Ian Maidment

Ian Maidment
Aston University · Pharmaceutical Sciences

PhD

About

98
Publications
10,474
Reads
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1,198
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2012 - present
Aston University
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Clinical Pharamcy
February 2012 - present
Aston University
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacy

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
What is new and objectives: Older people from ethnic minorities experience the intersectionality of age and ethnicity in relation to complex medication management and polypharmacy. Minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom are at risk of poor medication management because factors such as cultural beliefs, language barriers, lack of knowledge of...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Concerns about the misuse of over the counter (OTC) and prescription only medication (POM) are due to their impact upon physical/mental wellbeing, drug interactions and drug-related deaths. Improving an understanding of the pattern of use by people accessing specialist substance misuse services (SMSs) should enable improvements...
Article
Background: Sexual and reproductive healthcare services (SRHS) are an environment where medical care relevant to sexual violence and abuse (SV) is available. However, barriers to disclosure need to be overcome to allow timely access to this care. There is limited research identifying and explaining how interventions remove barriers and create a saf...
Article
Systematic reviews that examine effectiveness of interventions to improve medicines optimisation do not explain how or why they work. This realist review identified that interventions which effectively optimise medicines use in osteoporosis include opportunities to address patients' perceptions of illness and treatment and/or support primary care c...
Article
Full-text available
Background Rising demand for healthcare continues to impact all sectors of the health service. As a result of the growing ageing population and the burden of chronic disease, healthcare has become more complex, and the need for more efficient management of specialist medication across the healthcare interface is of paramount importance. With the ri...
Article
Aim This systematic review (SR) was undertaken to identify and summarise any factors which influence the implementation of paediatric clinical pharmacy service (CPS) from service users’ perspectives in hospital settings. Method Literature search from EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core Collection), Cochrane Library, Scopus and CINAHL databases w...
Article
Background/Aims For two decades, clinicians and academics have been writing about the problem of poor adherence in osteoporosis, while people with osteoporosis have identified a need for more follow up and information about medicines. We aimed to understand what works in supporting people with osteoporosis to get the best from their medicines, and...
Article
Introduction Over the Counter (OTC) and Prescription Only Medication (POM) are misused by people who access substance misuse services (SMS). Harms include impact upon physical/mental wellbeing and potentially fatal overdoses, with concerns growing amongst healthcare professionals, commissioners and the general public (1). SMS must respond to increa...
Article
Introduction An improved understanding of Over the Counter (OTC) and Prescription Only Medication (POM) misuse by people who access substance misuse services (SMS) is essential so that appropriate treatment interventions can be provided. There is growing awareness and concerns about this issue, especially during COVID-19; however, there is a paucit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Higher medication anticholinergic burden is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. A mechanistic pathway has not been established. We aimed to determine whether inflammation may mediate these associations. Methods: Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. People living with SMI often receive complex medication regimens. Optimising these regimens can be challenging. Non-adherence is common and addressing it requires a collaborative approach to decision making. MEDIATE uses a realist approach with extensiv...
Article
Full-text available
Background One in four people experience a mental health problem every year and improving mental health care is an international priority. In the course of their work, pharmacists frequently encounter people with mental health problems. The experience of mental health teaching, including Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training, in undergraduate pha...
Article
Objective To explore the burdens experienced by family carers who support older relatives to manage their medications at home. Methods This study, based on a larger UK medication management study: MEdication Management in Older people: Realist Approaches Based on Literature and Evaluation (MEMORABLE), reports on findings from family carer intervie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background People with severe mental illnesses (SMI) such as schizophrenia die on average 15 to 20 years earlier than everyone else. Two-thirds of these deaths are from preventable physical illnesses such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, which are worsened by weight gain. Antipsychotics are associated with significant weight g...
Article
Full-text available
Background Informal carers play an important role in the care of patients with mental illness. Little is known of the relationship experience of the patient and their informal carer (caring dyad) as the context for the intersection between physical and mental health. Aim This study aimed to explore the impact of comorbid cardiometabolic risk (CMR)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Higher anticholinergic burden from medications is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive function decline. A mechanistic pathway has never been established. We aimed to determine whether chronic inflammation may mediate these associations. Methods: Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Inv...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Community pharmacists and their teams have remained accessible to the public providing essential services despite immense pressures during the COVID-19 pandemic. They have successfully expanded the influenza vaccination programme and are now supporting the delivery of the COVID-19 vaccination roll-out. Aim This rapid realist review ai...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There is a growing concern about the misuse of over the counter (OTC) and prescription only medication (POM) because of the impact on physical and mental health, drug interactions, overdoses and drug-related deaths. These medicines include opioid analgesics, anxiolytics such as pregabalin and diazepam and antidepressants. This protocol...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals with severe mental illness, e.g. schizophrenia have up to a 20% shortened life expectancy compared to the general population. Cardiovascular disease, due to cardiometabolic risk and metabolic syndrome, accounts for most of this excess mortality. A scoping search revealed that there has not been a review of published studies o...
Article
Introduction Improving mental health care is an international priority, and one that is championed by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. (1) In the course of their work, pharmacists frequently encounter people with mental health problems. The extent to which mental health is taught on the undergraduate pharmacy degree in the UK and Ireland, and the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Rising demand for healthcare continues to impact on all sectors of the health service. As a result of the growing ageing population and the burden of chronic disease, healthcare has become more complex, the need for more efficient management of specialist medication across the healthcare interface is of paramount importance. With the ris...
Article
Objectives This systematic review (SR) was undertaken to identify and summarise any factors which influence the implementation of paediatric clinical pharmacy service (CPS) from service users’ perspectives in hospital settings. Methods Literature search from EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core Collection), Cochrane Library, Scopus and CINAHL dat...
Article
Background Sleep disturbance affects around 60% of people living with dementia and can negatively affect their quality of life and that of their carers. Hypnotic Z-drugs (zolpidem, zopiclone and zaleplon) are commonly used to treat insomnia, but their safety and efficacy have not been evaluated for people living with dementia. Objectives To estima...
Article
Aims: To estimate the association between patterns of anticholinergic, benzodiazepine and Z-drug medication use and change in cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the first three waves of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), including community-dwelling adults aged ≥...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
The use of Academic Detailing (AD) to promote rational prescribing in specialist mental health services has not been reviewed systematically. The aims of this systematic review are to review: • The published literature on the use of AD for prescribers in specialist mental health services, including dementia care • The effect of AD on changing cli...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Proxy recruitment of patient participants through community pharmacies may be a valuable strategy to maximise participation. This paper focuses on the feasibility of such a recruitment strategy for research involving people who experience severe mental illness. Methods: Fifty-three community pharmacies, including 50 'Research Ready'...
Article
The MEMORABLE study was designed to identify the real‐world challenges associated with medication management in older people taking many different medicines. This article summarises the key findings of the study and discusses potential ways in which medication burden could be reduced.
Article
Full-text available
Older people represent a very heterogeneous patient population and are the major user group of medication. Age-related changes mean that this population can encounter barriers towards taking medicines orally. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of oral solid dosage forms that contribute to an age appropriate dosage design,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: More older people are living in the community with multiple diagnoses and medications. Managing multiple medications produces issues of unrivalled complexity for those involved. Despite increasing literature on the subject, gaps remain in understanding how, why and for whom complex medication management works, and therefore how best to...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Supporting people subjected to sexual violence includes provision of sexual and reproductive healthcare. There is a need to ensure an environment for safe and supported disclosure of sexual violence in these clinical settings. The purpose of this research is to gain a deeper understanding of how, why, for whom and in what circumstances...
Chapter
Research is a creative process and the topic of research methodology particularly realist methods is complex and varied. This chapter is designed to introduce beginners to the basics of realist research focussing on essential concepts rather than burdening the reader with voluminous detail. As realist research is a complex area, it may require you...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Age-related changes mean that the older population can encounter barriers toward taking medication orally. Further work is needed to identify the characteristics of oral solid dosage forms that will improve patient acceptance and adherence. The aim of this systematic review was to identify if and how formulation aspects of oral solid dos...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: More older people are living in the community with multiple diagnoses and medications. Managing multiple medications produces issues of unrivalled complexity for those involved. Despite increasing literature on the subject, gaps remain in understanding how, why and for whom complex medication management works, and therefore how best to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: This paper reports the development work conducted for a feasibility study (MEDREV) conducted in the UK evaluating: (i) a medication review to reduce the prescription of psychotropic medication for managing behaviours that challenge among people living with dementia: and (ii) a training intervention for care home staff designed to improv...
Preprint
Background: Anticholinergic medication use is linked with increased cognitive decline, dementia, falls and mortality. The characteristics of the population who use anticholinergic medication are not known. Here we estimate the prevalence of anticholinergic use in England’s older population in 1991 and 2011, and describe changes in use by participan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Anticholinergic medication use is linked with increased cognitive decline, dementia, falls and mortality, and their use should be limited in older people. Here we estimate the prevalence of anticholinergic use in England’s older population in 1991 and 2011, and describe changes in use by participant’s age, sex, cognition and disability....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Anticholinergic medication use is linked with increased cognitive decline, dementia, falls and mortality, and their use should be limited in older people. Here we estimate the prevalence of anticholinergic use in England’s older population in 1991 and 2011, and describe changes in use by participant’s age, sex, cognition and disability....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies suggest that anticholinergic medication or benzodiazepine use could increase dementia risk. We tested this hypothesis using data from a UK cohort study. Methods: We used data from the baseline (Y0), 2-year (Y2) and 10-year (Y10) waves of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Participants without de...
Preprint
Background Increasing numbers of older people are living in the community with multiple diagnoses and medications. Managing multiple medications produces issues of unrivalled complexity for those involved. Despite a growing body of literature on the subject, gaps remain in understanding how, why and for whom complex medication management works, and...
Article
Background Older people are major users of medication. As people get age, the balance between benefits and harms for medication changes. Medication management by healthcare practitioners (for example, pharmacists, doctors, and nurses) is designed to help older people take the appropriate medication. Current evidence indicates that medication manage...
Article
Background ‘Behaviour that Challenges’ is common in older people with dementia in care homes and treated with antipsychotics. Policy is focused on reducing the use of antipsychotics in people with dementia and therefore reducing harm. This submission reports results on a NIHR-funded feasibility study MEDREV. Aim To assess the feasibility of medica...
Article
Purpose To review and analyse medication errors related to clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, that were reported to the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS). Methods Following extraction of one year of clozapine related errors from the NRLS, a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis and re‐classification) and quantitative analysis was...
Article
Full-text available
Background Non‐adherence is a significant problem in bipolar disorder. Second‐generation antipsychotics (SGA) long‐acting injections (LAIs) may improve adherence in bipolar disorder and may prevent relapses. However, the evidence is limited and conflicting. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of SGA LAIs in bi...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: "Behaviour that Challenges" is common in people living with dementia, resident in care homes and historically has been treated with anti-psychotics. However, such usage is associated with 1800 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the UK. This study investigated the feasibility of a full clinical trial of a specialist dementia care p...
Conference Paper
Objectives ‘Behaviour that Challenges’ is common in older people with dementia in care homes and traditionally treated with anti-psychotics. Guidelines across the globe have aimed to reduce the use of anti-psychotics in people with dementia and therefore reduce harm. These initiatives have only been partially successful.This submission reports resu...
Conference Paper
Objectives Older people are major users of medication. Their use of medication is increasing, over the last 20 years the number older people taking at least 5 medicines has quadrupled to nearly 50%. They should be taking medication that gives them more benefits than harms. As people get older or their health changes, the balance between benefits an...
Article
Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important and potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. It is a significant, international patient safety issue affecting medical, surgical and mental health in-patients. There is a paucity of published evidence on the incidence of VTE, and the role of VTE risk-a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To estimate the association between the duration and level of exposure to different classes of anticholinergic drugs and subsequent incident dementia. Design Case-control study. Setting General practices in the UK contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants 40 770 patients aged 65-99 with a diagnosis of demen...
Data
Supplementary material: Additional information
Article
Full-text available
Substance misuse services need to meet the growing demand and needs of individuals using new psychoactive substances (NPS). A review of the literature identified a paucity of research regarding NPS use by these individuals and UK guidelines outline the need for locally tailored strategies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and e...
Article
Full-text available
Background Little is known about the general medicines management issues for people with dementia living in the community. This review has three aims: firstly to explore and evaluate the international literature on how people with dementia manage medication; assess understanding of medicines management from an informal carers perspective; and lastl...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Medication-related adverse events have been estimated to be responsible for 5700 deaths and cost the UK £750 million annually. This burden falls disproportionately on older people. Outcomes from interventions to optimise medication management are caused by multiple context-sensitive mechanisms. The MEdication Management in Older people...
Article
Background No studies to date have investigated cumulative anticholinergic exposure and its effects in adults with intellectual disabilities. Aims To determine the cumulative exposure to anticholinergics and the factors associated with high exposure. Method A modified Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale score was calculated for a represent...
Article
Full-text available
Background People diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are frequently treated with antipsychotics. National guidance advises the use of shared decision-making (SDM) in antipsychotic prescribing. There is currently little data on the opinions of health professionals on the role of SDM. O...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to use qualitative methodology to understand the current role of community pharmacists in limiting the use of antipsychotics prescribed inappropriately for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Design A qualitative study employing focus groups was conducted. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Settin...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The inappropriate use of antipsychotics in people with dementia for behaviour that challenges is associated with an estimated 1800 deaths annually. However, solely focusing on antipsychotics may transfer prescribing to other equally dangerous psychotropics. Little is known about the role of pharmacists in the management of psychotropic...
Article
Full-text available
Background Medicines reconciliation—identifying and maintaining an accurate list of a patient’s current medications—should be undertaken at all transitions of care and available to all patients. Objective A self-completion web survey was conducted for chief pharmacists (or equivalent) to evaluate medicines reconciliation levels in secondary care me...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Bipolar disorder requires long-term treatment but non-adherence is a common problem. Antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) have been suggested to improve adherence but none are licensed in the UK for bipolar. However, the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) LAIs in bipolar is not uncommon albeit there is a lack of syste...
Article
Full-text available
The authors developed and validated a clozapine-specific side-effects scale capable of eliciting the subjectively unpleasant side-effects of clozapine. Questions from the original Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effects Scale (GASS) were compared to a list of the most commonly reported clozapine side-effects and those with a significant subjective burde...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the association between the use of medications with anticholinergic activity and the subsequent risk of injurious falls in older adults. Prospective, population-based study using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Irish population. Community-dwelling men and women without dementia aged 65 and older (N = 2,696). Self-reporte...
Article
The link between off-target anticholinergic effects of medications and acute cognitive impairment in older adults requires urgent investigation. We aimed to determine whether a relevant in vitro model may aid the identification of anticholinergic responses to drugs and the prediction of anticholinergic risk during polypharmacy. In this preliminary...
Article
To explore the association between use of sedative drugs and frailty.DesignCross-sectional study.SettingFirst wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a nationally representative cohort of the community-dwelling population aged 50 years or older in Ireland.ParticipantsParticipants were 1642 men and 1804 women aged 65 years or older.M...