measures and treatment of upper fungal respiratory tract infections in the critically ill. Recent findings: This will be addressed by focusing on the pathogens and prognosis over...
Article
Objective To determine the incidence and impact of Aspergillus spp. isolation (AI) on ICU mortality in critically ill patients with severe influenza pneumonia during the first 24 h of admission. Design Secondary analysis of an observational and prospective cohort study. Setting ICUs voluntary participating in the Spanish severe Influenza pneumoni...
Article
Full-text available
word count: 250 Manuscript word count: 3402 Abbreviated running title: Severe COVID-19 Cohort. Potential Conflict of interest: Attached. Take home message: Countries and hospitals need to identify strategies to increase their ICU capacity (i.e., trained personnel, ICU beds and monitoring systems) to treat patients presenting to the hospital with se...
Article
Introduction Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common; its prevalence has been highlighted by the Covid-19 pandemic. Even young patients can suffer severe nosocomial infection and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Multidrug-resistant bacteria can spread alarmingly fast around the globe and new antimicrobials are struggling to keep pace; henc...
Article
Nosocomial pneumonia is associated with worsened prognosis when diagnosed in intensive care unit (ICU), ranging from 12 to 48% mortality. The incidence rate of ventilation-acquired pneumonia tends to decrease below 15/1,000 intubation-day. Still, international guidelines are heterogeneous about diagnostic criteria because of inaccuracy of available...
Article
Objectives In the ASPECT-NP trial, ceftolozane/tazobactam was non-inferior to meropenem for treating nosocomial pneumonia; efficacy outcomes by causative pathogen were to be evaluated. Methods Mechanically ventilated participants with hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia were randomized to 3 g ceftolozane/tazobactam (2 g cef...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some patients previously presenting with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. While this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the incidence and factors associated with the characteristics of persistent COVID-...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is unknown whether lung-protective ventilation is applied in burn patients and whether they benefit from it. This study aimed to determine ventilation practices in burn intensive care units (ICUs) and investigate the association between lung-protective ventilation and the number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28 (VFD-28)....
Article
Full-text available
Due to the large number of patients with severe COVID-19, many were treated outside of the traditional walls of the ICU, and in many cases, by personnel who were not trained in critical care. The clinical characteristics and the relative impact of caring for severe COVID-19 patients outside of the ICU is unknown. This was a multinational, multicent...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The primary objective is to demonstrate that, in patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 resulting in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), administration of 120mg/kg of body weight of intravenous Prolastin®(plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin) reduces circulating plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Secondary objectives are to de...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No study has evaluated the relationship between VAP and mortality in this population, or compared this relationship between SARS-CoV-2 patients and other populations. The main objective of our study was to determine the relationship between V...
Article
Full-text available
Background The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain if a similar association exists in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory fa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ceftolozane/tazobactam is approved for treatment of hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) at double the dose approved for other infection sites. Among nosocomial pneumonia subtypes, ventilated HABP (vHABP) is associated with the lowest survival. In the ASPECT-NP randomized, controlled trial, participants...
Article
Full-text available
Background Intensive care unit (ICU) patients age 90 years or older represent a growing subgroup and place a huge financial burden on health care resources despite the benefit being unclear. This leads to ethical problems. The present investigation assessed the differences in outcome between nonagenarian and octogenarian ICU patients. Methods We i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is unclear whether the changes in critical care throughout the pandemic have improved the outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in adults with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to 73 ICUs from Spain, Andorra and Ireland bet...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some unanswered questions persist regarding the effectiveness of corticosteroids for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to assess the clinical effect of corticosteroids on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality among mechanically ventilated COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients....
Article
Background Our survey aimed to evaluate adherence to Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines 2016 among intensive care practitioners and to identify issues that remain controversial or lack clarity. Methods Members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) were surveyed using an anonymous web-based survey written by an internat...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the admission of a high number of patients to the ICU, generally due to severe respiratory failure. Since the appearance of the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, at the end of 2019, in China, a huge number of treatment recommendations for this entity have been published, not always supported by sufficient scienti...
Article
Influenza infection causes severe illness in 3 to 5 million people annually, with up to an estimated 650,000 deaths per annum. As such, it represents an ongoing burden to health care systems and human health. Severe acute respiratory infection can occur, resulting in respiratory failure requiring intensive care support. Herein we discuss diagnostic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: High intensity of ventilation has an association with mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure. It is uncertain whether similar associations exist in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID−19). We investigated the association of exposure to different levels of...
Article
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers and uninfected patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 as a result of transmission from infected patients and health-care workers. In the absence of high-quality evidence on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, clinical practice of infection control a...
Article
During the current COVID-19 pandemic, health-care workers and uninfected patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 as a result of transmission from infected patients and health-care workers. In the absence of high-quality evidence on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, clinical practice of infection control a...
Article
Introduction: There is an ever-increasing range of antibiotic-resistant pathogens that have led to higher community-acquired infections, and substantial mortality rates in critically ill patients. Areas covered: We have critically appraised available evidence through a structured literature review, investigating effective empiric antibiotic admi...
Article
Introduction Traumatic injury elicits an inflammatory response such as the one occurring during systemic infection. Monocyte distribution width (MDW) has been found to distinguish sepsis in a pool of patients with suspected infection. We hypothesized that an elevated MDW in trauma patients would be associated with the development of multiple organ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Who should be tested for viruses in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), prevalence and risk factors for viral CAP are still debated. We evaluated the frequency of viral testing, virus prevalence, risk factors and treatment coverage with oseltamivir in patients admitted for CAP. Methods: Secondary analysis of GLIM...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ISARIC prospective multinational observational study is the largest cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We present relationships of age, sex, and nationality to presenting symptoms. Methods International, prospective observational study of 60 109 hospitalized symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 recruit...
Article
Introduction Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been postulated to present with distinct respiratory subphenotypes. However, most phenotyping schema have been limited by sample size, disregard for temporal dynamics, and insufficient validation. We aimed to identify respiratory subphenotypes of COVID-19-re...
Article
Objective: To determine if the use of corticosteroids was associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality among whole population and pre-specified clinical phenotypes. Design: A secondary analysis derived from multicenter, observational study Setting: Critical Care Units Patients: Adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease ad...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Some patients who had previously presented with COVID-19 have been reported to develop persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Whilst this information has been adequately recognised and extensively published with respect to non-critically ill patients, less is known about the prevalence and risk factors and characteristics of persistent COVID_19...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with infection can develop sepsis, and their mortality can be high. An important aspect in the treatment of sepsis is adequate management of the infection. Data sources: Using a modified Delphi approach, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign research committee recently published a series of 26 priorities for sepsis and septic shock. Study selec...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a wide spectrum of disease severity. Immune changes associated with severe disease include pro-inflammatory cytokine production and expansion of immature myeloid populations. The relative importance of the immunological changes in driving progression to severe disease remain poorly understood. We aimed to identify and ra...
Article
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a leading infectious cause of morbidity in critically ill patients, yet current guidelines offer no indications for follow-up cultures. We aimed to evaluate the role of follow-up cultures and microbiological response 3 days after diagnosing VAP as predictors of short- and long-term outcomes. Me...