Ignacio Ara

Ignacio Ara
University of Castilla-La Mancha · Physical Activity and Sport Sciences

PhD, Associate Professor

About

257
Publications
59,546
Reads
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5,209
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
University of Castilla-La Mancha
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2004 - September 2009
University of Zaragoza
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2001 - January 2004
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (257)
Article
Full-text available
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of medical conditions associated with several health disorders. MetS and frailty can be related to prolonged physical deconditioning. There is a need to know whether there is concordance between the different ways of diagnosing it and to know their prevalence in Spanish older adults. Thus, the aims of this stu...
Article
Full-text available
Workers spend a large amount of time working, limiting the possibility of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines. A better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) provides benefits for the employee and company. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations of four behavioural categories between compliance with PA guidelines (aerobic and s...
Article
Full-text available
Background Increased physical activity (PA) is a very important factor in a healthy aging lifestyle. Psychosocial factors have also a main role in the initiation and maintenance of this behavior, but nowadays its implications for frailty elderly people are unknown, therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the psychosociological variables of...
Article
Background and Aims This study aims to examine associations of food portion sizes (PS) with markers of insulin resistance (IR) and clustered of metabolic risk score in European adolescents. Methods 495 adolescents (53.5% females) from the HELENA study were included. The association between PS from food groups and HOMA-IR index, VO2 max, and metabo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The multiple benefits of physical activity (PA) compared to the current lack of adherence to this behavior in older people makes it necessary to identify the factors related to its long-term dropout, therefore, the aim of this study was: (i) to study the evolution of behavior change for PA through stages of change (SoC) after 8 years...
Article
Objectives: The aim was to evaluate general changes and investigate the association between diet quality, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time (ST) during COVID-19 lockdown and the subsequent 7-month changes in health-related behaviours and lifestyles in older people. Participants: 1092 participants (67-97y) from two Spanish cohorts were i...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to explore the differences among between adherence to physical activity (PA) and sociodemographic variables, body composition, and physical fitness levels in older adults (>65 years). A number of 2712 participants (2086 female; 76.92%) ranging from 65 to 92 years, participated in the study. Stages of change (SoC) for PA fr...
Article
Introduction: The long-term effects of exercise in patients with McArdle disease-the paradigm of 'exercise intolerance'-are unknown. This is an important question as the severity of the disease frequently increases with time. Purpose: To study the effects of a long-term exercise intervention on clinical and fitness-related outcomes in McArdle pa...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is important for sport scientists and health professionals to have estimative methods for energy demand during different physical activities. The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) provides a feasible approach for classifying activity intensity as a multiple of the resting metabolic rate (RMR). RMR is generally assumed to be 3.5 mL of...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the specific adaptations provoked by power-oriented resistance training using light (LL-PT, 40% 1-RM) vs. heavy (HL-PT, 80% 1-RM) loads in older adults. Using a randomized within-subject study design, 45 older adults (>65 years) completed an 8-week control period (CTR) followed by 12 weeks of unilateral LL-PT vs. HL-PT...
Article
Objectives: Muscle power is important for an older adult's physical independence and can be easily estimated using the sit-to-stand (STS) test. This investigation aimed to assess if muscle power estimated using the STS test could identify older adults at risk of losing physical independence beyond handgrip strength, physical activity (PA), and sed...
Article
Objective To investigate sex-specific associations of osteoporosis with incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, and cancer as well as with all-cause mortality. Methods In total, 305,072 participants (53% [161,383] women) of UK Biobank were included in this study (2007-2010). Self-reported diagnosis of ost...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Regucalcin, or senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), is a Ca2+-binding protein with multiple functions reported in the literature. Physical exercise has been shown to improve aging markers; nevertheless, SMP30 in humans has not been extensively researched. Older adults experience a decline in functional capacity and body composition. T...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study describes the theoretical foundations of the development of an equation that allows for the estimation of the mobilized load when training with suspension devices (type TRX®) and presents a mobile application as a means for its use. Methods: Systems of equations are proposed of which the terms depend on the angulation of th...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives were to clarify whether the relationship between physical performance and frailty was independently and jointly mediated by movement behaviors and body composition. We analyzed 871 older adults (476 women) from The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and fat index (FI) were determined using bone densitometry....
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study aimed i) to compare relative sit-to-stand power (STSrel) values yielded by the different equations reported in the literature; ii) to examine the associations between STSrel, derived from the equations, and age, sex, frailty and habitual gait speed (HGS); and iii) to compare the ability of the different STSrel equations to det...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this study were: (i) to evaluate the association of sit-to-stand (STS) power and body composition parameters [body mass index (BMI) and legs skeletal muscle index (SMI)] with age; (ii) to provide cut-off points for low relative STS power (STSrel), (iii) to provide normative data for well-functioning older adults and (iv) to assess t...
Article
People with spinal cord injury (SCI) tend to be more sedentary and increase fat accumulation, which could have a negative influence on metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity to oxidize fat in a homogenous sample of men with thoracic SCI compared with healthy noninjured men during an arm cycling incremental test...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Most studies on the effects of sleep, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA) on mental health did not account for the intrinsically compositional nature of the time spent in several behaviors. Thus, we examined the cross-sectional and prospective associations of device-measured compositional time in sleep, SB, light PA (LP...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) provides a feasible approach for classifying physical activity (PA) intensity as a multiple of the resting metabolic rate (RMR). The RMR standard value of 1 MET is generally assumed as 3.5 ml/kg/min, a value that has been criticized for being inappropriate in the older adult population. This fac...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical fitness levels and the amount of accumulated adipose tissue (fatness) relate to current and future individuals' heath status. Nevertheless, the interrelationships of their combined patterns with polypharmacy and the types of medications consumed have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: This cross-sectional study was...
Article
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of lower-limb muscle power with mortality and hospitalization. Methods A total of 1928 subjects from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging were included. Muscle power was assessed with the 5-repetition STS test and subjects were classified into different groups of relative power (i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A validated, standardized, and feasible test to assess muscle power in older adults has recently been reported: the sit-to-stand (STS) muscle power test. This investigation aimed to assess the relationship between relative STS power and age and to provide normative data, cut-off points, and minimal clinically important differences (MCI...
Article
Full-text available
We used data from 3041 participants in four cohorts of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years in Spain collected through a pre-pandemic face-to-face interview and a telephone interview conducted between weeks 7 to 15 after the beginning of the COVID-19 lockdown. On average, the confinement was not associated with a deterioration in lifestyle...
Article
Background Physical fitness and body composition are important health indicators, nevertheless their combined pattern inter-relationships and their association with mortality are poorly investigated. Methods This longitudinal study is part of the Spanish EXERNET-Elder project. Person-months follow-up were calculated from the interview date, perfor...
Article
Purpose: Being able to rise from a chair is paramount for independent living and is strongly influenced by the ability of the lower limbs to exert mechanical power. This study assessed minimal thresholds of lower-limb relative muscle power required to perform the sit-to-stand (STS) task in older adults and its association with mobility limitations...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this study was to device-assess the levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of older adults during the situation prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, home confinement, and phase-0 of the deescalation. We also aimed to analyse the effectiveness of an unsupervised home-based exercise routine to counteract the pot...
Article
Background The 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) muscle power test is a valid test to assess muscle power in older people; however, whether it may be used to assess trajectories of lower-limb muscle power through the adult lifespan is not known. This study evaluated the pattern and time course of variations in relative, allometric and specific STS muscle pow...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerometers’ accuracy for sedentary time (ST) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) classification depends on accelerometer placement, data processing, activities, and sample characteristics. As intensities differ by age, this study sought to determine intensity cut-points at various wear locations people more than 70 years old. Data...
Article
Background We aimed to summarize evidence on the safety, adherence and effectiveness of home-based resistance training (UHBRT) for improving health-related endpoints in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomized controlled trials of UHBRT in older adults (≥60yrs) were included after a systematic search (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, SPORTDisc...
Article
Background: To examine the associations of accelerometer-derived steps volume and intensity with hospitalizations and all-cause mortality in older adults. Methods: This prospective cohort study involved 768 community-dwelling Spanish older adults (78.8 ± 4.9 years, mean ± SD; 53.9% females) from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging (2012-2017). Th...
Article
This study investigated the acute responses to volume-load-matched heavy-load (80% 1RM) versus light-load (40% 1RM) power-oriented resistance training sessions in well-functioning older adults. Using a randomized cross-over design, 15 volunteers completed each condition on a leg press. Neuromuscular (maximal isometric force and rate of force develo...
Article
Full-text available
Frailty is a reversible condition, which is strongly related to physical function and nutritional status. Different scales are used to screened older adults and their risk of being frail, however, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) may be more adequate than others to measure physical function in exercise interventions and has been less studi...
Article
Full-text available
With aging, bone density is reduced, increasing the risk of suffering osteoporosis and fractures. Increasing physical activity (PA) may have preventive effects. However, until now, no studies have considered movement behaviors with compositional data or its association to bone mass and structure measured by peripheral computed tomography (pQCT). Th...
Article
Background/objectives Moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) have been proposed as viable solutions to improve an older adult's physical independence, whereas sedentary time (ST) has been associated with detrimental effects. We sought to assess the joint effects of ST, BST, and MVPA on the physical independ...
Article
Objectives To assess the influence of muscle power and adiposity on all-cause mortality risk and to evaluate the ‘fat but powerful’ (F+P) (or ‘fat but fit’) paradox in older adults. Methods A total of 2563 older adults (65‒91 years old) from the EXERNET multicentre study were included. Adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fa...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to identify the differences in body composition and physical fitness between children who played table tennis regularly during a two-year period compared to physically active children who were not engaged in a regular activity. Three hundred seventy-four children aged 10 to 11 years were divided into two groups: table tenn...
Article
Introduction A vast amount of research has focused on the effects of physical fitness (PF) on mortality, with little research evaluating the effects of PF on future expected health related quality of life (HRQoL). Aim To evaluate how current PF influences future HRQoL measured in a prospective 8-year study in older adults. Methods A total of 617...
Article
Full-text available
Background Power-oriented resistance training (PRT) is one of the most effective exercise programs to counteract neuromuscular and physical function age-related declines. However, the optimal load that maximizes these outcomes or the load-specific adaptations induced on muscle power determinants remain to be better understood. Furthermore, to inves...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: We aimed to examine main changes in health behaviors, mental and physical health among older adults under severe lockdown restrictions during the COVID-19. Methods: We used prospective data from 3041 participants in four cohorts of community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years in Spain. Data were obtained using validated questionnaires...
Article
Background In most trials and systematic reviews that evaluate exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms, it is difficult to separate treatment from prevention. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise-based interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in people without clinical depression. Method We searched PubMed, Psy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Increased physical activity (PA) is a very important factor in a healthy aging lifestyle. Psychosocial factors have also a main role in the initiation and maintenance of this behavior, but nowadays its implications for frailty elderly people are unknown, therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the psychosociological variables of...
Article
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, entire populations were instructed to live in home-confinement to prevent the expansion of the disease. Spain was one of the countries with the strictest conditions, as outdoor physical activity was banned for nearly two months. This study aimed to analyse the changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Sp...
Article
Objectives This study aimed i) to assess the assumptions made in the sit-to-stand (STS) muscle power test [body mass accelerated during the ascending phase (90% of total body mass), leg length (50% of total body height) and concentric phase (50% of total STS time)], ii) to compare force plate-derived (FPD) STS power values with those derived from...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We studied the effects of a supervised, structured exercise program in a severe sarcoidosis patient. Methods: After being clinically stable for two years, a 52-year-old woman (stage IV, American Thoracic Society) who originally had irreversible lung fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), mild mitral insufficiency, and atria...
Article
Full-text available
The aging of humans is associated with body composition and function deterioration creating a burden on an individual level, but also on a societal one, resulting in an economic burden that is socially unsustainable. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition after a 6-month MCT (multicomponent training) and a 4-month detraining perio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The purposes of this study were: i) to evaluate the association of sit-to-stand (STS) power and body composition parameters [body mass index (BMI) and legs skeletal muscle index (SMI)] with age; ii) to provide cut-off points for low relative STS power (STSrel), ii) to provide normative data for well-functioning older adults and iv) to a...
Preprint
Objectives The main objective of this study was to device-assess the levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of older adults during the situation prior to COVID-19 pandemic, home-quarantine and the ending of isolation. We also aimed analysing the effectiveness of an unsupervised home-based exercise routine to counteract the pot...
Preprint
Objectives To assess the influence of muscle power and adiposity on all-cause mortality risk and to evaluate the ‘fat but powerful’ (or ‘fat but fit’) paradox in older adults. Methods A total of 2563 older adults (65‒91 years old) from the EXERNET Multi-center study were included. Adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat per...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The assessment and treatment of low relative muscle power in older people has received little attention in the clinical setting when compared to sarcopenia. Our main goal was to assess the associations of low relative power and sarcopenia with other negative outcomes in older people. Methods The participants were 1189 subjects (54% wo...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the validity and functional relevance of a standardized procedure to assess lower limb muscle power by means of the 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) test when compared to leg extension power (LEP), traditional STS performance and handgrip strength. A total of 628 community-dwelling older subjects (60–93 years) from the Copenhagen...
Article
Rodriguez-Lopez, C, Alcazar, J, Sánchez-Martín, C, Ara, I, Csapo, R, and Alegre, LM. Mechanical characteristics in heavy vs. light load ballistic resistance training in older adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Although power-oriented resistance training (RT) is strongly recommended to counter age-related neuromuscular function decline...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with the impairment of health and functional capacity, and physical exercise seems to be an effective tool in frailty prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to present the methodology used in the EXERNET-Elder 3.0 project that aims to evaluate the immediate and residual effects and of a multicomponent exercise t...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim was to analyse the associations between several physical fitness variables and bone parameters in a sample of elderly people. 129 participants (94 females and 35 males, 76.2±5.4 y) from the EXERNET cohort of Zaragoza (Spain) were included in the study. Physical fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test Battery. Peripheral quan...