Ian T. Adams

Ian T. Adams
University of South Carolina | USC

Doctor of Philosophy

About

48
Publications
11,021
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
272
Citations
Introduction
Ian T. Adams is an incoming Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice at the University of South Carolina. He researches at the nexus of policing, policy, and technology, with a specific interest in body-worn cameras. Dr. Adams has over twenty peer-reviewed publications on these and related topics, and his work has been published in the top general interest journals of both criminal justice and public administration.
Additional affiliations
July 2004 - November 2016
Policing
Position
  • Law Enforcement Officer
Education
August 2017 - May 2021
University of Utah
Field of study
  • Political Science
July 2015 - August 2017
University of Utah
Field of study
  • Public Administration

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Police departments in the United States are rapidly adopting body-worn cameras (BWCs). To date, no study has investigated the effects of BWCs on police officers themselves, despite evidence suggesting negative effects of electronic performance monitoring on employee well-being. Police officers already experience higher levels of burnout than other...
Article
How do public expectations of police use-of-force align with the strict professional and legal guidelines under which police officers train and operate? This is a largely unexamined but salient question in the use-of-force literature and is important given the ongoing public discourse regarding police use-of-force, community standards, and perceive...
Article
Administrative discretion can range from benign to troubling, and law enforcement officers possess the power to use physical violence in the discharge of their duties. Body‐worn cameras (BWCs) are a workplace surveillance technology intended to monitor officer behavior in the field, but officers exercise discretion over whether or not to activate t...
Article
Research Summary: We examine changes in help‐seeking for domestic violence (DV) in seven U.S. cities during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Using Bayesian structural time‐series modeling with daily data to construct a synthetic counterfactual, we test whether calls to police and/or emergency hotlines varied in 2020 as people stayed home due to COVID‐19. Acr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several of the largest U.S. police departments reported a sharp increase in officer resignations following massive public protests directed at policing in the summer of 2020. Yet, to date, no study has rigorously assessed the impact of the George Floyd protests on police resignations. We fill this void using 60 months of employment data from a larg...
Article
Full-text available
Most use-of-force policies utilized by U.S. police agencies make fundamental ordinal assumptions about officers’ force responses to subject resistance. These policies consist of varying levels of force and resistance along an ordinally ranked continuum of severity. We empirically tested the ordinal assumptions that are ubiquitous to police use-of-f...
Article
Several of the largest U.S. police departments reported a sharp increase in officer resignations following massive public protests directed at policing in the summer of 2020. Yet, to date, no study has rigorously assessed the impact of the George Floyd protests on police resignations. We fill this void using 60 months of employment data from a larg...
Article
Recent experimental results suggest that when police officers smile, the public will react with enhanced perceptions of those officers. However, emotional labor theory suggests that organizationally mandated emotional displays such as smiling exact costs to the individual worker. We use data from a 2020 national survey to test effects of emotional...
Article
Full-text available
The initial interaction between rape victims and police officers affects how cases progress through the criminal justice system. In one US state capitol, the police agency determined its initial response to rape victims was sub-par. Victim engagement was low, and officer-written reports often endorsed negative stereotypes about rape victims. A four...
Preprint
Full-text available
The initial interaction between rape victims and police affects how cases progress through the criminal justice system. In one US state capitol, the police agency determined its initial response to rape victims was sub-par. Victim engagement was low, and officer-written reports often endorsed negative stereotypes about rape victims. A four-hour tra...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 has created tremendous operational difficulties for law enforcement agencies, with substantial portions of their staff quarantined for either exposure or infection. With the rollout of a vaccine beginning in early 2021, there is hoped for relief on the horizon. However, to date, no study has reported the vaccine’s effect on infection rates...
Article
The present study employs a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effects of a mandatory sexual assault kit (SAK) testing policy on rape arrests in a large western US jurisdiction. We use a Bayesian structural time-series model and monthly data on arrests for rape from 2010 through 2019. In the post-implementation period, we observed a downward...
Chapter
The initial interaction between rape victims and police can affect how these cases progress through the criminal justice system. In one US state capitol, the police agency determined its initial response to rape victims was less effective than desired. Victim retention was low, and officer written reports were found to endorse negative stereotypes...
Experiment Findings
In 2014, a jurisdiction's police department came under public criticism regarding past non-testing of sexual assault kits (SAKs) for sexual assault investigations. From 2004 through 2013, approximately 77% of all SAKs received by this jurisdiction were never submitted to a crime laboratory for processing. As a result, a city ordinance was passed, r...
Preprint
Recent experimental results suggest that when police officers smile, the public will react with unliterally-enhanced perceptions of those officers. The claim is that smiling is costless. In this paper, we test that claim. We use data from surveys in 2016, 2018, and 2020 to test effects of emotional labor-display rules, surface acting, and deep acti...
Chapter
This chapter reports the results of a dual test on the subscales of burnout –emotional exhaustion and depersonalization – for civilian and sworn employees in a large US correctional agency. The lone previous study to compare burnout in civilian and sworn law enforcement employees (McCarty & Skogan, 2013) found the levels and predictors of burnout w...
Preprint
Administrative discretion can range from benign to troubling, and law enforcement officers possess the power to use physical violence in the discharge of their duties. Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are a workplace surveillance technology intended to monitor officer behavior in the field, but officers exercise discretion over whether or not to activate t...
Preprint
The present study employs a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effects of a mandatory sexual assault kit (SAK) testing policy on rape arrests in a large western US jurisdiction. We use a Bayesian structural time-series model and monthly data on arrests for rape from 2010 through 2019. In the post-implementation period, we observed a downward...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Previous studies of emergency dispatch personnel have established high levels of emotional labor, burnout, and turnover intention among this population of first responders. This study is the first to investigate the effect of emergency dispatch script protocols on workplace outcomes of burnout and turnover intention. Hypotheses: The s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: This study introduces emotional labor into an analysis of multiple dimensions of burnout in sworn and civilian employees across three law enforcement agencies. Design: Using data from a survey of law enforcement employees in a metropolitan police department, a full-service sheriff’s department, and a state corrections agency located in th...
Article
Purpose: This study introduces emotional labor into an analysis of multiple dimensions of burnout in sworn and civilian employees across three law enforcement agencies. Design/methodology/approach: Using data from a survey of law enforcement employees in a metropolitan police department, a full-service sheriff's department, and a state correction...
Preprint
This study focuses on two main research questions: What attitudes and/or demographics predict individuals’ attitudes toward a punitive US criminal court system? Moreover, can a change in an attitude or demographic category across time help explain the less-punitive shift in public opinion that began in 1996? These questions are examined by using Ra...
Article
Using data from one urban police department in the United States, this study gauges the effects of individual officer characteristics on use-of-force. Consistent with prior research, we find Emotional Exhaustion to be a negative correlate to use-of-force: Emotionally-exhausted officers avoid engaging with others. However, unlike previous research,...
Preprint
Most use-of-force policies in U.S. police departments make fundamental ordinal assumptions about officers’ force responses to subject resistance. These policies consist of varying levels of force and resistance along an ordinally-ranked continuum of severity. The exact formulation of these continua varies widely, however, and little research has be...
Chapter
Global public administration represents an under-studied current within public administration scholarship, and the experiences of those who work within organizations which span international boundaries remain under studied as well. As challenges become increasingly global in nature—migration, environmental degradation, and cybersecurity threats—so...
Chapter
The story of postwar government in the UK is a story of serial reform. From a twentieth-century welfare state, to New Public Management reforms, to New Labour and its reliance on nonprofits, to the Brexit era, the nation has sought one system after another as a means to provide efficient, effective services in a way that resonates with a difficult-...
Chapter
The wide range of policies demanding multinational attention and the problems that brought them about include the globalization of financial markets, global climate change, internal and cross-border conflicts displacing tens of millions of people (UNHCR 2018), and international trade, among others. Understanding the effects of culture on human beha...
Article
Full-text available
Highlights Machine learning-based textual analysis is a viable tool for police survey research Analyzing large numbers of police free-text responses provides more nuanced understanding of police perceptions of the public Officers' attention to professionalism guards against de-policing, while attention to perceived unfair criticism increases it...
Article
Ferguson’s book provides an excellent review of the sheer breadth of big data’s entry into policing, as well as some depth through the case studies he presents. When combined with the theory and research experience of public administration scholars—long practiced at unpicking claims of neutrality in public service—The Rise of Big Data Policing is a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract • Purpose: To extract latent topic models from open-ended survey responses, and test the relationship between the resulting models and police officers' motivation to engage in proactive policing. • Methods: The study relies on a corpus of open-ended responses from 396 police officers collected in a survey. Using structural topic modeling,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Please see updated preprint (8/13/2019): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335158005_The_Rhetoric_of_De-Policing_Evaluating_Open-Ended_Survey_Responses_from_Police_Officers_with_Machine_Learning-Based_Structural_Topic_Modeling Purpose: To extract latent topic models from open-ended survey responses, and test the relationship between the res...
Article
Body-worn cameras (BWCs) are the latest and perhaps most tangible answer to complex social questions regarding the use of force, state legitimacy, and the proper role of police in a liberal democracy. How do officers experience heightened monitoring? This article pursues two objectives via two studies. In the first study, we establish a valid and r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Law enforcement agencies in the United States take on a wide variety of organizational structures, but all rely upon the non-sworn employees who support the agencies’ missions. The experience of non-sworn law enforcement personnel is unremarked upon in both the emotional labor and criminal justice literature, despite accounting for up to 46% of emp...
Preprint
Full-text available
How do public expectations of police use-of-force align with the strict professional and legal guidelines under which police officers train and operate? This is a largely unexamined but salient question in the use-of-force literature, and is important given the ongoing public discourse regarding police use-of-force, community standards, and perceiv...
Article
Among the more recognizable programs related to natural and sustainable food is the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program. Although the robustness of the organic food market is difficult to contest, many debate the extent to which U.S. organic policy outcomes adequately serve consumers and the organic agriculture produc...
Article
In the current study, we examine prosecutorial decisions that affect the certainty, celerity, and severity of punishment at the county level in the state of Florida. Leveraging a unique data set, we investigate the effect of the rate at which prosecuting agencies within each county filed formal charges against offenders (certainty), the swiftness o...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to explore emotional labour in the context of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using word data from interviews of five NGO directors on their recruitment criteria when hiring staff. We analyse interview transcripts using semiotic clustering. First-order concepts are organised into second-order themes which are summ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to explore emotional labour in the context of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using word data from interviews of five NGO directors on their recruitment criteria when hiring staff. We analyse interview transcripts using semiotic clustering. First-order concepts are organised into second-order themes which are summ...
Article
Emotional labor is the effort to express job-appropriate emotions and/or suppress inappropriate emotions. The effort manifests in interpersonal interactions, whether face to face or voice to voice, and can increase stress and burnout. Most research in emotional labor is based on North American samples. Could public servants in different cultures ex...
Preprint
The prosecutor inhabits a unique, influential place in the American criminal justice system. Yet, there is inadequate research evaluating the prosecutor’s role in deterring crime, a vital goal of the criminal justice system. In the current study, we address this gap by examining prosecutorial decisions that affect the certainty, celerity, and sever...
Preprint
Body-worn cameras are the latest proposed technological solution to complex social questions regarding use of force, state legitimacy, and the proper role of police in a liberal democracy. This paper pursues two objectives. First, the establishment of a valid and reliable survey scale to measure police officer perceptions of the risks posed to them...
Article
As the face of government, street-level bureaucrats interact with the citizenry and engage in emotional labor. Here we argue that public servants risk becoming alienated due to the unsupported emotional labor demands of their jobs. Alienated public servants can, in turn, alienate citizens from their government via emotional contagion, and because t...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presentation PDF for Law and Society Conference, presented June 7, 2018
Article
The growing use of body-worn cameras (BWCs) in law enforcement poses ethical and privacy threats to be considered by policy makers. Law enforcement adoption of surveillance technology often outpaces the laws and regulations that would ensure their appropriate use, and the negative consequences are rarely anticipated, particularly as they relate to...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (8)