Ibrahim Dincer

Ibrahim Dincer
Ontario Tech University | UOIT · Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

About

1,705
Publications
334,479
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
65,858
Citations

Publications

Publications (1,705)
Article
In this paper, both renewable hydrogen production and blending with natural gas for the existing distribution pipelines are studied through a unique trigeneration systems development, analysis, and assessment. A comparison with various conventional fuels, such as diesel, coal, biogas, and biodiesel is provided. In this regard, solar and wind energy...
Article
In this paper, a waste heat recovery system for a cement plant is developed and analyzed with the softwares of Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and Aspen Plus. This system is novel in a way that hydrogen is uniquely produced from waste heat obtained from the cement slag and blended with natural gas for domestic use. The presented system has a stea...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a thermoeconomic assessment of renewable energy‐based hydrogen generation and blending it with natural gas in the existing pipeline system is performed for various locations. Selected locations are compared in energy content, environmental impact, and cost. In this regard, solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines are integrated wi...
Conference Paper
In this study, renewable hydrogen production and blending with natural gas for the existing distribution pipelines is studied and evaluated in comparison with various fuels, such as diesel, coal, biogas, and biodiesel. In this regard, solar and wind energy-based power systems integrated with reverse osmosis units are designed and compared in energy...
Article
This review presents the power-to-gas concept, particularly with hydrogen, from renewable energy sources to end-use applications in various sectors, ranging from transportation to natural gas distribution networks. The paper includes an overview of the leading related studies for comparative evaluation. Due to the intermittent/fluctuating phenomena...
Conference Paper
A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy is conducted for a combined geothermal energy system using the Engineering Equation Solver for hot water, cooling, and clean electricity production. The parametric studies results indicate that the maximum useful output power of the turbine that could be obtained was 5991 kW occurred...
Article
In this paper, a multigeneration system is proposed, which utilizes geothermal energy and a lithium-bromide absorption cooling cycle. The proposed system is capable of providing electricity, heating, cooling, and domestic hot water to a small residential community in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The performance of the system's heating and c...
Article
In this paper, we present a newly developed integrated solar energy based system with a supercritical geothermal, a Brayton cycle gas turbine power plant with heat recovery system, and a thermochemical copper chlorine (Cu-Cl) hydrogen production cycle. The integrated system is capable of producing multiple useful outputs. Solar and geothermal energ...
Article
Due to the advantages of high efficiency and fuel flexibility, solid oxide fuel cells have become a prominent option to power the future of heavy-duty transportation. Providing and selecting several solid-oxide fuel cell-based powering systems as options for the transportation industry have become an important task. For this reason, the purpose of...
Article
In this article, we propose a novel system to effectively deploy an integrated fuel processing system for hydrogen sulfide and natural gas resources available in the Black Sea to be used for a quick transition to the hydrogen economy. In this regard, the proposed system utilizes offshore wind and offshore photovoltaic power plants to meet the elect...
Article
Increasing environmental concerns and decreasing fossil fuel sources compel engineers and scientists to find resilient, clean, and inexpensive alternative energy options Recently, the usage of renewable power resources has risen, while the efficiency improvement studies have continued. To improve the efficiency of the plants, it is of great signifi...
Article
In this study, a hythane (which is known as a blend of methane and hydrogen) based combined cycle integrated with gasification and landfill subsystems (digesters) is proposed to provide electricity and heat for buildings. The system is analyzed for the various wastes and evaluated in terms of energy, exergy and the environmental impact. The paramet...
Article
This study concerns a new photoelectrochemical reactor design for hydrogen production to avoid the bubble formation on the surface of the electrode through the hydrogen production process via photoelectrochemical techniques. The proposed design contains two dome electrodes (photocathode and anode) immersed in the electrolyte in two cylindrical cham...
Article
This paper provides a unique review of hydrogen production methods with wastewater treatment to depict a clean and sustainable approach. Various methods for hydrogen production from wastewaters are identified and discussed with recent details by discussing the critical challenges, opportunities, and future directions. Five main performance sectors...
Article
In order to meet the energy and fuel needs of societies in a sustainable way and hence preserve the environment, there is a strong need for clean, efficient and low-emission energy systems. In this regard, it is aimed to generate cleaner energy outputs, such as electricity, hydrogen and ammonia as well as some additional useful commodities by utili...
Article
As the world population grows rapidly, the global energy demand increases exponentially and the technological advancements require more resilient infrastructure than ever, there is a strong need to develop innovative energy systems in smart cities. This paper introduces a novel model to assess cities for their smartness. A smart city is characteriz...
Article
In this study, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) integrated with a combustion subsystem and a horizontal belt-type drying unit is developed, built, and tested at a pilot scale for organic wastes to energy applications. The organic wastes used for experimental investigation are chicken manure collected from the respective industrial sector. The novel d...
Article
This comprehensive review paper compares the different methods developed experimentally to produce hydrogen by reacting aluminum and water. The alumina oxide layer which forms on the exterior surface of aluminum inhibits the reaction from taking place. Therefore, this paper presents a variety of techniques used to eliminate the oxide layer so that...
Article
Due to the current limitations in hydrogen storage technologies in heavy-duty vehicles, on-board hydrogen production from alternative fuels comes as a viable solution. Ammonia is one type of fuel that can easily be produced and stored in these vehicles. For this reason, this paper aims at presenting a novel powering system that uses ammonia to prod...
Article
Hydrogen is acknowledged as a potential fuel as it can be used as an energy carrier, a storage medium, in fuel cells and as a fuel as well and offers carbon-free solutions. This paper investigates three renewable energy based configurations for hydrogen production. The renewable energy sources considered in this study are solar PV, geothermal power...
Article
This paper concerns a novel integrated system for geothermal-based power and hydrogen generation and blending of hydrogen into natural gas to feed household devices, such as gas stove and combi boiler. The system includes a combined flash and binary geothermal subsystem, an alkaline electrolyzer, a blending unit and a combustion reactor. The design...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to absorption cooling is described. Absorption cooling (refrigeration) technology represents an attractive alternative to the vapor-compression cooling from the perspectives of energy diversification and environmental protection. Absorption cooling systems use low-grade or waste thermal...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to cogeneration (combined heat and power) and district energy is described. Cogeneration produces heat and electricity in one process and can provide efficiency, operational, environmental, and financial benefits. Cogenerated thermal energy can be used for domestic hot water heating, sp...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe the role of exergy in policy development and education. We examine education and awareness of exergy, by focusing first on the public and the media, and then on the education of thermodynamicists, researchers, scientists, engineers, as well as other technical staff. Also, it is demonstrated that exergy has a place in po...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to very large and compound systems (macrosystems), such as countries, regions, and economic sectors (e.g., residential, commercial, transportation, industrial, and utility) is described. By describing the use of energy resources in society in terms of exergy, important knowledge and und...
Chapter
In this chapter, energy and exergy analyses are utilized to examine and better understand the performance of steam power plants and to identify and evaluate possible process modifications to improve the plant efficiencies. Numerous steam power plants driven by fossil fuels like oil, coal, and natural gas or by other energy resources like uranium ar...
Chapter
In this chapter, the integration of exergy analysis with multiobjective optimization, and the application of such a combined method, is described. It is usually important to optimize processes so that a chosen quantity, known as the objective function, is maximized or minimized. Engineering design has thus become increasingly coupled with optimizat...
Chapter
In this chapter, exergy-based economic-analysis methods for analyzing thermal systems are described, such as exergoeconomic; thermoeconomic; specific energy cost; and exergy, cost, energy, and mass and analyses. Such techniques seek to determine the appropriate allocation of economic resources to optimize the design and/or operation of a system; an...
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide closing remarks for the book and discuss future expectations for the field of exergy. This chapter summarizes how the book provides a broad working familiarity and understanding of exergy and analysis techniques based upon it, and shows that on a practical basis exergy analysis provides a useful tool, while on a more abs...
Chapter
In this chapter, the integration of exergy analysis with industrial ecology, and the application of such a combined method, is described. Industrial ecology is an approach to designing industrial systems that promote environmental improvement by seeking a reasonable balance between industrial profit and environmental stewardship and thereby can con...
Chapter
In this chapter, life cycle assessment (LCA) is modified and extended, by incorporating exergy, to form exergetic life cycle assessment (ExLCA). LCA is a methodology for cradle-to-grave assessment, and represents a systematic set of procedures for compiling and examining the inputs and outputs of materials and energy, and the associated environment...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to various renewable energy systems is described. Exergy analyses and exergetic performance assessment studies are performed for such renewable energy systems like solar photovoltaic and solar photovoltaic/thermal systems, solar ponds, wind energy systems (wind turbines), geothermal ene...
Chapter
This chapter describes and illustrates the exergy analysis of drying processes, and applies the concepts to moist solids. Drying is used in a wide variety of applications ranging from food drying to wood drying, and is recognized as one of the most highly energy-intensive operations. In drying, heat and moisture transfer occur simultaneously. We de...
Chapter
In this chapter, we describe chemical exergy and demonstrate its importance analyzing energy and other systems. Chemical exergy represents the maximum work extractable from a system at the pressure and temperature of the reference environment. Alternatively, chemical exergy is the work obtained as a system in restricted equilibrium with the referen...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to crude oil distillation is described. Energy analysis is conventionally used to optimize the yield of desired products in crude oil distillation, but we seek to optimize the utilization of energy resources for economic, resource scarcity, and environmental reasons, and exergy analysis...
Chapter
In this chapter, we consider exergy as the confluence of energy, environment, and sustainable development. The basis for this treatment is the interdisciplinary character of exergy and its relation to each of these disciplines. There has recently been an increasing number of works on the linkage between exergy and the environment. Many suggest that...
Chapter
This chapter provides a background for understanding energy, entropy, and exergy concepts. Also, basic thermodynamic principles and general definitions are explained, and various practical applications and implications of these thermodynamic quantities are discussed. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are described, as are energy audits an...
Chapter
Energy and exergy analyses are used in this chapter to perform thermodynamic performance analyses and comparisons of several types of hydrogen production processes. Energy and exergy efficiencies and losses are evaluated for each of the overall production processes and for the subprocesses within each process. Hydrogen is used as a fuel (or energy...
Chapter
The application of exergy concepts and methods to industrial operations and problems is described. Exergy methods are used in many industries because they provide powerful tools for analyzing, assessing, designing, improving, and optimizing systems and processes. For example, some electrical generation companies utilize exergy methods to design bet...
Chapter
In this chapter, the applications of energy and exergy analyses to psychrometric processes are introduced and described. Basic psychrometric concepts and processes are also explained. The use of exergy analysis on psychrometric, HVAC, and air conditioning processes has helped efforts to improve performance. A case study is presented for an open-cyc...
Chapter
In this chapter, theoretical and practical aspects of thermodynamics most relevant to energy and exergy analyses are described. Mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balances are discussed. The exergy of systems and flows is explained, as is exergy destruction. Exergy analysis is a thermodynamic analysis technique based on the Second Law of Thermodynam...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to refrigeration and heat pump systems is described. These devices move heat from a region of low temperature to a region of higher temperature. The device can be considered a heater or cooler depending on the task. That is, such a device can be employed as a heater if its objective is...
Chapter
This chapter describes the application of exergy analysis to thermal energy storage (TES) and demonstrates the usefulness of such analyses in providing insights into TES behavior and performance. TES generally involves the temporary storage of high- or low-temperature thermal energy for later use. Key thermodynamic considerations in TES evaluation...
Chapter
In this chapter, the applications of energy and exergy analyses to trigeneration (combined cooling, heat, and power) and multigeneration systems with more than three useful outputs is described. We explain how different systems can be integrated to produce several outputs using a single energy resource. Producing multiple outputs in a single system...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to aircraft is described. The extension of exergy analyses from ground-based systems to the aerospace engine differs from the traditional analysis of terrestrial systems. The operating environment varies significantly during the operation of aerospace engines during a flight. The effect...
Chapter
In this chapter, the application of energy and exergy analyses to cryogenic and liquefaction systems is described. Cryogenic engineering is the design, development, and improvement of low-temperature (usually below − 150°C or 123 K) systems and components. Applications of cryogenic engineering include liquefaction and separation of gases, high-fiel...
Chapter
In this chapter, exergy analyses are presented of a several fuel cell systems: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system for a light-duty fuel cell vehicle, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-gas turbine system, a molten carbonate fuel cell, and a cogeneration system integrating an ammonia fuel cell and an internal combustion eng...
Chapter
The development of novel decision-making methodologies for power to gas (P2G), power to liquid (P2L), and gas to power (G2P) offshore hybrid energy systems entails their application to case studies to prove their effectiveness and value. A set of three case studies are presented in this chapter: (1) a gas production platform located in a remote are...
Chapter
Three types of innovative hybrid energy systems for offshore applications are presented in this chapter: power to gas (P2G), power to liquid (P2L), and gas to power (G2P). P2G and P2L systems aim to convert excess offshore renewable power into chemical fuels (hydrogen, synthetic natural gas, and methanol) to ease the energy transportation to the sh...
Chapter
This chapter presents general information about power production from offshore renewable energy sources (offshore wind, solar wave, tidal currents) including the energy conversion principles and the available energy conversion technologies. Main drawbacks associated to the transportation of offshore renewable power to onshore areas and integration...
Chapter
Power to gas (P2G), power to liquid (P2L), and gas to power (G2P) offshore hybrid energy systems require appropriate multi-criteria analysis and modeling approaches to allow the screening of alternative options in early design stages. Fundamentals of technical, economic, and environmental sustainability, and of inherent safety analyses of the syste...
Chapter
This chapter presents a portfolio of novel methodologies based on multi-criteria indicators supporting the sustainability and inherent safety performance comparison of alternative power to gas (P2G), power to liquid (P2L), and gas to power (G2P) offshore hybrid energy systems in early design stages. Two sustainability assessment methodologies are d...
Chapter
In this book, novel quantitative assessment methodologies are primarily presented, supporting the selection of suitable power to gas (P2G), power to liquid (P2L), and gas to power (G2P) offshore hybrid energy systems from the sustainability and inherent safety viewpoints. This chapter summarizes the main conclusions of the book and discussed recomm...
Article
This paper undertakes a comprehensive case study of utilizing municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from thirty-seven different local municipalities and gasified in a gasification plant. The plant is considered to have a 200 ton/h MSW capacity available in the City of Istanbul, Turkey for potential hydrogen production. A thermodynamic analysis of t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the prototype of a new pneumatic vehicle is developed, analyzed, built and tested. The system consists of a novel compressed air system integrated with phase change materials for energy recovery. Three different phase change materials (PCMs) of polyethylene glycol, paraffin, and alkane mix are investigated for heat recovery purposes...
Article
Renewable energy sources are attracting attention as a replacement of fossil fuel-based sources. This paper presents a new renewable combined cycle power plant to deliver smart services for a sustainable community. A case study is undertaken for the Kedron Community in the city of Oshawa in Canada. The integrated power plant depends on solar radiat...
Article
This paper provides a critical review of renewable and non-renewable synthetic natural gas production processes, technologies, and catalysts used to enhance the methanation processes. By completing this review, researchers have successfully provided a road-map for synthetic natural gas production research, as well as describing the current landscap...
Article
A numerical study of a new photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for hydrogen production is performed to investigate energy and fluid flows in particularly removing the adhering bubbles on the surface of the electrodes. The proposed ratio of the electrodes’ surface area is taken as 2.6:1 of the photocathode to the anode. The total surface area of the dom...
Article
In the present study, an integrated solar and wind based cogeneration system is developed for power and ammonia production. A new molten-salt based thermal energy storage and electrochemical energy conversion technique is utilized, which includes electrochemical ammonia synthesis, direct ammonia fuel cell, and thermal energy storage system. A trans...
Article
A new community based polygeneration smart energy system is proposed to meet the demands of a community in a sustainable manner and applied to case study where we aim to balance Ontario’s energy requirements while minimizing carbon emissions. In this case study, the smart energy hub utilizes a 30 MW small modular nuclear reactor which provides a un...
Article
A new configuration of hazardous industrial waste incineration system for energy generation and hydrogen production is proposed in this study. A heat recovery steam generator is used to generate steam for the double-stage Rankine cycle for electrical power generation. The additional heat from the incineration unit exhaust gas is employed to generat...
Article
In this study, a hythane based cogeneration system integrated with multi-effect desalination, reverse osmosis, gasification and digestion subsystems is proposed to provide electricity and freshwater using biomass sources. The system is analyzed for various wastes to compare their performance in terms of environment, energy, and exergy. The parametr...
Article
The present study investigates a biomass driven power plant integrated with compressed air and thermal energy storage subsystems. Compressed air energy storage system exploits the pressurized air at non-peak periods to be used in peak times when there is a need for extra energy. Thermal energy storage systems including phase change material, allow...
Article
An integrated energy system, consisting of a Copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical hydrogen production cycle combined with parabolic trough collector (PTC) concentrated solar power (CSP) and molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems, is developed and investigated in the current study. The proposed system consists geothermal, concentrated...
Article
Conventional drying technologies generally rely on drying processes driven by using hot air, where these processes have significantly high energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. With our knowledge based on the limited nature of fossil fuels and the impact of climate change, it is clear that every technology has to be cleaner, cheaper, and...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, a comparative energetic and life cycle assessment study is performed on coal and natural gas based combined heat and power cogeneration plants. Different types of power plants including gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cycle plants are considered. Three types of LCA methodologies including CML 2001, TRACI and ReCiPe are...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a new gasification system is developed for the three useful outputs of electricity, heat and hydrogen and reported for practical energy applications. The study also investigates the composition of syngas leaving biomass gasifier. The composition of syngas is represented by the fractions of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide an...
Article
This paper presents a new predictive heat and mass transfer model of the gas-solid reaction in a cupric chloride decomposition and hydrolysis reactor during thermochemical water splitting in a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. The hydrated cupric chloride droplets descend in a narrow vessel through a reactor which forms a more coherent flow than a tra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Rapor, TÜBA-Enerji Çalışma Grubu tarafından düzenlenen “TÜBA−Jeotermal Enerji Teknolojileri ve Çalıştayı Paneli”nde sunulan bildiriler esas olmak üzere, güncel literatürden taranan bilimsel çalışmaların derlenmesiyle hazırlandı.
Article
Full-text available
In this study the specific exergy costing (SPECO) approach is employed on a four-step integrated thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu Cl) cycle for hydrogen production for a second-law based assessment purposes. The Cu–Cl cycle is considered as one of the most environmentally benign and sustainable options of producing hydrogen and is thus investigat...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, an exergoeconomic analysis is performed on an integrated four-step thermochemical copper-chlorine cycle developed at the Ontario Tech. University through exergy, cost, energy, and mass (EXCEM) method. A thermodynamic model is first constructed in Aspen-plus (a process simulation software) to simulate and investigate the integrated cy...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the prototype of a new pneumatic vehicle is developed, analysed, built and tested. The system consists of a novel compressed air system integrated withphase change materials for energy recovery. The prototype isexperimentally built and tested at the Ontario Tech. University in Oshawa. Three different phase change materials of polyeth...
Article
In the present study, an experimental investigation of a new integrated ammonia synthesis and fuel cell system is performed. A lab-scale clean ammonia synthesis system utilizing hydrogen produced through the water electrolysis route is integrated with a direct ammonia fuel cell system. The performance of the developed system is investigated under t...
Article
Fossil fuel consumption, particularly in power generating systems, is recognized as the primary contributor to global warming that threatens human health and comfort profoundly. Therefore, ignoring sustainability, environmental, health and safety, and climate change dimensions is no longer an option in power systems. In this study, an integrated so...
Article
Sustainable energy is one of the main options for resolving energy problems and climate change issues. Solar energy is one of the main promising renewable energy sources, which can be captured and converted to electrical energy through photovoltaic (PV) panels. In the open literature, it is shown that having two PV panels integrated into a back‐to‐...
Article
In this paper, a novel integrated solid-oxide fuel cell-based powering system with heat recovery for operating an ammonia organic Rankine cycle is introduced and analyzed thermodynamically. The application of this system is intended for clean locomotives. A thermodynamic model that is based on energy and exergy analyses is presented for this integr...
Article
This paper proposes a novel use of bifacial photovoltaic solar panel modules for offshore power production. The proposed bifacial photovoltaic module utilizes the reflected solar irradiance from the water surface. The performance of the system is assessed through simulating a bifacial photovoltaic module mounted on a floater covered with aluminum s...
Article
This paper proposes a novel integrated system for hydrogen and natural gas blending system for a selected residential application. In the current system, hydrogen is generated via alkaline water electrolyzer unit and required electricity for the electrolyzer is supplied from renewable sources, i.e. solar PV panels and wind turbines. The remaining e...
Article
Full-text available
Highlighting the demand for extreme cut in carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen is among the most promising fuels that is proper for carbon‐free energy. Although the key merits beyond using hydrogen as an energy carrier and/or fuel are (a) environmental friendly, (b) clean, (c) sustainable, (d) efficient, (e) effective, (f) nontoxic, (g) reliable and...
Article
In this paper, a new renewable energy-based cogeneration system for hydrogen and electricity production is developed. Three different methods for hydrogen production are integrated with Rankine cycle for electricity production using solar energy as an energy source. In addition, a simple Rankine cycle is utilized for producing electricity. This int...
Article
This chapter primarily concerns energy analysis of thermodynamic systems through the energy balance method for both closed and open systems. In this regard, various types of closed and open systems are introduced and considered for analysis. Here, both mass and energy balance equations are introduced for the systems by going beyond conventional ana...
Article
Entropy and exergy concepts are both derived from the second law of thermodynamics (SLT), and that is why this chapter first starts by introducing the SLT. The chapter then dwells initially on entropy and how it is used to assess the randomness and how it can be used to account for the irreversibilities of processes and, hence, systems. However, en...
Article
This chapter covers one of the most significant domains of applications related to refrigeration (which literally covers chilling, cooling, precooling, etc.) and heat pump systems and applications that are recognized as the most widely used unit operations applied in many sectors. As a follow up to Chapter 5, the main focus is about refrigeration a...
Article
System analysis is a critical subject in every discipline, including thermodynamics. In this book, it is arranged in an innovative way to make a prime focus on system analysis, before moving to the power generation and refrigeration cycles, through the balance equations written for mass, energy, entropy, and exergy for two key types of thermodynami...
Article
In this chapter, power cycles means power generating cycles, and this chapter is really about power generating cycles and their performance assessment energetically and exergetically. The cycles considered here are Otto, Diesel, Dual, open‐type air‐standard Brayton, closed‐type air‐standard Brayton, regenerative open‐type air‐standard Brayton, rege...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, a new ammonia‐based system is developed and investigated as an energy storage option. In this regard, an environmentally benign cyclic synthesis and usage of ammonia is proposed. The proton exchange membrane‐based electrolysis is used for hydrogen generation with cyclic water usage and production. A direct ammonia fuel cell is...
Article
This study develops a renewable energy-based system integrated with a flywheel-based storage system and presents a thermodynamic analysis for the renewable energy-driven and flywheel integrated fast-charging station for electric buses. This study has performed base on two sections, which are parametric and case studies. Solar and wind energies have...

Projects

Projects (19)
Project
This project focuses on the development and application of power ultrasound in hydrogen production. The process is thus given the name Sono-Hydro-Gen process.
Project
To develop and thermodynamically investigate several SOFC-GT hybrid systems integrated with different bottoming cycles for waste heat recovery for producing more driving power and space heating or cooling inside train coaches. To apply Exergy and fuel cost analyses for comparing the proposed systems.