Ian Brown

Ian Brown

About

86
Publications
32,304
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,130
Citations

Publications

Publications (86)
Chapter
It would be pleasant to think that democracies will always wake up to their threats - internal and external - and heal themselves in good time before it is too late. [...] Yet, it is not too late to find public policy solutions which can restore information technologies to their original role of facilitators of democracy rather than their undertake...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines how governments can regulate the values of social media companies that themselves regulate disinformation spread on their own platforms. We use ‘disinformation’ to refer to motivated faking of news. We examine the effects that disinformation initiatives (many based on automated decision-making systems using Artificial Intellig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Study co-authored to The Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA), a branch of the European Parliament. The study looked at how governments can regulate the companies (Facebook, Youtube etc.) that themselves regulate disinformation spread on their own platforms. The study was commissioned by STOA because, in the words of the panel's Fi...
Article
We analyze UK and US experiences as they relate to two central net neutrality questions: (1) whether competition serves as a deterrent to the discriminatory treatment of Internet traffic, and (2) whether discrimination creates barriers to application development and innovation. Relying on consumer switching behavior to provide more comprehensive co...
Conference Paper
Normative accounts on health information privacy often highlight the importance of regulating data sharing. Yet, little attention has been paid to how health professionals perform and negotiate privacy practices in highly multidisciplinary, technologically-mediated medical work. This paper examines information privacy practices in two HIV outpatien...
Conference Paper
Although privacy concerns in smart metering have been widely studied, relatively little attention has been given to privacy in bi-directional communication between consumers and service providers. Full bi-directional communication is necessary for incentive-based demand response (DR) protocols, such as demand bidding, in which consumers bid to redu...
Conference Paper
We present a lightweight key management protocol that provides secured device registration and communication in federated sensor networks. The protocol is designed for zero configuration and use in small packet low power wireless networks; protocol messages may fit into single packets. We use the Casper security protocol analyser to examine the beh...
Conference Paper
The Personal Network (PN) is a logical network of interconnected components used by an individual. It encompasses the home network, the Personal Area Network (PAN), and the Vehicular Area Network (VAN) and includes cloud-based services. Previous security analyses, including ITU-T Recommendation X.1111, have focussed on the individual physical netwo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper gives an overview of the privacy issues around the use of link layer identifiers and associated protocols. Whilst the IETF generally specifies IP level protocols it does also address the link layer in protocols such as address resolution, network attachment detection, tunnelling and router redundancy. The indiscriminate broadcast of a de...
Conference Paper
Various research efforts have focussed on the security and privacy concerns arising from the introduction of smart energy meters. However, in addition to smart metering, the ultimate vision of the smart grid includes bi-directional communication between consumers and suppliers to facilitate certain types of Demand Response (DR) strategies such as d...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the feasibility of the adoption of specific, international human rights law-compliant, transatlantic standards on foreign surveillance, in the context of Edward Snowden’s revelations of large-scale surveillance programmes operated by the US National Security Agency (NSA) and selected European intelligence services. The article...
Article
Full-text available
Real-time location tracking of individuals has become relatively easy with the widespread availability of commercial wearable devices that use geographical positioning information to provide location-based services. One application of this technology is to allow parents to monitor the location of their children. This paper investigates child locati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Here we present an introduction to the collaborative research project Being There: Humans and Robots in Public Spaces. In the project we will investigate human-human and human-robot interactions in a sen-sored public space, using automated affect and behavioural analysis.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines how a standards-based pro-competition legal interoperability framework can be applied to ensure future Internet services markets remain open, innovative and competitive. We assess regulatory intervention according to the code solution or solutions used. We analyse the regulatory shaping of “code” standards - the technological en...
Article
Privacy is a much discussed and politically charged topic in contemporary healthcare. Yet, studying the actual privacy practices of healthcare professionals and patients remains extremely challenging. In this paper we reflect on our experiences using qualitative methods in two projects on HIV care, the first researching internet use by a particular...
Article
The US Global Online Freedom Act (GOFA) of 2011 (H.R. 3605) would complement the US administration’s efforts to promote Internet freedom. Sponsored by Representative Christopher Smith, the bill would require the Secretary of State to designate “Internet-restricting countries” each year and to include an assessment of “freedom of electronic informat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internet users are all becoming 'prosumers', sharing videos, news, photos and intimate details of their personal lives online. But consumer protections are yet to catch up with this 'prosumer environment', leaving personal information traded enthusiastically as the 'new oil' of the online economy, while some governments have reacted with knee-jerk...
Article
Full-text available
In this interdisciplinary paper written by a socio-legal scholar and a computer scientist, we explain a novel holistic approach to Internet regulation in the broader public interest. We argue for ‘prosumer law’ and give an example of our proposed solution to the problems of dominant social networking sites. What should prosumer law consist of? We e...
Article
Following requirements in the 1996 EU Energy Efficiency Directive, member states are developing programmes to encourage the installation of “smart” power meters that record much larger quantities of data about power usage than traditional meters. This data can reveal a great deal of information about individual household activity, leading privacy r...
Article
Surveillance technologies gather, process, record, search and distribute information about individuals and their activities, sometimes partially at the instigation of the individual concerned. Privacy technologies restore some level of control over this data to the individual, reducing the ability of third parties to monitor their characteristics a...
Article
The Internet is a highly complex and pervasive information environment. Everyday activities increasingly have an online component, from talking to friends and family, watching TV programs, dating, to interacting with government. To understand and make sense of the complex Internet architecture underpinning these activities, network researchers need...
Article
• The most plausible means for systematic UK government access to private-sector data is through voluntary agreements with the operators of systems and databases. This was how Internet Service Providers' communications records were accessed by police before specific statutory provision was made in the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RI...
Article
Full-text available
Privacy concerns arise in a wide range of context. One of such context is in smart devices used within smart environment. Adaptors of such developments are generating an ever-increasing amount of data; this is often done without their consent or been fully aware of the implications of sharing and using such devices. This paper identifies the implic...
Conference Paper
We show that existing proposed mechanisms for preserving the privacy of reported data values in wireless sensor networks are vul- nerable against a simple and practical form of attack: the set di�erence attack . These attacks are particularly e�ective where a number of sepa- rate applications are running in a given network, but are not limited to t...
Conference Paper
Sensor networks are typically purpose-built, designed to support a single running application. As the demand for applications that can harness the capabilities of a sensor-rich environment increases, and the availability of sensing infrastructure put in place to monitor various quantities soars, there are clear benefits in a model where infrastruct...
Article
With around 2.3 billion users, the Internet has become part of the daily lives of a significant percentage of the global population, including for political debate and activism. While states are responsible for protecting human rights online under international law, companies responsible for Internet infrastructure, products and services can play a...
Article
The most plausible means for systematic UK government access to private-sector data is through voluntary agreements with the operators of systems and databases. This was how Internet Service Providers’ communications records were accessed by police before specific statutory provision was made in the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explain what more is needed to square the circle of Internet regulation in the broader public interest, for all Internet users, not the fortunate few or the even more fortunate and fewer dominant corporations. We argue for ‘prosumer law’ and give an example of our proposed solution to the problems of dominant social networking sit...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Regulating Code This paper summarizes and concludes a multi-year inter-disciplinary project designed to make a significant addition to the Internet governance literature. The challenge is to incorporate earlier analyses, but address the complex interplay of the most intractable of future Internet regulatory conundra, in which fundamen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Online advertising is currently a rich source of revenue for many Internet giants. With the ever-increasing number of smart phones, there is a fertile market for personalised and localised advertising. A key benefit of using mobile phones is to take advantage of the significant amount of information on phones – such as locations of interest to the...
Article
The recent events in the Middle East and North Africa have demonstrated the potential of online social media as a tool of political activism, as well as the counter-measures this has provoked from repressive regimes. This potential, and State responses so far, raise significant human rights issues. In this Issue Paper for the Council of Europe’s Co...
Article
The 2006 Data Retention Directive requires EU-based Internet Service Providers to store information on customers and their online communications. The Directive is being reviewed by the European Commission, and has been criticised in a number of recent national constitutional court judgments due to its impact on privacy. It is now being considered b...
Article
Full-text available
his article describes the development of a new virtual research tool for the Arts and Humanities community. The E-Curator project led by Museums and Collections at University College London took a practical, multidisciplinary approach to traceable storage and transmission of three-dimensional (3D) laser scan data sets. The objective was to establis...
Article
What social, technical, economic and political developments played a role in constituting a field, in which the idea of ‘Internet Governance’ could thrive? What are the events, stories and ideas that preceded and made possible today’s discussions about governance on, of and through the Internet? In this chapter, we take a closer look at the prehist...
Chapter
This paper is an exploration of the relational and spatial dynamics of privacy in the context of HIV-related information seeking. It is a study of how a specific group of people, women living with HIV in London, go about “doing privacy” when seeking information in relation to their health. It is commonplace to stress the salience of adopting a cont...
Article
Smyth discusses the recent report from the Academy of Medical Sciences on research regulation.1 2 The expert group’s reliance on anonymity to protect participants in research was based on assumptions about key NHS patient data systems that may no longer be justified in an era of ubiquitous data generation and sharing. The report also pays insuffici...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the legality of the use of electronic patient records in the NHS for research without explicit patient consent under UK and EU law, with particular reference to the adequacy of the information provided to patients and the increasing difficulties of achieving de-identification. In section II, we describe the main NHS databases...
Article
This report is part of a broader OECD study into Future Global Shocks, examples of which could include a further failure of the global financial system and large-scale pandemics. The authors have concluded that very few single cyber-related events have the capacity to cause a global shock. Governments nevertheless need to make detailed preparations...
Article
A stronger legal and regulatory environment, high profile privacy failures, and increasing public concerns build the case for enterprises to take privacy seriously. For those new to the subject, this paper describes the harms that privacy failures can lead to, and the reasons why privacy issues must be addressed. Harm may happen to individuals, to...
Article
Much of the legal debate over privacy is based around abstract notions from legal philosophy concerning fundamental rights. However, there is a growing body of evidence from the social sciences regarding privacy-related individual and institutional behaviour. Some of these results are counterintuitive, and provide key insights into the effectivenes...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental disagreement in the Future Internet debate concerns architecture design and value. Should an architecture incorporate inherent values that have been widely accepted through societal debate or be adaptable once deployed to a wider range of stakeholder values put forward within an evolving societal context? This disagreement is reflecte...
Article
We introduce MobiAd; a scalable, location-aware, personalised and private advertising system for mobile platforms. Advertising is the driving force behind many websites and service providers on the Internet. With the ever-increasing number of smart phones, there is a fertile market for personalised and localised advertising. They key benefit of usi...
Article
Full-text available
Three significant difficulties in the study of privacy are minimising the priming of enhanced privacy sensitive responses; studying privacy sensitive groups and topics; and studying privacy behaviours rather than attitudes. In this article we analyse these challenges ethnographically using two empirical studies on technology development and use in...
Article
Full-text available
We examine privacy-preserving protocols in the context of delay-tolerant networks, with particular application in sparsely-connected environments where traffic is routed via predictable routes. We con-sider potential threats and attacker models against the expected usage of such networks, and explore a range of technologies that aim to sup-port pri...
Article
The plunging cost of storing, transmitting and processing personal data mean that little technological incentive remains for system designers to minimise the collection of personal data. Information can be transferred around the world at low cost, and duplicated across databases and portable computing devices. Ongoing increases in processing power...
Article
Governments have recently been looking to deputise ISPs so as to regulate cyberspace more firmly. In particular, they have encouraged ISPs to take actions to address online copyright infringement, the online exchange of images of child abuse and the use of the Internet to promote terrorism. While these schemes are more flexible and less burdensome...
Article
The purpose of the study was to identify the challenges for the protection of personal data produced by current social and technical phenomena such as the Internet, globalisation, the increasing ubiquity of personal data and personal data collection, the increasing power and capacity of computers and other data-processing devices, special new techn...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the challenges to information security from social networking websites and the new business models they represent. The success of this new generation of data-intensive virtual space enterprises raises heightened concerns about information security. It is already known that identity thieves are making extensive use of personal...
Article
Full-text available
The article describe a project which combines 3D colour laser scanning and e-Science technologies for capturing and sharing very large 3D scans and datasets about museum artefacts in a secure computing environment.
Article
Full-text available
Information systems are increasingly important to the efficient operation of government, corporations and society in general. With that importance has come an increasing risk of information security breaches, compounded by systems’ networked nature. That makes effective information security a public policy issue of far broader impact than technical...
Article
Full-text available
It is over a decade since the signing of the World Intellectual Property Organization's "Internet treaties". These treaties' "anti-circumvention" rules ban the creation, distribution or use of tools that bypass Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) even for otherwise legal purposes. However, while these legal changes have not stopped the widespr...
Article
Telecommunications and computing technologies have seen radical change over the last decade. The mainstream adoption of e-mail, mobile telephones and the Web and the growing use of peer-to-peer Voice over IP telephony have significantly altered the way we communicate. Massive increases in computing and data storage capability have given states new...
Article
The future of both law and technology will require reconciling users' desire to self-disclose information with their simultaneous desire that this information be protected. Security of personal information and user privacy are potentially irreconcilable with the conflicting set of user preferences regarding information sharing behaviours and the co...
Article
Full-text available
As the Internet has become a mainstream communications mechanism, law enforcement and intelligence agencies have developed new surveillance capabilities and been given new legal powers to monitor its users. These capabilities have been particularly targeted toward terrorism suspects and organisations, which have been observed to use the Internet fo...
Article
Full-text available
This Phase 2 Report is a deliverable element of the study being conducted by a team led by RAND Europe into 'Options for and Effectiveness of Internet Self- and Co-Regulation'. The main objective of the study is to assist the Commission in development of a coherent and effective approach to future self- and co-regulation initiatives in the Informat...
Conference Paper
8 – 11 September 2008
Conference Paper
This paper describes a practical multidisciplinary approach to the traceable storage and transmission of 3D colour scan datasets using a combination of state of the art colour laser scanning technology, an e-Science developed data storage and retrieval solution (SRB) and an internet capable 3D visualisation tool which is being iteratively designed...
Article
Full-text available
interests, confidence in accuracy and reliability of information, vulnerability, and reciprocity, among other
Conference Paper
Realising the importance of digital technologies and new interdisciplinary possibilities, the E-curator project has been undertaken by UCL Museums and Collections with the goal of applying two state of the art digital technologies: 3D colour laser scanning and e-Science technologies. This project captures and shares very large three-dimensional sca...
Article
This paper describes a practical multidisciplinary approach to the traceable storage and transmission of 3D colour scan datasets using a combination of state of the art colour laser scanning technology, an e-Science developed data storage and retrieval solution (SRB) and an internet capable 3D visualisation tool which is being iteratively designed...
Article
Full-text available
Net Neutrality' is a very heated and contested United States policy principle regarding access for content providers to the Internet end-user, and potential discrimination in that access where the end-user's ISP (or another ISP) blocks that access in part or whole. The suggestion is that the problem can be resolved by either introducing greater com...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes in detail the policy background, the systems that are being built, the problems with them, and the legal situation in the UK. An appendix looks at Europe, and examines in particular detail how France and Germany have dealt with these issues. Our report concludes with three suggested regulatory action strategies for the Commiss...
Article
Full-text available
Countries around the world have since 1996 updated copyright laws to prohibit the circumvention of "Technological Protection Measures", technologies that restrict the use of copyright works with the aim of reducing infringement and enforcing contractual restrictions. This article traces the legislative and treaty history that lies behind these new...
Conference Paper
We outline a scheme by which encrypted multicast audiovisual data may be watermarked by lightweight active network components in the multicast tree. Every recipient receives a slightly different version of the marked data, allowing those who illegally re-sell that data to be traced. Groups of cheating users or multicast routers can also be traced....
Article
Full-text available
Article
Following the events of September 11th, the leaders of developednations have moved quickly to establish new agreements forinternational security cooperation. Many of these agreements arebeing forged secretively, and with little democratic oversight.This session discusses the new era of control and surveillance thathas arisen since that tragic day,...
Article
We outline a scheme by which encrypted multicast audiovisual data may be watermarked by lightweight active network components in the multicast tree. Every recipient receives a slightly different version of the marked data, allowing those who illegally re-sell that data to be traced. Groups of cheating users or multicast routers can also be traced....
Article
New Internet applications and new releases of existing Internet applications appear with bewildering rapidity. Adding functionality to such applications can therefore be a time-consuming process. By contrast, Internet protocols are significantly less volatile. In some circumstances, the additional functionality can be provided by ‘tapping into’ the...
Article
Full-text available
: This experiment investigated the effect the structure of a WWW document has on the amount of information retained by a reader. Three structures common on the Internet were tested: one long page; a table of contents leading to individual sections; and short sections of text on separate pages with revision questions. Participants read information s...
Article
Full-text available
In July 1998, in response to recommendations by Sir Richard Scott in his Report of the Inquiry into the Export of Defence Equipment and Dual-Use Goods to Iraq and Related Prosecutions, the Department of Trade and Industry published a White Paper on Strategic Export Controls. One of the proposals in the White Paper is that existing controls on the e...
Article
This article describes a novelway to use the World WideWeb for learning. Rather thansimply being provided withinformation, students are askedto develop and review suchmaterial themselves. An emaillist is used to facilitatediscussion. After peer review,the material becomes part of anonline course hypertext. Theprocess encourages students todevelop t...
Article
Full-text available
As the web continues to evolve, its users have gone from only consuming content to actually producing it, resulting in systems with highly dynamic, user-generated content that cannot be easily modelled with existing tools. In this paper we investigate two such systems, digg and reddit, derive a general model for them, and show how this model can be...

Network

Cited By