Ian H Gotlib

Ian H Gotlib
Stanford University | SU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

644
Publications
192,427
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
51,373
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (644)
Article
Caregivers who are higher in dispositional empathy tend to have children with better developmental outcomes; however, few studies have considered the role of child‐directed (i.e., “parental”) empathy, which may be relevant for the caregiver–child relationship. We hypothesized that mothers’ parental empathy during their child's infancy will be a str...
Article
Full-text available
Our primary objective was to document COVID-19 induced changes to perinatal care across the USA and examine the implication of these changes for maternal mental health. We performed an observational cross-sectional study with convenience sampling using direct patient reports from 1918 postpartum and 3868 pregnant individuals collected between April...
Article
To understand how infants become engaged in conversations with their caregivers, we examined who tends to initiate conversations between adults and infants, differences between the features of infant‐ and adult‐initiated conversations, and whether individual differences in how much infants engage in infant‐ or adult‐initiated conversations uniquely...
Article
Exposure to early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for developing psychopathology; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. In this study we examined systemic inflammation as a pathway that may link exposure to stress to altered neural correlates of implicit emotion regulation in adolescents with varying levels of expo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) techniques have gained popularity in the neuroimaging field due to their potential for classifying neuropsychiatric disorders based on brain patterns. However, the diagnostic predictive power of the existing algorithms has been limited by small sample sizes, lack of representativeness, data leakage, and/or overfitting. Here, w...
Article
Brain structural abnormalities and low educational attainment are consistently associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), yet there has been little research investigating the complex interaction of these factors. Brain structural alterations may represent a vulnerability or differential susceptibility marker, and in the context of low educati...
Article
Full-text available
Internalizing symptoms typically emerge in adolescence and are more prevalent in females than in males; in contrast, externalizing symptoms typically emerge in childhood and are more commonly observed in males. Previous research has implicated aspects of white matter organization, including fractional anisotropy (FA), of cerebral tracts in both int...
Article
Background Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms reported by adolescents and associated risk of experiencing psychiatric disorders as adults, differentiating the trajectories of the symptoms related to negative valence at an individual level could be crucial in gaining a better understanding of their effects later in life. Methods A lon...
Article
Exposure to environmental pollutants has been associated with cellular aging in children and adolescents. Individuals may vary, however, in their sensitivity or vulnerability to the effects of environmental pollutants. Larger hippocampal volume has emerged as a potential index of increased sensitivity to social contexts. In exploratory analyses (N...
Article
Full-text available
The early environment, including maternal characteristics, provides many cues to young organisms that shape their long-term physical and mental health. Identifying the earliest molecular events that precede observable developmental outcomes could help identify children in need of support prior to the onset of physical and mental health difficulties...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Short leukocyte telomere length is a biomarker associated with stress and morbidity in non-pregnant adults. Little is known, however, about maternal telomere dynamics in pregnancy. To address this, we examined changes in maternal leukocyte telomere length (LTL) during uncomplicated pregnancies and explored correlations with perceived s...
Article
Objective: Advancing understanding of how early adversity arises, manifests, and contributes to health difficulties depends on accurate measurement of children's experiences. In early life, exposure to adversity is often intertwined with that of one's caregivers. We present preliminary psychometric properties of a novel measure of adversity, the A...
Chapter
An alarming high proportion of youth experience at least one kind of stressor in childhood and/or adolescence. Exposure to early life stress is associated with increased risk for psychopathology, accelerated biological aging, and poor physical health; however, it is important to recognize that not all youth who experience such stress go on to devel...
Article
Understanding the role of stress in pregnancy and its consequences is important, particularly given documented associations between maternal stress and preterm birth and other pathologic outcomes. Physical and psychological stressors can elicit the same biological responses, known as biological strain. Chronic stressors, like poverty and racism (ra...
Article
Background Morphology of the human cerebral cortex differs across psychiatric disorders, with neurobiology and developmental origins mostly undetermined. Deviations in the tangential growth of the cerebral cortex during pre/peri-natal period may be reflected in individual variations in cortical surface area. Methods Inter-regional profiles of grou...
Article
Background Characterizing (1) functional connectivity (FC) markers of risk and resilience in emotion and reward networks and (2) how family dynamics in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (HR-BD) and major depressive disorder (HR-MDD) are related to FC may advance our understanding of the neural underpinnings of mood disorders and lead...
Article
Exposure to ozone is a well-documented risk factor for negative physical health outcomes but has been considered less frequently in the context of socioemotional health. We examined whether levels of neighborhood ozone predicted trajectories of depressive symptoms over a four-year period in 213 adolescents (ages 9-13 years at baseline; 57% female;...
Article
Background Mental and physical health are affected by family and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Accelerated maturation in the context of lower SES is one mechanism that might contribute to underlying health disparities; few studies, however, have considered neighborhood SES in relation to putative markers of brain maturation in adolescent...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Females are at higher risk for developing depression during adolescence than are males, particularly during exposure to stressors like the COVID-19 pandemic. Examining structural connections between brain regions involved in executive functioning may advance our understanding of sex biases in stress and depression. Here, we examined th...
Article
Different dimensions of adversity may affect mental health through distinct neurobiological mechanisms, though current supporting evidence consists largely of cross-sectional associations between threat or deprivation and fronto-limbic circuitry. In this exploratory three-wave longitudinal study spanning ages 9–19 years, we examined the association...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of COVID-19-related stress on perinatal women is of heightened public health concern given the established intergenerational impact of maternal stress-exposure on infants and fetuses. There is urgent need to characterize the coping styles associated with adverse psychosocial outcomes in perinatal women during the COVID-19 pandemic to hel...
Preprint
Caregivers who are higher in dispositional empathy tend to have children with better developmental outcomes; however, few studies have considered the role of child-directed (i.e., “parental”) empathy, which may be relevant for the caregiver–child relationship. We hypothesized that mothers’ parental empathy during their child’s infancy will be a str...
Article
Adolescent depression is characterized by heightened inflammation and altered connectivity of fronto-cingulate-limbic tracts, including the genu of the corpus callosum (CCG) and the uncinate fasciculus (UF). No studies, however, have yet examined the association between inflammation, measured by peripheral levels of cytokines, and white matter conn...
Article
Full-text available
Women experience dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy, including changes in the production of the “stress hormone,” cortisol. Evidence has been mixed regarding whether hair cortisol concentration (HCC) can be used to accurately capture the trajectory of cortisol during this period and whether factors related to psychosocial stress are re...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mental disorders are currently the greatest global health burden. The coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an adverse impact on people's mental health, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as refugees. Aims The present study was designed to examine the association between COVID-19 and changes in mental health...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Mental and physical health are affected by family and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Accelerated biological aging in the context of lower SES is one mechanism that might contribute to underlying health disparities; few studies, however, have considered neighborhood SES in relation to neural markers of biological aging in adole...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormal neural circuitry. It can be measured by assessing functional connectivity (FC) at resting-state functional MRI, that may help identifying neural markers of MDD and provide further efficient diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes. The main aim of the present study is to investigate, in an...
Article
Air pollution is a major environmental threat to public health; we know little, however, about its effects on adolescent brain development. Exposure to air pollution co-occurs, and may interact, with social factors that also affect brain development, such as early life stress (ELS). Here, we show that severity of ELS and fine particulate air pollut...
Article
Full-text available
Attachment security may be a mechanism by which exposure to early life adversity affects subsequent generations. We used a prospective cohort design to examine this possibility in a convenience sample of 124 women (age = 23–45 years, M = 32.32 [SD = 4.83] years; 57.3% White, 22.6% Asian) who provided self-reports of attachment style during pregnanc...
Preprint
The promise of machine learning has fueled the hope for developing diagnostic tools for psychiatry. Initial studies showed high accuracy for the identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) with resting-state connectivity, but progress has been hampered by the absence of large datasets. Here we used regular machine learning and advanced deep l...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we provide an overview of the rationale, methods, and preliminary results of the four Connectome Studies Related to Human Disease investigating mood and anxiety disorders. The first study, “Dimensional connectomics of anxious misery” (HCP-DAM), characterizes brain-symptom relations of a transdiagnostic sample of anxious misery disorde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Identifying brain differences associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in young people is critical to understanding their development and generating effective approaches to early intervention and prevention. The ENIGMA Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours (ENIGMA-STB) consortium analyzed neuroimaging data harmonized across sites...
Preprint
Objective A major limitation of current suicide research is the lack of power to identify robust correlates of suicidal thoughts or behaviour. Variation in suicide risk assessment instruments used across cohorts may represent a limitation to pooling data in international consortia. Method Here, we examine this issue through two approaches: (i) an e...
Preprint
Parents’ goals influence their interactions with their children. In this pre-registered study, we examined whether directing parents to teach their baby versus learn from their baby influences the extent to which they engage in intrusive caregiving behavior. Mother¬s and their 6-month-old infants (N=66; 32 female infants) participated in a 10-minut...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling bra...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical an...
Article
Background: Suicidal ideation (SI) typically emerges during adolescence but is challenging to predict. Given the potentially lethal consequences of SI, it is important to identify neurobiological and psychosocial variables explaining the severity of SI in adolescents. Methods: In 106 participants (59 female) recruited from the community, we asse...
Article
Depression is a chronic and debilitating condition that often emerges during adolescence, a period of significant brain maturation. Few studies, however, have examined how mechanisms of neuroplasticity, including myelination, are affected by adolescent-onset depression. Here, we used multimodal MR imaging to characterize myelin, indexed by R1, in w...
Article
Background Neurobiological measures may inform our understanding of individual differences in adolescents’ general risk for and resilience to depressive symptoms, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. We tested a developmental model linking variation in amygdala–subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) resting-state connectivity to perceived p...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique period of stress, uncertainty, and adversity that will have significant implications for adolescent mental health. Nevertheless, stress and adversity related to COVID-19 may be more consequential for some adolescents’ mental health than for others. We examined whether heart rate variability (HRV) indicated differen...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. While clinicians and researchers have begun to recognize the importance of considering multidimensional factors in understanding risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) during this developmental period, the role of puberty has been largely ignored. In this review, we contend th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although the COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to worsen anxiety and depression symptoms, we do not understand which behavioral and neural factors may mitigate this impact. To address this gap, we assessed whether adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies affect symptom trajectory during the pandemic. We also examined whether pre-pandemi...
Article
Objectives The aim of the study was to: (1) Identify (early in pregnancy) psychosocial and stress-related factors that predict risk of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB, gestational age <37 weeks); (2) Investigate whether “protective” factors (e.g., happiness/social support) decrease risk; (3) Use the Dhabhar Quick-Assessment Questionnaire for Stress...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We examined the association between breastfeeding difficulties and trajectories of bonding in the first 6 months postpartum.Methods Each month for the first 6 months following birth, 121 mothers of newborn infants (age = 23–45 years, M = 32.31 ± 4.79, 57% White, 23% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 9% Multiracial, 1% Black/African American) were inv...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Suicidal behaviours are a major source of mortality and morbidity among adolescents. Given the maturational changes that occur in cortical and subcortical structures during adolescence, we tested whether atypical brain structural measurements were associated with a history of suicide attempt. Methods: We assessed 3 groups of adolesce...
Preprint
Background: Neurobiological measures may serve as predictive markers of risk for and resilience to depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. We tested a developmental model linking variation in amygdala–subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) resting-state connectivity both to earlier experiences in the family environment and to subsequ...
Article
Full-text available
Animal models of stress and related conditions, including depression, have shown that elevated peripheral levels of inflammatory cytokines have downstream consequences on glutamate (Glu) in the brain. Although studies in human adults with depression have reported evidence of higher inflammation but lower Glu in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC),...
Article
Background Pregnant women may be especially susceptible to negative events (i.e. adversity) related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and negative affective responses to these events (i.e. stress). We examined the latent structure of stress and adversity related to the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women, potential antecedents...
Preprint
To understand how infants become engaged in conversations with their caregivers, we examined who tends to initiate conversations between adults and infants, differences between the features of infant- and adult-initiated conversations, and whether individual differences in how much infants engage in infant- or adult-initiated conversations uniquely...
Article
Childhood adversity and anxiety have been associated with increased risk for internalizing disorders later in life and with a range of brain structural abnormalities. However, few studies have examined the link between harsh parenting practices and brain anatomy, outside of severe maltreatment or psychopathology. Moreover, to our knowledge, there h...
Article
Objective Neuroimaging studies of suicidal behavior have so far been conducted in small samples, prone to biases and false-positive associations, yielding inconsistent results. The ENIGMA-MDD working group aims to address the issues of poor replicability and comparability by coordinating harmonized analyses across neuroimaging studies of major depr...
Article
Full-text available
Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,07...
Article
Full-text available
Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large‐scale studies. In response, we used cross‐sectional data from 17,07...
Article
Full-text available
Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resource...
Article
Full-text available
Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resource...
Article
Full-text available
The transition from suicidal ideas to a suicide act is an important topic of research for the identification of those patients at risk of acting out. We investigated here whether specific brain activity and connectivity measures at rest may be differently associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A large sample of acutely depressed patients...
Preprint
Full-text available
Maternal stress exposure during the COVID-19 pandemic may have transgenerational effects, adversely affecting both the pregnant woman and her offspring. Therefore, there is an urgent need to characterize the coping styles and psychosocial distress of pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic to help mitigate lasting sequalae on bot...
Article
To better understand early brain development in health and disorder, it is critical to accurately segment infant brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Deep learning-based methods have achieved state-of-the-art performance; h owever, one of the major limitations is that the lear...
Article
An increasing prevalence of early childhood adversity has reached epidemic proportions, creating a public health crisis. Rather than focusing only on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as the main lens for understanding early childhood experiences, detailed assessments of a child’s social ecology are required to assess “early life adversity.” The...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of the early environment influences the development of psychopathology. Children who are deprived of sufficient environmental enrichment in infancy may be at higher risk for developing symptoms of psychopathology in toddlerhood. In this study, we investigated the prospective association between naturalistic measures of adult language in...
Article
Full-text available
Suicidal ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are two distinct yet often co-occurring risk factors for suicide deaths in adolescents. Elucidating the neurobiological patterns that specifically characterize SI and NSSI in adolescents is needed to inform the use of these markers in intervention studies and to develop brain-based treatmen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exposure to early life stress (ELS) is alarmingly prevalent and has been linked to the high rates of depression documented in adolescence. Researchers have theorized that ELS may increase adolescents' vulnerability or reactivity to the effects of subsequent stressors, placing them at higher risk for developing symptoms of depression....
Preprint
Internalizing symptoms typically emerge in adolescence and are more prevalent in females than in males; in contrast, externalizing symptoms typically emerge in childhood and are more commonly observed in males. Previous research has implicated aspects of white matter organization, including fractional anisotropy (FA), of cerebral tracts in both int...