Ian Graham

Ian Graham
University of Ottawa · School of Nursing

About

356
Publications
106,287
Reads
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18,795
Citations
Citations since 2016
176 Research Items
10803 Citations
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Publications

Publications (356)
Article
Category Sports; Trauma Introduction/Purpose Uncertainty exists regarding the best treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Simultaneous comparison of the multiple treatment options using traditional study designs is problematic; multiarm clinical trials often are logistically constrained to small sample sizes, and traditional meta-analyses a...
Preprint
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, Canadians faced difficult health-related decisions. It is important to identify their decision making needs to provide person-centred care, to improve health outcomes, and to inform future pandemic preparedness. OBJECTIVE We sought to identify their decisions and decisional needs. METHODS Our study was co-...
Article
Aim: This study aimed to synthesize evidence on interventions to improve leadership competencies of managers supervising nurses. Background: In recent years, numerous interventions have been developed to improve the leadership competencies of managers supervising nurses. However, researchers and nursing leaders are unclear about what aspects of...
Article
Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to identify and characterize relevant knowledge translation methods tools (those that provide guidance for optimized knowledge translation practice) to uncover candidate quality indicators to inform a future quality assessment tool for knowledge translation strategies. Introduction: Knowledge tr...
Article
Background: Under-recruitment regularly impedes clinical trials, leading to wasted resources and opportunity costs. Methods for designing trial participation strategies rarely consider behavior change theory. Objective: Informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework, we identified factors important to participating in Huntington’s disease research a...
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Objectives To share a concept analysis of social movement aimed at advancing its application to evidence uptake and sustainability in health-care. Methods We applied Avant and Walker's method to clarify the concept of social movement in the context of knowledge uptake and sustainability. Peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were systematica...
Article
Background Traditionally, economic evaluations have engaged clinicians and policymakers; however, patients and their caregivers have insight that can ensure that the economic evaluation process appropriately reflects disease consequences and adequately addresses their priorities related to treatment.Objective We aimed to identify patient priorities...
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Background To improve patient outcomes many healthcare organizations have undertaken a number of steps to enhance the quality of care, including the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) such as clinical practice guidelines. However, there is little empirical understanding of the longer-term use of guideline-based practices and how to ensure their...
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Background Models, theories, and frameworks (MTFs) provide the foundation for a cumulative science of implementation, reflecting a shared, evolving understanding of various facets of implementation. One under-represented aspect in implementation MTFs is how intersecting social factors and systems of power and oppression can shape implementation. Th...
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Background The Stroke Recovery in Motion Implementation Planner guides teams through the process of planning for the implementation of community-based exercise programs for people with stroke, in alignment with implementation science frameworks. Objective The purpose of this study was to conduct a field test with end users to describe how teams us...
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Background As more people are surviving stroke, there is a growing need for services and programs that support the long-term needs of people living with the effects of stroke. Exercise has many benefits; however, most people with stroke do not have access to specialized exercise programs that meet their needs in their communities. To catalyze the i...
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Background Champions have been documented in the literature as an important strategy for implementation, yet their effectiveness has not been well synthesized in the health care literature. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether champions, tested in isolation from other implementation strategies, are effective at improving innov...
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Background The field of knowledge translation (KT) has been criticized for neglecting contextual and social considerations that influence health equity. Intersectionality, a concept introduced by Black feminist scholars, emphasizes how human experience is shaped by combinations of social factors (e.g., ethnicity, gender) embedded in systemic power...
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Background In 2018, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada transformed its approach to organizational strategic planning and priority-setting. The goal was to generate impact from bench to bedside to community, to improve the health of Canadians. It engaged researchers, clinician scientists, health systems leaders, and community members includin...
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This is the protocol for a Campbell systematic review. The objectives are as follows: to identify, describe, and summarize existing guidance and methods for multistakeholder engagement throughout the health guideline development process.
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Background Most hospitals use physiological signs to trigger an urgent clinical review. We investigated whether facilitation could improve nurses’ vital sign measurement, interpretation, treatment and escalation of care for deteriorating patients. Methods In a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, we randomised 36 inpatient wards at four...
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Introduction: Overuse of cardiovascular healthcare services, defined as the provision of low-value (ineffective, harmful, cost-ineffective) tests, medications and procedures, may be common and associated with increased patient harm and health system inefficiencies and costs. We seek to systematically review the evidence for overuse of different ca...
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Background Research co-production is an umbrella term used to describe research users and researchers working together to generate knowledge. Research co-production is used to create knowledge that is relevant to current challenges and to increase uptake of that knowledge into practice, programs, products, and/or policy. Yet, rigorous theories and...
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Study design: Scoping review. Objective: To identify and provide systematic overviews of partnership principles and strategies identified from health research about spinal cord injury (SCI) and related health conditions. Methods: Four health electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO) were searched from inception to March 2019. We...
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Background: Inappropriate health care leads to negative patient experiences, poor health outcomes and inefficient use of resources. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of inappropriately used clinical practices in Canada. Methods: We searched multiple bibliometric databases and grey literature to identify inappropriately used clinical practi...
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Introduction Children with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) often have complex and intensive healthcare needs and their families face challenges in receiving high-quality, family centred health services. Improvement in care requires complex interventions involving multiple components and stakeholders, customised to specific care contexts. This s...
Chapter
Dissemination is often overlooked as part of the research coproduction process because the emphasis is placed on how knowledge is produced rather than how it is communicated. At the same time, knowledge translation has developed to the point that we have best practices for dissemination and detailed guidance is available to assist research teams to...
Chapter
Research coproduction offers great promise for science and society. Yet, the mainstream approaches to research evaluation largely overlook the nuances of coproduction research, and thus provide limited value to improving coproduction, which can devalue the work and those who do it. It is our view, that without rigorous evaluation the potential of c...
Chapter
Increasing demands from research funders for academics to “partner” with healthcare organizations has resulted in reconsideration of the role of these organizations in research. Although appreciation of the experience and work context of organizational partners is essential for effective research partnerships, little attention has been paid to the...
Chapter
In this final chapter, we draw together some threads across authors' contributions as the building blocks of research coproduction. As we summarize, research coproduction is not a method, it a principles‐based approach to the research lifecycle that is as much about process as it is about outcome. The ingredients and building blocks for more succes...
Article
This is the introductory paper in a collection of four papers on the Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research (SPOR) Evidence Alliance, a pan-Canadian research initiative that was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in September of 2017. Here, we introduce the SPOR enterprise in Canada, provide a rationale for the creation of the SPO...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Research co-production is an umbrella term used to describe research users and researchers working together to generate knowledge. Research co-production is used to create knowledge that is relevant to current challenges and to increase uptake of that knowledge into practice, programs, products, and/or policy. Yet, rigorous theories and...
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Background Practice guidelines can reduce variations in nursing practice and improve patient care. However, implementation of guidelines is complex and inconsistent in practice. It is unclear which strategies are effective at implementing guidelines in nursing. This review aimed to describe the use and effects of implementation strategies to facili...
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Background For many rare diseases, few treatments are supported by strong evidence. Patients, family members, health care providers, and policy-makers thus have to consider whether to accept, recommend, or fund treatments with uncertain clinical effectiveness. They must also consider whether and how to contribute to clinical research that may invol...
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Objectives A high functioning healthcare workforce is a key priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to determine how work and mental health for healthcare workers changed during the COVID-19 pandemic in a universal healthcare system, stratified by gender factors. Design A mixed-methods study was employed. Phase 1 was an anonymous, interne...
Article
Background: Decision coaching is non-directive support delivered by a healthcare provider to help patients prepare to actively participate in making a health decision. 'Healthcare providers' are considered to be all people who are engaged in actions whose primary intent is to protect and improve health (e.g. nurses, doctors, pharmacists, social wo...
Preprint
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Background The current low state of food security amongst Inuit in Canada is influenced by policy choices. Policy actors develop and implement policies, yet few research studies include their perspectives. This study includes policy actors’ perspectives on gaps and areas of improvement for policies that pertain to food security for Labrador Inuit i...
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Purpose The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the evidence on the types of interventions that have been utilized by Indigenous Peoples living with cancer, and report on their relevance to Indigenous communities and how they align with holistic wellness. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Results T...
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Background Considerable progress has been made to advance the field of knowledge translation to address the knowledge-to-action gap in health care; however, there remains a growing concern that misalignments persist between research being conducted and the issues faced by knowledge users, such as clinicians and health policy makers, who make decisi...
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Introduction Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a class of immunotherapy. An economic evaluation conducted at an early stage of development of CAR-T therapy for treatment of adult relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia could provide insight into factors contributing to the cost of treatment, the potential clinical ben...
Article
Caregiver coaching is an expected practice in early intervention. However, little is known about coaching with caregivers of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, receiving services for listening and spoken language (LSL). A systematic review of 7 databases, the gray literature, and consultation with 7 expert LSL practitioners yielded 506 recor...
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Background Achilles tendon ruptures are common injuries in an otherwise healthy, active population. Several treatment options exist, with both surgical and non-surgical options. Each treatment option has a unique set of risks and harms, which may present patients with decisional conflict. The aim of the proposed study is to develop, alpha test and...
Article
Background: Uncertainty exists regarding the best treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Simultaneous comparison of the multiple treatment options using traditional study designs is problematic; multiarm clinical trials often are logistically constrained to small sample sizes, and traditional meta-analyses are limited to comparisons of only...
Article
A project with the goal of implementing electronic health record (EHR) – based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) into a large inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation program took twice as long as expected. This report details the lessons learned from the barriers, successes, and unexpected issues that arose during this prolonged,...
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Background: Ensuring adequate, informed, and timely participation in clinical trials is a multifactorial problem. We have previously developed a systematic, tailorable survey development approach that is informed by theory, can identify barriers and enablers to participation, and can suggest recruitment strategies to address these issues. In this...
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Background: Context is recognized as important to successful knowledge translation (KT) in health settings. What is meant by context, however, is poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to elicit tacit knowledge about what is perceived to constitute context by conducting interviews with a variety of health system stakeholders inter...
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Background Inuit experience the highest cancer mortality rates from lung cancer in the world with increasing rates of other cancers in addition to other significant health burdens. Inuit who live in remote areas must often travel thousands of kilometers to large urban centres in southern Canada and negotiate complex and sometimes unwelcoming health...
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Article-based theses and dissertations are increasingly being used in nursing and the health sciences as an alternate format to the traditional five-chapter monograph. A unique chapter in the article-based thesis is the integrated discussion, which differs in breadth and depth as compared to the discussion for a traditional thesis monograph or jour...
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Background The commitment to engage patients as partners in research has been described as a political, moral and ethical imperative. Researchers feel ill-equipped to deal with potential ethical implications of engaging patients as partners. The aim of this study is to identify the ethical considerations related to engaging frail and seriously ill...
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Inuit in Canada experience greater social and economic inequities than the general Canadian population. Food security exemplifies this inequity and is a distinct determinant of Inuit health. This scoping review focuses on food security-related policies implemented in Nunatsiavut, located in Northern Labrador. The primary objective was to identify t...
Article
Objective Despite clear evidence showing that many clinical trials fail or are delayed because of poor patient recruitment, there is surprisingly little empirically supported guidance for trialists seeking to optimize their trial recruitment strategies. We propose that the challenges of recruitment can be better understood and addressed by thinking...
Article
Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on barriers to conducting replication research and strategies to increase its use and promotion by researchers, editors, and funders. Study Design and Setting: This review was part of a larger meta-narrative review aimed at conducting a concept analysis of replication and developing a rep...
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Background Given a persistent nursing shortage in Canada and a decline in new nurses entering the profession, new graduate nurses (NGNs) are being hired into positions historically reserved for more experienced staff. Critical care settings, which are areas of specialty nursing practice, are now routinely hiring NGNs in many hospitals. While eviden...
Article
Background: A mainstay therapy for pain relief from uncomplicated bone metastases is external beam radiation therapy. Single fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) is more convenient and cost-effective, causes fewer acute side effects, and is equivalent to multiple fraction radiation therapy for pain relief. Despite these advantages, radiation oncologi...
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Background: The expectation to include patients as partners in research has steadily gained momentum. The vulnerability of frail and/or seriously ill patients provides additional complexity and may deter researchers from welcoming individuals from this patient population onto their teams. The aim was to synthesize the evidence on the engagement of...
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Objective: The objective of this review is to describe the global evidence of gender inequity among individuals with appointments at academic institutions that conduct health research, and examine how gender intersects with other social identities to influence outcomes. Introduction: The gender demographics of universities have shifted, yet the...
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Background: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework was developed two decades ago and conceptualizes successful implementation (SI) as a function (f) of the evidence (E) nature and type, context (C) quality, and the facilitation (F), [SI = f (E,C,F)]. Despite a growing number of citations of theoretica...
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Engaging knowledge users (KUs) as research team members throughout the research process helps generate relevant knowledge and may improve uptake of research results. The purpose of this article is to describe how an integrated knowledge translation (iKT) approach was embedded within a master’s thesis project comprising a mixed-methods systematic re...
Article
Objective The aim of this paper is to clarify the concept of replication research in order to improve its appropriate use by researchers, editors, research funders and decision makers. Study Design We combined concept analysis and meta-narrative review methods to synthetize knowledge on replication research from various scientific fields. We used...
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Background: A key component of the implementation process is identifying potential barriers and facilitators that need to be addressed. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is one of the most commonly used frameworks for this purpose. When applying the TDF, it is critical to understand the context in which behaviours occur. Intersectionality, w...
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This is a protocol for a co‐registered Cochrane and Campbell Review (Methodology). The objectives are as follows: To identify, describe and assess methods for: when to replicate a systematic review; how to replicate a systematic review.
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Background: Conducting research in partnership with stakeholders (e.g. policy-makers, practitioners, organisations, patients) is a promising and popular approach to improving the implementation of research findings in policy and practice. This study aimed to identify the principles, strategies, outcomes and impacts reported in different types of r...
Article
Research to address the health burdens experienced by Indigenous populations is essential. In the Canadian context, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada determined that these health burdens are the result of policies that have undermined opportunities to address community-level health needs. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research G...
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Background Guidelines based on patient preferences differ from those developed solely by clinicians and may promote patient adherence to guideline recommendations. There is scant evidence on how to develop patient-informed guidelines. This study aimed to describe how guideline developers identify, incorporate and report patient preferences. Method...