Ian M Mcdonough

Ian M Mcdonough
University of Alabama | UA · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

77
Publications
58,731
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,231
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2015 - present
University of Alabama
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2011 - July 2015
University of Texas at Dallas
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2006 - December 2010
University of Chicago

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
Full-text available
An emerging field of research focused on fluctuations in brain signals has provided evidence that the complexity of those signals, as measured by entropy, conveys important information about network dynamics (e.g., local and distributed processing). While much research has focused on how neural complexity differs in populations with different age g...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults are more likely than younger adults to confuse real and imagined events in episodic memory. This deficit may be attributed to a reduction in the specific features available for recollection (i.e., retrieval success) or to a deficit in the search and decision processes operating during recollection attempts (i.e., retrieval monitoring)....
Article
Full-text available
Current theories of cognitive aging emphasize that the prefrontal cortex might not only be a major source of dysfunction but also a source of compensation. We evaluated neural activity associated with retrieval monitoring-or the selection and evaluation of recollected information during memory retrieval-for evidence of dysfunction or compensation....
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated how expectations, even when illusory, can affect the accuracy of memory decisions. Participants studied words presented in large or small font for subsequent memory tests. Replicating prior work, judgments of learning indicated that participants expected to remember large words better than small words, even though mem...
Article
Full-text available
The past 25 years have provided a rich discovery of at least four fundamental patterns that represent structural and functional brain aging across multiple cognitive domains. Of the many potential patterns of brain aging, few are ever examined simultaneously in a given study, leading one to question their mutual exclusivity. Moreover, more studies...
Chapter
With the increased incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and related dementias in our rapidly growing aging population, older adults and medical professionals often want to understand how age-related changes in memory differ between normative aging and dementia. Throughout this chapter, we will discuss different types of memory and how memory chang...
Article
We report the first neuroimaging experiment to investigate the impact of explicitly activating aging stereotypes (i.e., stereotype threat) on brain activity during cognitive tasks. Cognitively normal older adults read about aging stereotypes or a control passage prior to taking episodic memory, working memory, and a non-demanding control task durin...
Article
Rationale Experiences of discrimination have been associated with poorer episodic memory in Black Americans. However, resilience resources at multiple levels (individual, social, endowed) may act as a buffer to protect future memory decline, especially in the face of discrimination. Objective Using longitudinal data from the 2006–2016 Health and R...
Article
Full-text available
Having a parent with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias confers a risk for developing these types of neurocognitive disorders in old age, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are understudied. Although the hippocampus is often one of the earliest brain regions to undergo change in the AD process, we do not know how early in the lifes...
Article
An ability discrepancy (crystallized minus fluid abilities) might be a personally relevant cognitive marker of risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and might help reduce measurement bias often present in traditional measures of cognition. In a large national sample of adults aged 60-104 years (N = 14,257), we investigated whether the intersectionality...
Article
Intra-Individual Cognitive Variability (IICV) predicts progression in neurocognitive disorders . Given important clinical applications, we investigated the association between IICV and multiple brain metrics across 17 networks to better understand the brain mechanisms underlying this performance measure. Sixty-three middle-aged and older adults wit...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was used to improve foreign-langue learning while using mental imagery. Participants underwent two sessions of 1 mA, 1.5 mA, or sham stimulation prior to learning Swahili-English word pairs two consecutive days. During learning, participants were encouraged...
Article
Full-text available
Systemic racism can have broad impacts on health in ethnoracial minorities. One way is by suppressing socioeconomic status (SES) levels through barriers to achieve higher income, wealth, and educational attainment. Additionally, the weathering hypothesis proposes that the various stressful adversities faced by ethnoracial minorities lead to greater...
Article
Full-text available
An individual’s outlook on society can change over time and can be related to both their physical and mental health. Here, we developed an instrument to measure outlooks on the past and future in relation to the present in 413 adults ranging in age from 18 to 80 years. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on independent sampl...
Article
Objectives Many conditions associated with aging result in polypharmacy, and certain medications may impact cognition. One way to assess exposure to such medications is through the use of the drug burden index (DBI)- a validated measure of exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medications, with a higher DBI score indicating a higher drug burden....
Article
Full-text available
Metamemory is the process of monitoring and controlling one’s beliefs, knowledge, and mental processes of memory. One fundamental question is whether the monitoring component of this theory should be considered as only one ability or an umbrella of more specialized abilities. In the current study, we aimed to understand the structure of metamemory...
Article
Full-text available
The older adult population in the U.S. is becoming increasingly diverse across a constellation of factors including ethnoracial group, socioeconomic status, and immigration status. However, our understanding of the consequences of this diversity for cognitive and mental health is masked by the lack of inclusion of diverse sample characteristics, th...
Article
Fractal dimensionality (FD) measures the complexity within the folds and ridges of cortical and subcortical structures. We tested the degree that FD might provide a new perspective on the atrophy-compensation hypothesis: age or disease-related atrophy causes a compensatory neural response in the form of increased brain activity in the prefrontal co...
Article
Many risk factors have been identified that predict future progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, clear links have yet to be made between these risk factors and how they affect brain functioning in early stages of AD. We conducted a narrative review and a quantitative analysis to better understand the relationship between nine categories...
Article
Students' cellphone use has been related to poorer learning, possibly due to greater distraction. This study investigated whether cellphone-related anxiety, addiction, and disconnection were related to distraction and learning as well as how practical educational policies could minimize negative effects. Participants (N = 218) watched a video lectu...
Article
Research has shown that many youths feel anxiety or discomfort when losing access to their mobile devices (King, Valença, Silva, Baczynski, Carvalho, & Nardi, 2013: 140-144; Sharma, Sharma, Sharma, & Wavare, 2015: 705-707). Perhaps some of them feel as if they were not able to communicate with their loved ones or like they lost connectedness to the...
Article
Many risk factors have been identified that predict future progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, clear links have yet to be made between these risk factors and how they affect brain functioning in early stages of AD. We conducted a narrative review and a quantitative analysis to better understand the relationship between nine categories...
Data
Metamemory in Adulthood (MIA) Revised Version made up of 20 questions.
Article
Objective: Substantial research indicates that fluid and crystallized abilities are highly correlated throughout the adult life span. However, recent proposals suggest that a large discrepancy between these two abilities, defined as crystallized performance minus fluid performance, indicates heightened risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method:...
Poster
Full-text available
Cultural stereotypes equated with aging that emphasize decreasing competence and increasing forgetfulness can be threatening to older adults. Even brief exposure via entertainment media or the patronizing behavior of others may induce stigma in elders and thereby impair memory and executive functions. The sample was recruited for an RCT known as Se...
Article
Full-text available
Memory consolidation is well known to occur during sleep, but might start immediately after encoding new information while awake. While consolidation processes are important across the lifespan, they may be even more important to maintain memory functioning in old age. We tested whether a novel measure of information processing known as network com...
Article
This study investigated whether race and ethnicity moderated the associations of bequest expectations to leave an inheritance and charitable giving with having a valid will among older Americans. Drawn from the 2014 Health and Retirement Study, we analyzed 13,261 respondents using multilevel logistic regression with generalized linear mixed models....
Article
Scientific advances across a range of disciplines hinge on the ability to make inferences about unobservable theoretical entities on the basis of empirical data patterns. Accurate inferences rely on both discovering valid, replicable data patterns and accurately interpreting those patterns in terms of their implications for theoretical constructs....
Article
Full-text available
Longitudinal research suggests that genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors enhance one's risk for developing Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). However, it is not known how an accumulation of such factors impact brain functioning. One barrier to this research is that increased risk for ADRD affects the cerebrovascular system a...
Article
Busier people tend to perform better on cognitive tasks than less busy individuals. Nevertheless, the characteristics that are associated with greater perceived busyness are unknown. To address this question participants (N = 463) from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study (ages 20–89) completed a self-report busyness assessment and demographic, health,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is commonly used to investigate the neural bases of behavior ranging from basic cognitive mechanisms to aging to psychological disorders. However, the BOLD signal captured by fMRI is an indirect measure of neural function and is affected by many factors that are non-neural in origin. These non-neural fac...
Article
False memory rates differ in individuals with high versus low cognitive reserve and between young-old and old-old age groups. Here, we tested how 2 types of false memory (false alarms to new items and source memory) in 2 age groups differed with cognitive reserve. Subjects were presented with words and instructed either to generate a past event fro...
Article
Full-text available
As the population of the world gets older, cognitive and mental health decline in older adults has become one of the most pressing scientific problems of the 21st century. It has been well-established that multiple pathways exist that can lead to future cognitive decline and the development of age-related mental health conditions. Making matters mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
False memory rates differ in individuals with high versus low cognitive reserve and between young-old and old-old age groups. Here we tested how two types of false memory (false alarms to new items and source memory) in two age groups differed with cognitive reserve. Subjects were presented with words and either instructed to generate a past event...
Article
Full-text available
A potential new clinical disorder is arising due to the addiction to cellphones called nomophobiador feelings of discomfort or anxiety experienced by individuals when they are unable to use their mobile phones or utilize the conveniences these devices provide. However, before being able to officially classify this disorder as clinically relevant, m...
Article
Full-text available
Although a national consensus exists on the need to increase the rates of advance care planning (ACP) for all adults, racial/ethnic differences in ACP have not been realized equally and little attention has been paid to the relationship between comorbid health conditions and ACP. This study investigated racial/ethnic differences in ACP and how race...
Article
Background: Memory self-efficacy is the belief that one will be able to succeed in a memory task. This belief may protect older adults against harmful aging stereotypes and to motivate them to practice memory skills and learn new memory strategies. While it is widely known that older adults differ in their memory self-efficacy, personal characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Brain structure has been proposed to facilitate as well as constrain functional interactions within brain networks. Simulation models suggest that integrity of white matter (WM) microstructure should be positively related to the complexity of BOLD signal – a measure of network interactions. Using 121 young adults from the Human Connectome Project,...
Article
Objectives: This study investigated the estate planning and advance care planning (ACP) of older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) for the presence of (1) a valid will, (2) a durable power of attorney for health care, and (3) a living will. Method: We analyzed 10,273 adults aged 65 and older from the 2012 Health and Retirement Study...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain structure has been proposed to facilitate as well as constrain functional interactions within brain networks. Simulation models suggest that integrity of white matter (WM) microstructure should be positively related to the complexity of BOLD signal—a measure of network interactions. Using 121 young adults from the Human Connectome Project, we...
Article
Excessive cellphone use impacts attention and learning in classrooms. Given that attention declines over time, we investigated when during lecture cellphones might impair learning. Across two experiments, participants watched a 20-min lecture under different cellphone conditions (keep or remove). Groups who kept their cellphones received distractin...
Article
Full-text available
African Americans are two to four times more likely to develop dementia as Non-Hispanic Whites. This increased risk among African Americans represents a critical health disparity that affects nearly 43 million Americans. The present study tested the hypothesis that older African Americans with elevated beta-amyloid would show greater neurodegenerat...
Article
Full-text available
We tested how an intervention aimed to increase challenging leisure activities affected cognition and brain function. Thirty-nine participants engaged in 15 hours of activities per week over 14 weeks in either high-challenge activities (digital photography and quilting) or low-challenge activities (socializing or performing low-challenge cognitive...
Article
Cell phones are becoming an inevitable part of the classroom, but extant research suggests that using cell phones in the classroom impairs academic performance. The present study examined the impact of different cell phone policies on learning and emotion-regulation style. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions:...
Article
Tissue classification plays a crucial role in the investigation of normal neural development, brain-behavior relationships, and the disease mechanisms of many psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Ensuring the accuracy of tissue classification is important for quality research and, in particular, the translation of imaging biomarkers to clinical...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tissue classification plays a crucial role in the investigation of normal neural development, brain-behavior relationships, and the disease mechanisms of many psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Ensuring the accuracy of tissue classification is important for quality research and, in particular, the translation of imaging biomarkers to clinical...
Article
The ability to retain educationally relevant content in a readily accessible state in memory is critical for students at all stages in schooling. We hypothesized that a high degree of stress in mathematics courses can threaten students’ mathematics self-concept and lead to a motivation to forget course content. We tested the aforementioned hypothes...
Article
Full-text available
[This corrects the article on p. 98 in vol. 8, PMID: 27242510.].
Article
Full-text available
Neurodegeneration in the medial temporal lobe, particularly in the hippocampus, is viewed as the primary source of AD-related memory deficits. Yet, in the earliest preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques deposit primarily in the neocortex, not in the medial temporal lobe. Tau tangles, however, do often aggregate in...
Article
Full-text available
Sustained engagement in mentally challenging activities has been shown to improve memory in older adults. We hypothesized that a busy schedule would be a proxy for an engaged lifestyle and would facilitate cognition. Here, we examined the relationship between busyness and cognition in adults aged 50-89. Participants (N = 330) from the Dallas Lifesp...
Article
Full-text available
The present research shows that, when making choices, working-class Americans are more affected by others’ opinions than middle-class Americans due to differences in independent versus interdependent self-construal. Experiment 1 revealed that when working-class Americans made decisions to buy products, they were more influenced by the choices of ot...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Correlational and limited experimental evidence suggests that an engaged lifestyle is associated with the maintenance of cognitive vitality in old age. However, the mechanisms underlying these engagement effects are poorly understood. We hypothesized that mental effort underlies engagement effects and used fMRI to examine the impact of hi...
Conference Paper
This study examined whether a lifestyle intervention, designed to promote active engagement in cognitive and social activity, can improve cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure (BP). Sustained engagement in late-life leisure activity reduces risk of age-related illnesses like dementia and may also promote health-related outcomes in cognit...
Article
Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along wit...
Article
Full-text available
Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned...
Article
Full-text available
The conception of the aging mind that emerged from behavioral and structural imaging studies portrayed the mind as a victim of passive deterioration and decline with age, with a few domains of preserved function. The advent of functional neuroimaging has demonstrated that the aging brain is an adaptive and plastic structure that responds dynamicall...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether the age-related positivity effect strengthens specific event details in autobiographical memory. Participants retrieved past events or imagined future events in response to neutral or emotional cue words. Older adults rated each kind of event more positively than younger adults, demonstrating an age-related positivit...
Data
Memories have qualitative properties (e.g., the different kinds of features or details that can be retrieved) and quantitative properties (e.g., the frequency and/or strength of retrieval). Here we investigated the relative contribution of these two properties to the retrieval monitoring process. Participants studied a list of words, and memory for...