Ian A Sigal

Ian A Sigal
University of Pittsburgh | Pitt · Department of Ophthalmology

About

148
Publications
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Publications

Publications (148)
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: Lamina cribrosa (LC) deformations caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are believed to contribute to glaucomatous neuropathy and have therefore been extensively studied, in many conditions from in-vivo to ex-vivo. We compare acute IOP-induced global and local LC deformations immediately before (pre-mortem) and after (post-mortem)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Stretch-induced collagen uncrimping underlies the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the sclera according to what is often called the process of recruitment. We recently reported experimental measurements of sclera collagen crimp and pressure-induced uncrimping. Our studies, however, were cross-sectional, providing statistical descriptions of crimp w...
Article
Full-text available
Front Cover: The cover image is based on the Research Article Evidence of an Annexin A4 mediated plasma membrane repair response to biomechanical strain associated with glaucoma pathogenesis by Nevena Vicic et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30834.
Article
Glaucoma is a common neurodegenerative blinding disease that is closely associated with chronic biomechanical strain at the optic nerve head (ONH). Yet, the cellular injury and mechanosensing mechanisms underlying the resulting damage have remained critically unclear. We previously identified Annexin A4 (ANXA4) from a proteomic analyses of human ON...
Article
Our goal was to identify the factors with the strongest influence on the minimum lamina cribrosa (LC) oxygen concentration as potentially indicative of conditions increasing hypoxia risk. Because direct measurement of LC hemodynamics and oxygenation is not yet possible, we developed 3D eye-specific LC vasculature models. The vasculature of a normal...
Article
A comprehensive characterization of the 3D vascular network of the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical to understanding eye physiology and pathology. Current in vivo imaging technologies, however, do not have simultaneous high spatial resolution and imaging depth to resolve the small vessels deep within the ONH. We describe a workflow for the 3D rec...
Article
Full-text available
In-vivo optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics characterization is emerging as a promising way to study eye physiology and pathology. We propose a high-accuracy and high-efficiency digital volume correlation (DVC) method to characterize the in-vivo ONH deformation from optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes. Using a combination of synthetic tests...
Article
Current tools lack the temporal or spatial resolution necessary to image many important aspects of the architecture and dynamics of the optic nerve head (ONH). We evaluated the potential of instant polarized light microscopy (IPOL) to overcome these limitations by leveraging the ability to capture collagen fiber orientation and density in a single...
Article
Our goal was to analyze the spatial interrelation between vascular and collagen networks in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Specifically, we quantified the percentages of collagen beams with/without vessels and of vessels inside/outside of collagen beams. To do this, the vasculature of six normal monkey eyes was labeled by perfusion post-mortem. After en...
Article
Intracranial pressure (ICP) has been proposed to play an important role in the sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) and susceptibility to glaucoma. However, the in vivo effects of simultaneous, controlled, acute variations in ICP and IOP have not been directly measured. We quantified the deformations of the anterior lamina cribrosa (ALC) and s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our goal was to analyze the spatial interrelation between vascular and collagen networks in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Specifically, we quantified the percentages of collagen beams with/without vessels and of vessels inside/outside of collagen beams. To do this, the vasculature of six normal monkey eyes was labelled by perfusion post-mortem. After e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current tools lack the temporal or spatial resolution necessary to image many important aspects of the architecture and dynamics of the optic nerve head (ONH). We evaluated the potential of instant polarized light microscopy (IPOL) to overcome these limitations by leveraging the ability to capture collagen fiber orientation and density in a single...
Preprint
Full-text available
In-vivo optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics characterization is emerging as a promising way to study eye physiology and pathology. We propose a high-accuracy and high-efficiency digital volume correlation (DVC) method for the purpose of characterizing the in-vivo ONH deformation from volumes acquired by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using a c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intracranial pressure (ICP) has been proposed to play an important role in the sensitivity to intraocular pressure (IOP) and susceptibility to glaucoma. However, the in vivo effects of simultaneous, controlled, acute variations in ICP and IOP have not been directly measured. We quantified the deformations of the anterior lamina cribrosa (ALC) and s...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The prevailing theory about the function of lamina cribrosa (LC) connective tissues is that they provide structural support to adjacent neural tissues. Missing connective tissues would compromise this support and therefore are regarded as "LC defects", despite scarce actual evidence of their role. We examined how so-called LC defects alte...
Article
Collagen fibers are a primary load-bearing component of connective tissues and are therefore central to tissue biomechanics and pathophysiology. Understanding collagen architecture and behavior under dynamic loading requires a quantitative imaging technique with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Suitable techniques are thus rare...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to visualize the lamina cribrosa (LC) capillaries and collagenous beams, measure capillary tortuosity (path length over straight end-to-end length), and determine if capillary tortuosity changes when intraocular pressure (IOP) increases. Methods: Within 8 hours of sacrifice, 3 pig heads were cannulated via...
Article
Myopia and glaucoma are both increasing in prevalence and are linked by an unknown mechanism as many epidemiologic studies have identified moderate to high myopia as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Myopia and glaucoma are both chronic conditions that lead to connective tissue remodeling within the sclera and optic nerve head. The mechanobi...
Article
Collagen fibers organized circumferentially around the canal in the peripapillary sclera are thought to provide biomechanical support to the sensitive tissues within the optic nerve head (ONH). Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a family of fibers in the innermost sclera organized radially from the scleral canal. Our goal was to dete...
Article
The mechanical properties of the microstructural components of sclera are central to eye physiology and pathology. Because these parameters are extremely difficult to measure directly, they are often estimated using inverse-modeling matching deformations of macroscopic samples measured experimentally. Although studies of sclera microstructure show...
Article
Commercial finite element modeling packages do not have the tools necessary to effectively incorporate the complex anisotropic and heterogeneous material properties typical of the biological tissues of the eye. We propose a mesh-free approach to incorporate realistic material properties into finite element models of individual human eyes. The metho...
Article
Full-text available
As the eye's main load-bearing connective tissue, the sclera is centrally important to vision. In addition to cooperatively maintaining refractive status with the cornea, the sclera must also provide stable mechanical support to vulnerable internal ocular structures such as the retina and optic nerve head. Moreover, it must achieve this under compl...
Article
Tendons are bands of fibrous connective tissue connecting muscles to bones. They are composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers closely packed together which makes them highly anisotropic. The anisotropy of the acoustic properties of tendons was investigated at an ultra-fine resolution (< 7 μm) using quantitative acoustic microscopy (QAM). Chic...
Article
Full-text available
Collagen is a major constituent of the eye and understanding its architecture and biomechanics is critical to preserve and restore vision. We, recently, demonstrated polarized light microscopy (PLM) as a powerful technique for measuring properties of the collagen fibers of the eye, such as spatial distribution and orientation. Our implementation of...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To test the hypothesis that human, monkey, pig, sheep, cow, and goat eyes exhibit circumferential, radial, and interweaving collagen architecture in the posterior sclera. Methods We analyzed 1,327 cryosections from the posterior poles of 4 human, 4 monkey, 5 pig, 8 sheep, 1 goat, and 2 cow eyes. Images were acquired using polarized light m...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To compare the collagen microstructural crimp characteristics between thin and thick lamina cribrosa (LC) beams. Methods Seven eyes from four sheep were fixed at 5 mm Hg IOP in 10% formalin. For each eye, one to three coronal cryosections through the LC were imaged with polarized light microscopy and analyzed to visualize the LC and determ...
Article
The collagen fiber architecture of the peripapillary sclera (PPS), which surrounds the scleral canal, is a critical factor in determining the mechanical response of the optic nerve head (ONH) to variations in intraocular pressure (IOP). Experimental and clinical evidence point to IOP-induced deformations within the scleral canal as important contri...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Collagen is the main load-bearing component of the eye, and collagen crimp is a critical determinant of tissue mechanical behavior. We test the hypothesis that collagen crimp morphology varies over the human cornea and sclera and with age. Methods We analyzed 42 axial whole-globe sections from 20 normal eyes of 20 human donors, ranging in...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To introduce an experimental approach for direct comparison of the primate optic nerve head (ONH) before and after death by exsanguination. Method The ONHs of four eyes from three monkeys were imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after exsanguination under controlled IOP. ONH structures, including the B...
Article
Full-text available
The lamina cribrosa is a primary site of damage in glaucoma. While mechanical distortion is hypothesized to cause reduction of axoplasmic flow, little is known about how the pores, which contains the retinal ganglion cell axons, traverse the lamina cribrosa. We investigated lamina cribrosa pore paths in vivo to quantify differences in tortuosity of...
Article
Our goal was to systematically quantify the collagen crimp morphology around the corneoscleral shell, and test the hypothesis that collagen crimp is not uniform over the globe. Axial longitudinal cryosections (30 μm) of three sheep eyes, fixed at 0 mmHg IOP, were imaged using polarized light microscopy to quantify the local collagen in 8 regions: t...
Article
Statement of significance: Collagen fibers exhibit a natural waviness or crimp that largely determine the nonlinear biomechanics of soft tissue. Experimental measurements of crimp morphology in the sheep eye, and how it changes with intraocular pressure (IOP), however, are exceedingly sparse. We quantified how posterior eye crimp changes with incr...
Article
Purpose: To determine if ocular ductions deform intrapapillary and peripapillary tissues in optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and to compare these deformations with healthy eyes and eyes with other optic neuropathies. Design: Observational case series. Participants: Twenty patients with ONHD. Methods: Axial rasters of the optic nerve from a spe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods: We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properti...
Article
Full-text available
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness that leads to characteristic changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) region, such as nasalization of vessels. It is unknown whether the spatial location of this vessel shift inside the ONH occurs within the lamina cribrosa (LC) or the prelaminar tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare the location of...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain....
Data
Raw data by primate. Raw data containing information regarding the monkey, intraocular pressure (IOP), intracranial pressure (ICP), beam thickness to pore diameter ratio (beam pore), beam thickness (beam), pore diameter (pore) and eye (OD–right, OS–left). (CSV)
Data
Image quality metrics. Histogram of (A) IOP setting per image quality (1 –worst quality, 3 –best quality) and (b) ICP setting per image quality (C) image quality per monkey. (TIF)
Data
Example of LC images of (A) quality = 1, (B) quality = 2, and (C) quality = 3. The worst quality scans (quality = 1) had visible LC beams and pores, but without a clear transition from beams to pores. The best quality scans (quality = 3) had very well defined pore structures as well as a easily delineated transition point from beams to pores. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Collagen fibers play a central role in normal eye mechanics and pathology. In ocular tissues, collagen fibers exhibit a complex three‐dimensional (3D) fiber orientation, with both in‐plane (IP) and out‐of‐plane (OP) orientations. Imaging techniques traditionally applied to the study of ocular tissues only quantify IP fiber orientation, providing li...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine how the architecture of the lamina cribrosa (LC) microstructure, including the shape and size of the lamina pores, influences the IOP-induced deformation of the neural tissues within the LC pores using computational modeling. Methods We built seven specimen-specific finite element models of LC mic...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in imaging have made it increasingly common to study soft tissues without first embedding them in plastic or paraffin and without using labels or stains. The process, however, usually still involves fixation and cryosectioning, which could deform the tissues. Our goal was to quantify the morphological changes of ocular tissues caused by fo...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Although collagen microstructural crimp is a major determinant of ocular biomechanics, no direct measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) crimp have been reported. Our goal was to characterize the crimp period of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and peripapillary sclera (PPS) at low and normal IOPs. Methods ONHs from 11 sheep eyes were fixed at 10-,...
Article
The eye is a complex structure composed of several interconnected tissues acting together, across the whole globe, to resist deformation due to intraocular pressure (IOP). However, most work in the ocular biomechanics field only examines the response to IOP over smaller regions of the eye. We used high-field MRI to measure IOP induced ocular displa...
Article
Statement of significance: The loss of visual function associated with glaucoma has been attributed to sustained mechanical insult to the neural tissues of the lamina cribrosa due to elevated intraocular pressure. Our study is the first computational model built from specimen-specific tissue microstructure to consider the mechanics of the neural t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible LC microstructure was assessed subjectively using a grading system and objectively by analyzing the signal int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although it is well documented that abnormal levels of either intraocular (IOP) or intracranial pressure (ICP) can lead to potentially blinding conditions, such as glaucoma and papilledema, little is known about how the pressures actually affect the eye. Even less is known about potential interplay between their effects, namely how the level of one...
Conference Paper
The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral auto-regulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through d...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Lucy KA, Wang B, Schuman JS, et al. Thick prelaminar tissue decreases lamina cribrosa visibility. PURPOSE. Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS. The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible L...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study was to leverage polarized light microscopy (PLM) to visualize the collagen fiber architecture of posterior pole and optic nerve head with micrometer-scale resolution and to identify and quantify major organizational components. Methods Eight sheep posterior poles were cryosectioned and imaged using PLM. Collagen f...
Article
The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intrao...