Iain Richard Spears

Iain Richard Spears
Newcastle University | NCL · Faculty of Medical Sciences

B.Eng. Ph.D

About

76
Publications
81,612
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,964
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 1999 - present
Teesside University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Sport-related technology projects
September 1997 - May 1999
Technische Universität Hamburg
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 1991 - October 1997
University of Liverpool
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Horizontal jumps are discrete, fast, over-ground movements requiring coordination of the centre of mass (CoM) and base of support and are routinely assessed in sports settings. There is currently no biomechanics-based system to aid in their quick and objective large-scale assessment. We describe a practical system combining a single low-cost depth-...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To quantify changes in differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) across a 2-wk repeated-sprint-training intervention that improved high-intensity intermittent-running ability and linear speed of semiprofessional soccer players. Methods: Thirteen players completed 3 (sessions 1-3) or 4 (sessions 4-6) sets of 7 sprints (group 1 [n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Repeated-sprint training (RST) has the potential to be an effective multi-component training method for the physical development of team-sports players. Improvements in speed, power and aerobic fitness have previously been reported following RST. However, it is possible that the specific protocol used, modulates training responses and subsequent ad...
Conference Paper
Differences exist between coach prescribed and player reported sessional perceived exertion (Brink et al., 2014; Kraft et al., 2018), yet it is not clear whether this is true for training sessions prescribed via differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE). Therefore, our aim was to compare coach prescribed and player reported dRPE. Following...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation briefly reports the results of a principal component analysis on an Athlete Readiness to Train (ART) questionnaire examining its factor structure in female youth soccer.
Article
Full-text available
Menthol mouth-swilling has been shown to improve performance across differing exercise modalities, yet no work has been conducted to ascertain the preferred concentration of menthol within a swill. Colour has also been shown to influence psychophysiological outcomes, and may influence the efficacy of ergogenic aids. We conducted two experiments: on...
Article
Richardson, MC, Murphy, S, Macpherson, T, English, B, Spears, I, and Chesterton, P. Effect of sand on knee load during a single-leg jump task: implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in landing strategies and subsequent j...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to compare differentiated training loads (TL) between fitness responders and non-responders to an eight-week pre-season training period in a squad of thirty-five professional rugby union players. Differential TL were calculated by multiplying player’s perceptions of breathlessness (sRPE-B) and leg muscle exertion (sRPE-L) with training dur...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sport science can play a critical role in reducing health inequalities. The inverse relationship between life expectancy, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status could be addressed by performing high-intensity training (HIT), delivered in a class salient and accessible approach. Commercially available exergames have shown e...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. Objectives: We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and externa...
Article
Full-text available
1) Background: Differential RPE (dRPE) separates scores for breathlessness (RPE-B), leg muscle exertion (RPE-L) and technical/cognitive exertion (RPE-T). Limited information for dRPE is available in soccer match play, yet these measurements may help inform practitioners training and recovery strategies. This preliminary study investigated the effec...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess studies which have investigated cooling methodologies, their timing and effects, on endurance exercise performance in trained athletes (Category 3; VO2max ≥ 55 mL·kg·min−1) in hot environmental conditions (≥28 °C). Meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of timings and methods of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Musculoskeletal injuries and attrition incurred during basic military training are a significant socioeconomic burden across many Defence Forces. In order to plan an injury prevention strategy, the purpose of this study was to quantify the regiment-specific musculoskeletal injury patterns and training outcomes. Methods This was a prospe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The increasing availability of motion-sensing Internet-enabled products is currently shaping the direction of user-experience research. Based on a framework of subjective well-being, and an extended person-artefact-task model, the primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between in situ product movements and user-experience....
Article
Objectives: To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) to team-sport training. Design: Single cohort, observational study. Methods: Twenty-nine professional rugby union players were monitored over a six-week intensified training period. Training sessions were classified as: High-Intensity Intervals (HIT),...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to repeatedly perform sprints has traditionally been viewed as a key performance measure in team-sports and the relationship between 'repeated-sprint ability' (RSA) and performance has been explored extensively. However, when reviewing the repeated-sprint profile of team-sports match-play it appears that the occurrence of repeated-sprin...
Article
To investigate the sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) as measures of internal load. Twenty-two, male, university soccer players performed two maximal incremental exercise protocols (Cycle, Treadmill) on separate days. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration (B[La]pea...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently no suitable kinematic system for a large-scale prospective trial assessing risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. A practical kinematic system is described which involves the use of a single low-cost depth-sensing camera for the real-time measurement of 3-dimensional linear and angular pelvic and trunk range-of-movement (ROM)...
Article
Full-text available
Musculoskeletal injuries during initial military training are a significant medical problem facing military organisations globally. In order to develop an injury management programme, this study aims to quantify the incidence and rehabilitation times for injury specific diagnoses. This was a prospective follow-up study of musculoskeletal injuries i...
Article
Full-text available
Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Males have a lower life expectancy and a higher morbidity than females. Such trends are exacerbated in regions of social deprivation yet little is known on how best to intervene in this male population. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a purpose-built active video game (AVG) intervention i...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To quantify the effects of a 12-wk isolated core-training program on 50-m front-crawl swim time and measures of core musculature functionally relevant to swimming. Methods: Twenty national-level junior swimmers (10 male and 10 female, 16±1 y, 171±5 cm, 63±4 kg) participated in the study. Group allocation (intervention [n=10], control [n...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a new approach to modelling the time course of user-experience (UX). Flexibility in modelling is essential: to select or develop UX models based on the outcome variables that are of interest in terms of explanation or prediction. At the same time, there is potential for (partial) re-using UX models across products and generalisa...
Article
Full-text available
Gait retraining, comprising bio-feedback and/or an exercise intervention, might reduce the risk of musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to examine the effect of a gait retraining program on medial tibial stress syndrome incidence during a 26 week basic military training regimen. A total of 450 British Army recruits volunteered. On the basis...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Based on the hypothetical association between decreased hip strength and patellofemoral pain (PFP) symptom severity, selective hip and core strengthening rehabilitation programs are frequently utilized to treat affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare the hip strength, hip kinematics, symptom severity and function...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the effect of an 8-wk isolated core training program on selected ball and club parameters during the golf swing and also the variability of these measures. Methods: Thirty-six club-level golfers were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 18) or control (n =18) group. The exercise group participated in an 8-w...
Article
Full-text available
One of the major roles of a sports biomechanist or coach is to assess the movement patterns within sports performances. Movements can be analysed to enhance an individual's technique in terms of efficiency or to provide technical advantage. This paper aims to highlight the different measurement techniques available for the biomechanist to assess th...
Article
Full-text available
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common injury in active populations and has been suggested to be a result of both biomechanical and lifestyle factors. The main aim of this study was to determine prospectively whether gait biomechanics and lifestyle factors can be used as a predictor of MTSS development. British infantry male recruits (n=4...
Article
Full-text available
Does virtual reality (VR) represent a useful platform for teaching real-world motor skills? In domains such as sport and dance, this question has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two variations of real-time VR feedback on the learning of a complex dance movement. Novice participants (n == 30) attemp...
Article
Core strengthening and stability exercises are fundamental for any conditioning training program. Although surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to quantify muscle activity there is a lack of research using this method to investigate the core musculature and core stability. Two types of data reduction are commonly used for sEMG; peak and average...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction of shoulder pads has coincided with a rise in shoulder impact injuries in the game of rugby. In this study, the effect of shoulder pads on impact force attenuation was quantified. Four different commercially available shoulder pads were tested for material properties. Hard and soft objects were dropped from predetermined heights on...
Article
Full-text available
This pilot study explored whether the redirection of stress through trabeculae within morphologically constrained capitates provides information about habitual/positional behaviours unavailable from the study of external morphology alone. To assess this possibility, an experimental finite element approach was taken, whereby no attempt was made to r...
Article
Background: Achieving stability at the site of a femoral neck fracture is an important factor for callus formation in the postoperative period. For minimally displaced fractures, cannulated screws are commonly used in North-East England. However, the placement of the screws currently is based on the surgeon's choice. The purpose of this study was t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The visual-spatial aspects of movement have been proposed to dominate inter-limb stability over constraints inherent in the motor system (see Mechsner, et al., 2001). The underlying principles of within-person bimanual movements are also evident during interpersonal coordination (Schmidt et al., 1990). In both studies coordination was an emergent,...
Article
Background: It is important that axial and shear movements can be measured when determining the stability of a femoral neck fracture. Axial movement has been reported as being beneficial to bone healing, while shear movement is inhibitory to early callus formation. Screw tightening presently is performed at the surgeon's own choice, with no known l...
Article
Full-text available
This paper details the design, development, and testing of virtual augmented exercise (VAE) gaming for older adults. Three versions of an underwater VAE environment were tested with a sample of 22 healthy adults aged 50 or over. Participants strongly preferred VAE to traditional physical exercise, and adherence rate was 100%. The findings suggest t...
Article
Full-text available
Core stability and core strength have been subject to research since the early 1980s. Research has highlighted benefits of training these processes for people with back pain and for carrying out everyday activities. However, less research has been performed on the benefits of core training for elite athletes and how this training should be carried...
Article
Full-text available
Confinement of the heel due to the counter of the shoe is believed to influence heel pad biomechanics. Using a two-dimensional finite element model of the heel pad and shoe during a simulation of static standing, the aim of this study was to quantify the potential effect of confinement on internal heel pad stress. Non-weightbearing MRI and weightbe...
Article
Full-text available
Trabeculae form the internal bony mesh work and provide strength to the bone; interconnectivity, overall density, and trabecular thickness are important measures of the integrity of the internal architecture. Such strength is achieved only gradually during ontogeny, whereby an increase in trabecular thickness precedes an increase in mineralization....
Article
Heel-pad stiffness is an important parameter in clinical assessments of the lower limb and is usually quantified by the slope of the force-deformation curve. However, the data produced is affected by the geometry of the heel, thus making inferences about tissue behaviour difficult. With the use of finite element analysis the aim of this study is to...
Article
High internal stress is considered to be a possible cause of heel-pad problems. External biomechanical measurements are used to attempt to understand the causes of heel pain. However, internal stress cannot be measured experimentally. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between magnitude of force, time to peak forc...
Article
Full-text available
Australopithecus anamensis is the stem species of all later hominins and exhibits the suite of characters traditionally associated with hominins, i.e., bipedal locomotion when on the ground, canine reduction, and thick-enameled teeth. The functional consequences of its thick enamel are, however, unclear. Without appropriate structural reinforcement...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of prisms to effectively dissipate contact stress at the surface will influence wear rates in teeth. The aim of this investigation was to begin to quantify the effect of prism orientation on surface stresses. Seven finite element models of enamel microstructure were created, each model differing in the angulation of prism orientation wi...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of information on the conservative treatment of lower leg pain induced by running. In this study, non-invasive treatment based on a change of footwear was applied to two patients, and, on the basis of pain scale questionnaires, deemed successful.
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive internal stress in the perineum has been associated with soft-tissue trauma in bicyclists. Using an engineering approach, the purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of compression exerted in the perineum for a range of saddle widths and orientations. Computer tomography was used to create a three-dimensional voxel-based finite...
Article
Full-text available
No Paleoanthropological studies often center on teeth, not only because these elements are commonly preserved in the fossil record, but because they apparently contain a wealth of information with regard to development, phylogeny, and function. However, despite a plethora of studies, somefundamental problems are still unresolved. For example, while...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been recognised that the enamel microstructure may hold important information with regards to phylogeny and masticatory biomechanics. Further, the biophysical and adaptive processes involved in enamel formation and in the creation of different microstructures are poorly understood. This lack of understanding is in part due to technical...
Article
Mouthguards protect the tooth-bone complex from impact loads that occur during sporting activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying mouthguard thickness and stiffness on the magnitude of tensile stresses in the tooth-bone-complex. A two-dimensional, plane stress, finite element representation of a central maxillary inci...
Article
Achieving stability is a prerequisite for allowing bone to grow into the porous surface of non-cemented acetabular cups. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of interfacial characteristics on relative cyclical micromotion between cup and bone during gait in the immediate postoperative phase. The technique used is finite element anal...
Article
Interfacial gaps and relative micromotions during activities are widely believed to restrict the boney in-growth process of non-cemented acetabular cups. Using finite element modeling of the cup-bone system, relative micromotions and interfacial gaps are calculated for walking slow, normal and fast and for climbing upstairs, downstairs and standing...
Article
The formation of gaps in the polar region of acetabular cups is seen as a drawback of press-fit fixation of non-cemented acetabular cups. Recent findings indicate a link between long-term polar gaps and the gaps present directly after implantation. In this study the process of press-fitting is simulated with a linear-elastic two-dimensional axisymm...
Article
ERRATUM: Macho GA and Spears IR. 1999. Effects of Loading on the Biomechanical Behavior of Molars of Homo, Pan, and Pongo. Am J Phys Anthropol 109:211-227. The correct title of the article is given above. The word "biochemical" should be read as "biomechanical."
Article
Full-text available
In a previous study, we found systematic differences in the biomechanical behavior of modern human molars using finite element stress analyses (FESA), which led us to propose that molars are adapted to differently-directed loads depending on their position within the mouth (Spears and Macho [1998] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:467-482). While the FES...
Article
Full-text available
In a previous study, we found systematic differences in the biomechanical behavior of modern human molars using finite element stress analyses (FESA), which led us to propose that molars are adapted to differently-directed loads depending on their position within the mouth (Spears and Macho [1998] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:467–482 ). While the FE...
Article
The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of tensile stress under the conditions representative of tooth-food contact in a restored posterior tooth. The ideal stiffness for a bonded restoration will be predicted. A two-dimensional plane-strain finite element representation of a restored first maxillary molar is created. The restoration wi...
Article
Full-text available
Finite-element models of 29 intact molars were created and subjected to cleavage-type loads in order to assess differences in the biomechanical behaviour of molars. A simulated food particle, which was one-third the size of the intercuspal distance and had the properties of a Mezzettia seed, was pushed onto the occlusal basin of these models at var...