Ian T Kracalik

Ian T Kracalik
University of Florida | UF · Emerging Pathogens Institute

PhD MPH

About

48
Publications
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720
Citations

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Full-text available
Reports suggest that children aged ≥10 years can efficiently transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). However, limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 transmission from young children, particularly in child care settings (3). To better understand transmission from young children, contact tracing data co...
Article
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The recommendations in this report supersede the U.S Public Health Service (PHS) guideline recommendations for reducing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) through organ transplantation (Seem DL, Lee I, Umscheid CA, Kuehnert MJ. PHS guideline for reducing human immunodeficiency vi...
Article
Full-text available
Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium responsible for anthrax, an acute infection that most significantly affects grazing livestock and wild ungulates, but also poses a threat to human health. The geographic extent of B. anthracis is poorly understood, despite multi-decade research on anthrax epizootic and epidemic dynamics...
Article
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Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has disrupted healthcare services worldwide. However, little has been reported regarding the impact on blood utilization. We quantified the impact of COVID‐19 on blood utilization and discards among facilities reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network Hemovigilance Module. Met...
Article
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Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are emerging tickborne diseases that can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants. Since 2000, ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis cases in the United States have increased substantially, resulting in potential risk to transplant and transfusion recipients. We reviewed ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis...
Article
Introduction SARS-CoV-2 is transmissible through lung transplantation, and outcomes among SARS-CoV-2-infected solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be severe; however, transmission risk to extrapulmonary organ recipients and recent (within 30 days of transplantation) SARS-CoV-2-infected recipient outcomes are unclear. Methods During March 20...
Article
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Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) producing the Verona integron‒encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) are highly antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens that are uncommon in the United States. We investigated the source of VIM-CRPA among US medical tourists who underwent bariatric surgery in Tijuana, Mexico. Cases were defined as isolat...
Article
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Outcomes and costs of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) contact tracing are limited. During March-May 2020, we constructed transmission chains from 184 index cases and 1,499 contacts in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, to assess outcomes and estimate staff time and salaries. We estimated 1,102 staff hours and $29,234 spent investigating index cases and co...
Article
In March 2020, there were no treatment options for COVID‐19. Passive immune therapy including anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG) was a logical candidate for COVID‐19 therapeutic trials, given past success treating emerging pathogens with endogenous neutralizing antibodies. We established a plasma collection protocol for persons recovered...
Article
Background Despite current blood safety measures, transfusion recipients can experience transfusion‐related adverse reactions. Monitoring these reactions can aid in understanding the effectiveness of current transfusion safety measures. Data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Hemovigilance Module were used to quantify adverse reaction risk...
Article
The human cutaneous anthrax case-fatality rate is ≈1% when treated, 5%-20% when untreated. We report high case-fatality rates (median 35.0%; 95% CI 21.1%-66.7%) during 2005-2016 linked to livestock handling in northern Ghana, where veterinary resources are limited. Livestock vaccination and access to human treatment should be evaluated.
Article
Despite advances in transfusion safety, concerns with safety of platelet transfusions remain including platelet-related sepsis and higher reaction rates observed among patients receiving apheresis platelets (APLTs). National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Hemovigilance Module (HM) data were analyzed to quantify the burden and severity of adverse...
Article
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We conducted public health investigations of 8 organ transplant recipients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Findings suggest the most likely source of transmission was community or healthcare exposure, not the organ donor. Transplant centers should educate transplant candidates and recipients about...
Article
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Background The age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths in the United States tripled from 1999 to 2016. Public health surveillance data indicate that an increasing proportion of infections due to bacterial and fungal pathogens is associated with injection drug use (IDU). We describe healthcare encounters (HCEs) of PWID as potential opportunities t...
Article
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Health care visits for bacterial and fungal infections represent an opportunity to treat the underlying opioid use disorder with medication-assisted treatment. Because many infections are caused by skin flora such as S. aureus, injecting without first cleaning the injection site and washing hands increases the risk for bacterial and fungal infectio...
Article
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Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes >70,000 invasive infections annually in the United States, and recurrent infections pose a major clinical challenge. We examined risk factors for recurrent MRSA infections. Methods We identified patients with an initial invasive MRSA infection (isolation from a normally sterile b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium responsible for anthrax, an acute and commonly lethal infection that most significantly affects grazing livestock, wild ungulates and other herbivorous mammals, but also poses a serious threat to human health. The geographic extent of B. anthracis endemism is still poorly understood, de...
Article
Full-text available
Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and...
Data
The spatial distribution of environmental variables used in the random forest models. Variable names are matched to variable descriptions and sources from Table 1. (TIF)
Data
Importance plot of variables included in the final ensemble random forest model prediction. Bars in darker blue represent variables that were more important in discriminating class prediction. (TIF)
Article
Anthrax is a widely spread zoonotic disease found on nearly every continent. To control the disease in humans and animals, annual livestock vaccination is recommended. However, in 2007, the country of Georgia ended its policy of compulsory annual livestock anthrax vaccination. Our objective was to assess how the epidemiology of human anthrax has ev...
Article
Anthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-p...
Article
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Introduction Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon’s climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level. Methods/Findings A...
Article
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Introduction: During the cholera outbreak from 2010 to 2011 in Cameroon, 33,192 cases with 1,440 deaths (case fatality ratio 4.34%) were reported to the World Health Organization. Of these, the South West Region reported 3,120 clinical cases. This region is in the Equatorial Monsoon climatic subzone of Cameroon, close to the coast, raising question...
Article
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The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases...
Article
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Human anthrax has increased dramatically in Georgia and was recently linked to the sale of meat in an urban market. We assessed epidemiological trends and risk factors for human anthrax at the urban-rural interface. We reviewed epidemiologic records (2000-2012) that included the place of residence (classified as urban, peri-urban, or rural), age, g...
Article
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Tularemia is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis, broadly distributed across the northern hemisphere. In Georgia, there is a history of human tularemia outbreaks dating back to the 1940s. In response to outbreaks, health officials initiated long-term field surveillance and environmental monitoring. The objective of our study was to obtain information...
Article
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This study compared three local cluster detection methods to identify local hotspots of human cutaneous anthrax (HCA) transmission in the country of Georgia where cases have been steadily increasing since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Recent reports have indicated that the disease has reached historical levels in 2012 highlighting the need f...
Article
Brucellosis is one of the most common and widely spread zoonotic diseases in the world. Control of the disease in humans is dependent upon limiting the infection in animals through surveillance and vaccination. Given the dramatic economic and political changes that have taken place in the former Soviet Union, which have limited control, evaluating...
Article
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Background Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a zoonotic agent that remains across much of the northern hemisphere, where it exists in enzootic cycles. In Ukraine, tularemia has a long history that suggests a need for sustained surveillance in natural foci. To better characterize the host-vector diversity and spatial distr...
Article
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A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to under...
Data
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Detailed description of the 4 communities in the Collaborative Cholera Mapping Project and geospatial analysis of outbreak clusters.
Article
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We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of...
Article
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We assessed the occurrence of human cutaneous anthrax in Georgia during 2010--2012 by examining demographic and spatial characteristics of reported cases. Reporting increased substantially, as did clustering of cases near urban centers. Control efforts, including education about anthrax and livestock vaccination, can be directed at areas of high ri...
Article
Background Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a zoonotic agent that remains across much of the northern hemisphere, where it exists in enzootic cycles. In Ukraine, tularemia has a long history that suggests a need for sustained surveillance in natural foci. To better characterize the host-vector diversity and spatial distr...
Conference Paper
In Georgia the incidence of human cutaneous anthrax (HCA) has increased over the last decade. Anthrax is a soil-borne zoonotic disease; human transmission is often associated with direct contact with infected animals or contaminated materials. Epidemiologic and spatial analysis was used to indentify risk factors for anthrax. Data on HCA during 2010...
Article
Full-text available
Anthrax is a soil-borne disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and is considered a neglected zoonosis. In the country of Georgia, recent reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of human anthrax. Identifying sub-national areas of increased risk may help direct appropriate public health control measures. The purpose of this st...
Article
Full-text available
Brucellosis is the one of most common livestock zoonoses in Georgia, resulting in significant economic losses. Livestock were sampled in three regions of Georgia (Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Imereti). Districts that historically reported high numbers of brucellosis related morbidity were selected for serological, bacteriological and molecular surveys. S...
Article
Full-text available
We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle) and small (sheep and goats) domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi*) statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA) were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statis...
Article
Full-text available
Background Human brucellosis represents a significant burden to public and veterinary health globally, including the republic of Azerbaijan. The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the spatial and temporal aspects of the epidemiology of human brucellosis in Azerbaijan from 1995 to 2009. Methods A Geographic information system (GIS) w...
Article
We analysed livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan from 1960-2006, using a prospective CUSUM to examine the affects of expectation on the detection of spatio-temporal clusters. Three methods for deriving baselines were used for CUSUM; a standard z-score, AVG, a spatially-weighted z-score derived from Local Moran's I, LISA, and a moving-window average, MWA...
Conference Paper
This current sampling effort is part of the Biological Threat Reduction Programs development of a sustainable vector-borne disease threat detection and response program in the Republic of Azerbaijan, with an emphasis on Especially Dangerous Pathogens (EDPs). These diseases include both bacterial and viral pathogens, many of which are vectored by ti...

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