Ian R Sanders

Ian R Sanders
University of Lausanne | UNIL · Department of Ecology and Evolution

PhD

About

206
Publications
37,637
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Introduction
Our group works on the genetics and population genomics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with the aim of understanding how variation in the genomes of these fungi can be used to make globally important crops grow better. In addition to our pure lab based genomics, we apply our research in the field in Colombia and in Africa.
Additional affiliations
September 2000 - present
University of Lausanne
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1993 - August 2000
University of Basel
Position
  • Junior group leader
March 1991 - December 1992
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 1988 - January 1991
The University of York
Field of study
  • Biology
September 1985 - January 1988
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Biology
October 1982 - June 1985
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Botany

Publications

Publications (206)
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomeromycotina) are symbionts of most plant species that are known to possess unique intracytoplasmic endosymbiotic bacteria with an enigmatic role. Candidatus Moeniiplasma glomeromycotorum (CaMg) was shown to be widespread along the AMF phylogeny and present in most AMF species and isolates of those species. The...
Article
Full-text available
Early-diverging fungi (EDF) are distinct from Dikarya and other eukaryotes, exhibiting high N6-methyldeoxyadenine (6mA) contents, rather than 5-methylcytosine (5mC). As plants transitioned to land the EDF sub-phylum, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomeromycotina) evolved a symbiotic lifestyle with 80% of plant species worldwide. Here we show t...
Article
Full-text available
A vast majority of terrestrial plants are dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for their nutrient acquisition. AMF act as an extension of the root system helping phosphate uptake. In agriculture, harnessing the symbiosis can potentially increase plant growth. Application of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis has been demonstrated to increas...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with most plant species. The model AMF Rhizophagus irregularis is common in many ecosystems and naturally forms homokaryons and dikaryons. Quantitative variation in allele frequencies in clonally dikaryon offspring suggests they disproportionately inherit two distinct nuclear genotypes from their p...
Article
Full-text available
While many molecular studies have documented arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in temperate ecosystems, very few studies exist in which molecular techniques have been used to study tropical AMF communities. Understanding the composition of AMF communities in tropical areas gains special relevance as crop productivity in typically low f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are part of the most widespread fungal-plant symbiosis. They colonize at least 80% of plant species, promote plant growth and plant diversity. These fungi are multinucleated and display either one or two nucleus genotypes (monokaryon and dikaryon) determined by a putative mating-type locus. This taxon has been con...
Article
Full-text available
Water scarcity negatively impacts global crop yields and climate change is expected to greatly increase the severity of future droughts. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can potentially mitigate the effects of water stress in plants. Cassava is a crop that feeds approximately 800 million people daily. Genetically different isolates of...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the degree to which climate explains the spatial distributions of different taxonomic and functional groups is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on ecosystems. Most effort so far has focused on aboveground organisms, which offer only a partial view on the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients. Here, in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to increase crop yields and all globally important crops form the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Only a few studies have investigated the impact of introduced AMF on local AMF communities and most studies have only investigated effects of one isolate. We studied the impact on AMF community structure of...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are of great ecological importance because of their effects on plant growth. Closely related genotypes of the same AMF species coexist in plant roots. However, almost nothing is known about the molecular interactions occurring during such coexistence. We compared in planta AMF gene transcription in single and coin...
Article
Full-text available
Most land plants form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Diversity of AMF increases plant community productivity and plant diversity. For decades, it was known that plants trade carbohydrates for phosphate with their fungal symbionts. However, recent studies show that plant-derived lipids probably represent the most essential curren...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important symbionts of plants. Recently, studies of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis recorded within-isolate genetic variation that does not completely match the proposed homokaryon or heterokaryon state (where heterokaryons comprise a population of two distinct nucleus genotypes). We re-analysed published data...
Preprint
The unprecedented challenge to feed the rapidly growing human population can only be achieved with major changes in how we combine technology with agronomy1. Despite their potential few beneficial microbes have truly been demonstrated to significantly increase productivity of globally important crops in real farming conditions2,3. The way microbes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important symbionts of plants. Recently, studies of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis recorded within-isolate genetic variation that does not match the proposed monokaryon or dikaryon state. We re-analysed published data showing that bi-allelic sites (and their frequencies), detected in monosporic R. irregularis...
Article
Full-text available
The adaptability of cassava to low fertile and marginal soils facilitates its production in subsistent agriculture. As a result, smallholder farmers rarely apply fertilizers. The current yield gap is therefore very large, calling for application of fertilizers and soil amendments to improve its productivity. Field experiments were carried out to as...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) impact plant growth and are a major driver of plant diversity and productivity. We quantified the contribution of intra-specific genetic variability in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Rhizophagus irregularis to gene reprogramming in symbioses using dual RNA-sequencing. A large number of cassava genes exhibited alt...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence plant community structure and diversity. Studies based on single plant–single AMF isolate experiments show that within AMF species variation leads to large differential growth responses of different plant species. Because of these differential effects, genetic differences among isolate...
Data
Savary et al Supporting_Information. (PDF)
Data
Phenotypic measurement per mesocosm, with plant species drymass, colonization, total rootdrymass, total aboveground dry mass, total drymass and total flower production per plant species. (XLSX)
Data
Phenotypic measurement for individual plant, colonisation percentage, above ground drymass and flower production. (XLSX)
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) impact plant growth and are a major driver of plant diversity and productivity. We quantified the contribution of intra-specific genetic variability in cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Rhizophagus irregularis to gene reprogramming in symbioses using dual RNA-sequencing. A large number of cassava genes exhibited alt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been shown to influence plant community structure and diversity. Studies based on single plant - single AMF isolate experiments show that within AMF species variation leads to large differential growth responses of different plant species. Because of these differential effects, genetic differences among isola...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic state of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species Rhizophagus irregularis differs among isolates, including both homokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates. Via the production of multi-nucleate axexual spores, siblings of dikaryotic isolates may inherit unequal frequencies of nucleotypes. Using bg112, a microsatellite marker, previous studie...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; phylum Gomeromycota) associate with plants forming one of the most successful microbe–plant associations. The fungi promote plant diversity and have a potentially important role in global agriculture. Plant growth depends on both inter- and intra-specific variation in AMF. It was recently reported that an unusuall...
Article
Full-text available
One of the bottlenecks in mycorrhiza research is that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have to be cultivated with host plant roots. Some AMF species, such as Rhizophagus irregularis, can be grown in vitro on dual-compartment plates, where fungal material can be harvested from a fungus-only compartment. Plant roots often grow into this fungus comp...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas bacteria (PSB) could potentially interact synergistically because PSB solubilize phosphate into a form that AMF can absorb and transport to the plant. However, very little is known about the interactions between these two groups of microorganisms and how they influence the gr...
Data
Detailed analysis of the soil used in Experiment 3. (DOCX)
Data
Phylogenetic relationships among 63 Pseudomonas reference strains and the 10 strains used in this study and isolated from Andean soils. Strains used in this study shown in green. The Maximum Likelihood tree was inferred from concatenated sequences of two housekeeping genes rpoD and gyrB (1,285 bp). Only bootstrap values greater than 50 are shown. S...
Data
BLAST results for sequences of 4 genes in ten bacterial strains that had been shown to have phosphate solubilizing ability. (XLS)
Data
Characterization of native strains of Pseudomonas sp. in terms of their capacity to solubilize P and produce indol acetic acid (IAA) and indol-related substances in vitro. The statistical analysis was carried out through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences between treatments were determined using the Dunnet’s multiple comparison...
Data
Differing abilities of the 10 bacterial strains to swim, swarm and attach to abiotic surfaces. F ratios in one-way ANOVA were F(9, 20) = 10.21, P ≤ 0.0001; F(9, 30) = 61.48, P ≤ 0.0001; F(9, 30) = 118.98, P ≤ 0.0001. Table shows means value for each variable and each strain followed by the standard error. Different letters in a column denote signif...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) occur in the roots of most plants and are an ecologically important component of the soil microbiome. Richness of AMF taxa is a strong driver of plant diversity and productivity, thus providing a rationale for characterizing AMF diversity in natural ecosystems. Consequently, a large number of molecular studies on...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbionts of most plants, increasing plant growth and diversity. The model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (isolate DAOM 197198) exhibits low within-fungus polymorphism. In contrast, another study reported high within-fungus variability. Experiments with other R. irregularis isolates suggest that within-fungu...
Article
Full-text available
p>Por milenios los agricultores han mejorado sus cultivos utilizando la variación genética y seleccionando las mejores variedades. Hoy nos enfrentamos a un reto sin precedentes: alimentar la creciente población mundial. Así, aumentar los rendimientos de cultivos de importancia global, para la seguridad alimentaria, como la yuca, es crucial. Esta ra...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) benefit to plants growth is not still to demonstrate. However, little is known about the effects of exogenous AMF (from temperate soil) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao) that plays an important role in the economic prosperity of Côte d’Ivoire. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effectiveness of AMF from...
Article
Full-text available
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: Almost all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi. These below-ground fungi play a key role in terrestrial ecosystems as they regulate nutrient and carbon cycles, and influence soil structure and ecosystem multifunctionality. Up to 80% of plant N and P is provided by mycorrhiza...
Article
Full-text available
The global human population is expected to reach ∼9 billion by 2050. Feeding this many people represents a major challenge requiring global crop yield increases of up to 100%. Microbial symbionts of plants such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent a huge, but unrealized resource for improving yields of globally important crops, especiall...
Article
Full-text available
Studying patterns of species distributions along elevation gradients is frequently used to identify the primary factors that determine the distribution, diversity and assembly of species. However, despite their crucial role in ecosystem functioning, our understanding of the distribution of below-ground fungi is still limited, calling for more compr...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of plants along environmental gradients is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Cumulative evidence attests of the impact of biotic factors on plant distributions, but only few studies discuss the role of belowground communities. Soil fungi, in particular, are thought to play an important role in how plant species assemble lo...
Article
Full-text available
The mutualistic symbiosis involving Glomeromycota, a distinctive phylum of early diverging Fungi, is widely hypothesized to have promoted the evolution of land plants during the middle Paleozoic. These arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) perform vital functions in the phosphorus cycle that are fundamental to sustainable crop plant productivity. The...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are among the most abundant symbionts of plants, improving plant productivity and diversity. They are thought to mostly grow vegetatively, a trait assumed to limit adaptability. However, AMF can also harbor genetically different nuclei (nucleotypes). It has been shown that one AMF can produce genotypically novel o...
Article
Full-text available
The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead...
Data
Mean physical and chemical soil properties at the two study sites Yopal and Santana, Colombia. (DOCX)
Article
Accumulating evidence indicates that plant resistance against above-ground herbivores can be affected by the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in association with the host plant. Little is known, however, about how AMF composition can influence herbivore choice to feed on a particular plant.Unravelling the preference–performance hypoth...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with most plant species. They are ecologically important determinants of plant growth and diversity. Considerable genetic variation occurs in AMF populations. Thus, plants are exposed to AMF of varying relatedness to each other. Very little is known about either the effects of coexisting AMF on plan...
Chapter
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with the majority of land plants, improving the nutrition and productivity of plants. The fungi are coenocytic, grow clonally, and no sexual stage in their life cycle is known. Recent evidence suggests that AMF are heterokaryotes, i.e., that genetically different nuclei coexist within a single cytop...
Article
Mycorrhizal symbioses link the biosphere with the lithosphere by mediating nutrient cycles and energy flow though terrestrial ecosystems. A more mechanistic understanding of these plant–fungal associations may help ameliorate anthropogenic changes to C and N cycles and biotic communities. We explore three inter-acting principles: (1) optimal alloca...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: Analysis of millions of pyro-sequences is currently playing a crucial role in the advance of environmental microbiology. Taxonomy-independent, i.e. unsupervised, clustering of these sequences is essential for the definition of Operational Taxonomic Units. For this application, reproducibility and robustness should be the most sought aft...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2008, over 900 million people (several times the population of the USA) were suffering chronic hunger. Every year, approximately 5 million people die of malnutrition. Of these, almost 3.5 million are below the age of 5 and almost all deaths occur in so-called developing countries. The irony is that enough food is currently produced to feed the w...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are highly successful plant symbionts. They reproduce clonally producing multinucleate spores. It has been suggested that some AMF harbor genetically different nuclei. However, recent advances in sequencing the Glomus irregulare genome have indicated very low within-fungus polymorphism. We tested the null hypothes...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are potential determinants of plant growth and plant diversity. AMF form complex belowground networks in the soil, where different isolates and different species are interacting. The mechanisms of competition and coexistence among AMF are poorly understood but can be very important to...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Increasing functional diversity in a plant community is thought to improve its global productivity by allowing species to partition more efficiently in the niche space, limiting their competition for ressources. Considering this theory, soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbionts are of maj...
Article
Full-text available
• The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most ecologically important eukaryotic symbiosis, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of symbiosis-associated traits, we report the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptome from Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198. • We gener...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are important symbionts that enhance plant growth. They were thought to have been asexual for hundreds of millions of years. A new study reveals that the fungi actually possess highly conserved genetic machinery for completion of meiosis.
Article
Plants continually encounter many microorganisms. Some are good, but many are bad. Two studies show how beneficial fungi tell the plant to let them in and how the fungus avoids setting off the plant's defense reaction.
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts with most terrestrial plants. They improve plant nutrition, particularly phosphate acquisition, and thus are able to improve plant growth. In exchange, the fungi obtain photosynthetically fixed carbon. AMF are coenocytic, meaning that many nuclei coexist in a common cytoplasm. Genetic exchan...