Ido Kanter

Ido Kanter
Bar Ilan University | BIU · Department of Physics and Brain Science Unit and

PhD

About

253
Publications
25,410
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6,849
Citations
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January 1989 - present
Bar Ilan University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (253)
Article
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Real-time sequence identification is a core use-case of artificial neural networks (ANNs), ranging from recognizing temporal events to identifying verification codes. Existing methods apply recurrent neural networks, which suffer from training difficulties; however, performing this function without feedback loops remains a challenge. Here, we prese...
Article
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Synaptic plasticity is a long-lasting core hypothesis of brain learning that suggests local adaptation between two connecting neurons and forms the foundation of machine learning. The main complexity of synaptic plasticity is that synapses and dendrites connect neurons in series and existing experiments cannot pinpoint the significant imprinted ada...
Preprint
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The gap between the huge volumes of data needed to train artificial neural networks and the relatively small amount of data needed by their biological counterparts is a central puzzle in machine learning. Here, inspired by biological information-processing, we introduce a generalized Hopfield network where pairwise couplings between neurons are bui...
Preprint
Real-time sequence identification is a core use-case of artificial neural networks (ANNs), ranging from recognizing temporal events to identifying verification codes. Existing methods apply recurrent neural networks, which suffer from training difficulties; however, performing this function without feedback loops remains a challenge. Here, we prese...
Preprint
Full-text available
In neural network's Literature, {\em Hebbian learning} traditionally refers to the procedure by which the Hopfield model and its generalizations {\em store} archetypes (i.e., definite patterns that are experienced just once to form the synaptic matrix). However, the term {\em learning} in Machine Learning refers to the ability of the machine to ext...
Article
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Refractoriness is a fundamental property of excitable elements, such as neurons, indicating the probability for re-excitation in a given time lag, and is typically linked to the neuronal hyperpolarization following an evoked spike. Here we measured the refractory periods (RPs) in neuronal cultures and observed that an average anisotropic absolute R...
Preprint
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Refractoriness is a fundamental property of excitable elements, such as neurons, indicating the probability for re-excitation in a given time-lag, and is typically linked to the neuronal hyperpolarization following an evoked spike. Here we measured the refractory periods (RPs) in neuronal cultures and observed that anisotropic absolute RPs could ex...
Preprint
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Refractory periods are an unavoidable feature of excitable elements, resulting in necessary time-lags for re-excitation. Herein, we measure neuronal absolute refractory periods (ARPs) in synaptic blocked neuronal cultures. In so doing, we show that their duration can be significantly extended by dozens of milliseconds using preceding evoked spikes...
Article
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Power-law scaling, a central concept in critical phenomena, is found to be useful in deep learning, where optimized test errors on handwritten digit examples converge as a power-law to zero with database size. For rapid decision making with one training epoch, each example is presented only once to the trained network, the power-law exponent increa...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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Attempting to imitate the brain’s functionalities, researchers have bridged between neuroscience and artificial intelligence for decades; however, experimental neuroscience has not directly advanced the field of machine learning (ML). Here, using neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that increased training frequency accelerates the neuronal adaptation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attempting to imitate the brain functionalities, researchers have bridged between neuroscience and artificial intelligence for decades; however, experimental neuroscience has not directly advanced the field of machine learning. Here, using neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that increased training frequency accelerates the neuronal adaptation proces...
Preprint
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Ultrafast physical random bit generation at hundreds of Gb/s rates, with verified randomness, is a crucial ingredient in secure communication and have recently emerged using optics based physical systems. Here we examine the inverse problem and measure the ratio of information bits that can be systematically embedded in a random bit sequence withou...
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Recently, deep learning algorithms have outperformed human experts in various tasks across several domains; however, their characteristics are distant from current knowledge of neuroscience. The simulation results of biological learning algorithms presented herein outperform state-of-the-art optimal learning curves in supervised learning of feedfor...
Article
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Synchronization of coupled oscillators at the transition between classical physics and quantum physics has become an emerging research topic at the crossroads of nonlinear dynamics and nanophotonics. We study this unexplored field by using quantum dot microlasers as optical oscillators. Operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQE...
Article
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Experimental evidence recently indicated that neural networks can learn in a different manner than was previously assumed, using adaptive nodes instead of adaptive links. Consequently, links to a node undergo the same adaptation, resulting in cooperative nonlinear dynamics with oscillating effective link weights. Here we show that the biological re...
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Introduction: rTMS has been proven effective in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions, with class A (definite efficacy) evidence for treatment of depression and pain (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). The efficacy in stimulation protocols is, however, quite heterogeneous. Saturation of neuronal firing by HFrTMS without allowing time for recovery may...
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Physical models typically assume time-independent interactions, whereas neural networks and machine learning incorporate interactions that function as adjustable parameters. Here we demonstrate a new type of abundant cooperative nonlinear dynamics where learning is attributed solely to the nodes, instead of the network links which their number is s...
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Neurons are the computational elements that compose the brain and their fundamental principles of activity are known for decades. According to the long-lasting computational scheme, each neuron sums the incoming electrical signals via its dendrites and when the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold the neuron typically generates a spike to...
Article
Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be a promising noninvasive therapeutic tool for a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Therapeutic utility of rTMS was classified to have class A evidence for treatment of depression and chronic pain. In different stimulation protocols intervals have been introduc...
Article
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We present an analytical framework that allows the quantitative study of statistical dynamic properties of networks with adaptive nodes that have memory and is used to examine the emergence of oscillations in networks with response failures. The frequency of the oscillations was quantitatively found to increase with the excitability of the nodes an...
Article
Neural networks are composed of neurons and synapses, which are responsible for learning in a slow adaptive dynamical process. Here we experimentally show that neurons act like independent anisotropic multiplex hubs, which relay and mute incoming signals following their input directions. Theoretically, the observed information routing enriches the...
Article
The neuronal response to controlled stimulations in vivo has been classically estimated using a limited number of events. Here we show that hours of high-frequency stimulations and recordings of neurons in vivo reveal previously unknown response phases of neurons in the intact brain. Results indicate that for stimulation frequencies below a critica...
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The increasing number of recording electrodes enhances the capability of capturing the network’s cooperative activity, however, using too many monitors might alter the properties of the measured neural network and induce noise. Using a technique that merges simultaneous multi-patch-clamp and multi-electrode array recordings of neural networks in-vi...
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Catastrophic failures are complete and sudden collapses in the activity of large networks such as economics, electrical power grids and computer networks, which typically require a manual recovery process. Here we experimentally show that excitatory neural networks are governed by a non-Poissonian reoccurrence of catastrophic failures, where their...
Article
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The experimental study of neural networks requires simultaneous measurements of a massive number of neurons, while monitoring properties of the connectivity, synaptic strengths and delays. Current technological barriers make such a mission unachievable. In addition, as a result of the enormous number of required measurements, the estimated network...
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Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which were extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally a...
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Chaos synchronization has been demonstrated as a useful building block for various tasks in secure communications, including a source of all-electronic ultrafast physical random number generators based on room temperature spontaneous chaotic oscillations in a DC-biased weakly coupled GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As semiconductor superlattice (SSL). Here, we ex...
Article
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Realizations of low firing rates in neural networks usually require globally balanced distributions among excitatory and inhibitory links, while feasibility of temporal coding is limited by neuronal millisecond precision. We experimentally demonstrate {\mu}s precision of neuronal response timings under low stimulation frequencies, whereas moderate...
Article
Periodic synchronization of activity among neuronal pools has been related to substantial neural processes and information throughput in the neocortical network. However, the mechanisms of generating such periodic synchronization among distributed pools of neurons remain unclear. We hypothesize that to a large extent there is interplay between the...
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Consistency and predictability of brain functionalities depend on the reproducible activity of a single neuron. We identify a reproducible non-chaotic neuronal phase where deviations between concave response latency profiles of a single neuron do not increase with the number of stimulations. A chaotic neuronal phase emerges at a transition to conve...
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In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gate...
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We experimentally show that the neuron functions as a precise time integrator, where the accumulated changes in neuronal response latencies, under complex and random stimulation patterns, are solely a function of a global quantity, the average time lag between stimulations. In contrast, momentary leaps in the neuronal response latency follow trends...
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A classical view of neural coding relies on temporal firing synchrony among functional groups of neurons, however, the underlying mechanism remains an enigma. Here we experimentally demonstrate a mechanism where time-lags among neuronal spiking leap from several tens of milliseconds to nearly zero-lag synchrony. It also allows sudden leaps out of s...
Article
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The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied. However, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level, is unexplored. Here, we experimentally compare these phenomena by controlling the heterogeneity of the co...
Article
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An all-electronic physical random number generator at rates up to 80 Gbit/s is presented, based on weakly coupled GaAs/Ga_{0.55}Al_{0.45}As superlattices operated at room temperature. It is based on large-amplitude, chaotic current oscillations characterized by a bandwidth of several hundred MHz and do not require external feedback or conversion to...
Article
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Nonlinear networks with time-delayed couplings may show strong and weak chaos, depending on the scaling of their Lyapunov exponent with the delay time. We study strong and weak chaos for semiconductor lasers, either with time-delayed self-feedback or for small networks. We examine the dependence on the pump current and consider the question of whet...
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We propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the functionality of the brain's logic-gates depends on the history of their activity, e.g. an OR-gate that turns into a XOR-gate over time. Our results are based on an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-sca...
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The attractor dimension at the transition to complete synchronization in a network of chaotic units with time-delayed couplings is investigated. In particular, we determine the Kaplan-Yorke dimension from the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents for iterated maps and for two coupled semiconductor lasers. We argue that the Kaplan-Yorke dimension must be d...
Article
The linear response of synchronized time-delayed chaotic systems to small external perturbations, i.e., the phenomenon of chaos pass filter, is investigated for iterated maps. The distribution of distances, i.e., the deviations between two synchronized chaotic units due to external perturbations on the transferred signal, is used as a measure of th...
Article
Full-text available
The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied, however, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level is unexplored. Here we experimentally compare chaos synchronization of laser networks with heterogeneous c...
Article
Full-text available
We report on electrically pumped quantum dot-microlasers in the presence of polarized self-feedback. The high-beta microlasers show two orthogonal, linearly polarized emission modes which are coupled via the common gain medium. This coupling is explained in terms of gain competition between the two lasing modes and leads to distinct differences in...
Article
Psychological and physiological considerations entail that formation and functionality of neuronal cell assemblies depend upon synchronized repeated activation such as zero-lag synchronization. Several mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon have been suggested, including the global network quantity, the greatest common divisor of neuronal...
Article
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The scaling of transient times to zero-lag synchronization in networks composed of excitable units is shown to be governed by three features of the graph representing the network: the longest path between pairs of neurons (diameter), the largest loop (circumference) and the loop with the maximal average out degree. The upper bound of transient time...