Iain James Gordon

Iain James Gordon
Australian National University | ANU · Fenner School of Environment & Society

BSc, PhD, DSc

About

444
Publications
99,678
Reads
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15,174
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2019 - present
Central Queensland University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2019 - present
Australian National University
Position
  • Fellow
September 2015 - October 2019
James Cook University
Position
  • Deputy Vice Chancellor - Tropical Environments & Societies
Education
October 1981 - May 1986
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1977 - June 1981
University of Aberdeen
Field of study
  • Zoology
September 1969 - June 1977
Robert Gordon's College
Field of study

Publications

Publications (444)
Article
Full-text available
Male and female reproductive behaviour is typically synchronised. In species such as those in the family Cervidae , reproductive timing is often cued by photoperiod, although in females, it can be dependent on body condition. When a species is introduced to a novel environment, the environment changes, or responses of the sexes to such cues differ,...
Article
Full-text available
Reintroduction biology is a key tool for mitigating the catastrophic reduction in species’ ranges, caused by humans over the last 500 years. To assess where reintroduction biology scientific research is targeted, we used text-analysis methods to extract taxonomic and geographic mentions from animal reintroduction-focused articles published between...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive predators are responsible for declines in many animal species across the globe. To redress these declines, conservationists have undertaken substantial work to remove invasive predators or mitigate their effects. Yet, the challenges associated with removal of invasive predators mean that most successful conservation programs have been rest...
Article
One of the most pressing dilemmas of our time is determining how to satisfy the demands of a growing human population while still conserving biodiversity. Worldwide, land modification to accommodate human resource needs has caused significant declines in wildlife populations. To help minimize biodiversity loss, we must support wildlife on human-dom...
Article
Reintroductions involve the relocation of animals into their historical range following extinction or extirpation. In this context, individuals with certain personalities may be more successful than others. For example, proactive individuals may dominate by being bolder, exploratory and more willing to take risks in familiar, stable environments (i...
Article
Full-text available
Despite wider recognition of human interdependence with the rest of nature, our economies continue to fail to adequately value ecosystem services. This failure is largely attributed to the economic frameworks and related measures that focus on the production and consumption of marketed goods and services, but do not consider the other essential ele...
Article
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Incorporating genetic data into conservation programmes improves management outcomes, but the impact of different sample grouping methods on genetic diversity analyses is poorly understood. To this end, the multi-source reintroduction of the eastern bettong was used as a long-term case study to investigate how sampling regimes may affect common gen...
Article
Full-text available
Populations of macropods are higher than estimated pre-European densities in many parts of Australia. To achieve appropriate densities of macropods in the Australian Capital Territory's nature reserves, multi-tenure kangaroo management units are used to tailor management of kangaroos and total grazing pressure to achieve conservation objectives. An...
Article
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Invasive mammalian predators have had a devastating effect on native species globally. The European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is one such species where it has been introduced in Australia. A novel but unexplored tactic to reduce the impact of mammalian predators is the use of unrewarded prey odors to undermine the effectiveness of olfactory hunting b...
Article
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The Asian elephant Elephas maximus is of cultural significance for the Thai people. The development of legal protection for elephants in Thailand dates back to the 17th century, reflecting concerns about both human livelihoods and elephant conservation. The legal status of privately owned, captive elephants differs from that of wild individuals, wi...
Article
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The elephant ivory trade remains controversial because of concerns about the extinction risk of elephants and the different needs of CITES member states. Thailand's situation is particularly contentious because of the different legal status among types of elephant ivory. Thai law allows the local sale of ivory from domesticated Asian elephants, whi...
Preprint
Protected areas, such as natural World Heritage sites, RAMSAR wetlands, and Biosphere reserves are ecosystems within landscapes. Each site meets certain criteria that allow it to qualify as heritage or protected. Both climate change and human influence (e.g., incursion, increased tourist visitation) are altering biophysical conditions at many such...
Article
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As agricultural areas expand, interactions between wild animals and farmland are increasing. Understanding the nature of such interactions is vital to inform the management of human–wildlife coexistence. We investigated patterns of space use of two Critically Endangered Galapagos tortoise species, Chelonoidis porteri and Chelonoidis donfaustoi , on...
Article
Full-text available
World Heritage is the pinnacle of the recognition of the natural, aesthetic, and cultural value of a place on the planet. Since its inception in 1972, over 1100 sites have received World Heritage status. Many of these places are being challenged by the effects of climate change. Urgent action is needed to build the resilience and adaptive capacity...
Article
Full-text available
A large component of the anthropogenic biodiversity crisis is the loss of animal species. In response, there has been significant investment in reintroductions of species to their historical ranges. Predation by native and exotic predators, however, remains a barrier to success. Over the past 200 years, Australia has seen the highest rate of mammal...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Predation of threatened fauna by native and introduced predators can drive extinction and prevent population recovery. Most predator management involves exclusion or culling. Evidence suggests that exclusion may have detrimental effects on a prey species' predator awareness. At the same time, culling can cause selection of control‐resistan...
Article
Full-text available
Human influence extends across the globe, from the tallest mountains to the deep bottom of the oceans. There is a growing call for nature to be protected from the negative impacts of human activity (particularly intensive agriculture); so-called “land sparing”. A relatively new approach is “rewilding”, defined as the restoration of self-sustaining...
Article
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The vision of rewilding is to return ecosystems to a “natural” or “self-willed” state with trophic complexity, dispersal (and connectivity) and stochastic disturbance in place. The concept is gaining traction, particularly in Europe where significant land abandonment has taken place in recent years. However, in reality, the purest form of rewilding...
Chapter
Full-text available
This case study details the reintroduction of the eastern quoll to Mulligans Flat Woodland Sanctuary, Australia, using trials, tactics, and adaptive management. Ideal for use by reintroduction practitioners, the sections include background, goals, success indicators, project feasibility, implementation, post-release monitoring, major difficulties f...
Article
Full-text available
When introduced to new ecosystems, species' populations often grow immediately postrelease. Some introduced species, however, maintain a low population size for years or decades before sudden, rapid population growth is observed. Because exponential population growth always starts slowly, it can be difficult to distinguish species experiencing the...
Chapter
The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the globa...
Article
Full-text available
ContextInvasive predators are a key threat to biodiversity worldwide. In Australia, feral cats are likely to be responsible for many extinctions of native mammal species in the south and centre of the continent. AimsHere we examine the effect of feral cats on native rodent populations in the second of two translocation experiments. Methods In a wil...
Article
Full-text available
The past two decades have seen an accumulation of theoretical and empirical evidence for the interlinkages between human health and well-being, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and agriculture. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the devastating impacts that an emerging pathogen, of animal origin, can have on human societies and economies. A...
Article
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Urgent sustainability challenges require effective leadership for inter- and trans-disciplinary (ITD) institutions. Based on the diverse experiences of 20 ITD institutional leaders and specific case studies, this article distills key lessons learned from multiple pathways to building successful programs. The lessons reflect both the successes and f...
Article
Full-text available
Threatened species recovery programs are increasingly turning to reintroductions to reverse biodiversity loss. Here we present a real-world example where tactics (techniques which influence post-release performance and persistence) and an adaptive management framework (which incorporates feedback between monitoring and future actions) improved rein...
Article
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As we sit in the vortex of the Covid‐19 outbreak, individual energies are focused on staying safe and juggling the personal, social and financial impacts of the pandemic and political responses to it. These impacts are profoundly re‐shaping our lives, with many commentators suggesting that ‘normality’ will be permanently redefined for all sectors o...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the health of 31 (eight males, 23 females) founder eastern quolls (Dasyurus viverrinus), translocated to a fenced reserve in the Australian Capital Territory between February 2016 and July 2017. Quolls were wild caught in Tasmania (16 animals) or captive bred at Mount Rothwell Biodiversity Interpretation Centre, Victoria (15 animals)....
Article
Full-text available
A debt-based economy requires the accumulation of more and more debt to finance economic growth, while future economic growth is needed to repay the debt, and so the cycle continues. Despite global debt reaching unprecedented levels, little research has been done to understand the impacts of debt dynamics on environmental sustainability. Here, we e...
Article
Full-text available
When does a reintroduced population of animals become self-regulating? Quantifying this is critical in determining when interventions can be tapered off, or when they may need to be reinstated. We tracked the growth trajectory of a reintroduced population to establish whether it was irruptive and/or had transitioned to self-regulation. In 2012, we...
Chapter
Globally, many terrestrial ecosystems have been and are being heavily influenced by human activity, both directly and indirectly. Humanity and our domestic animals (1.4 billion cattle, 1.2 billion sheep and 0.5 billion goats, but only some 120 million horses and 13 million camels; Encyclopedia.com) have now so much impact on global ecosystems that...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the publication of the “The Ecology of Browsing and Grazing” (Gordon and Prins, The ecology of browsing and grazing. Springer, 2008), a number of researchers have taken the approach outlined in the book to assess the impacts of differences in food and nutrient supply on the ecology of other vertebrate taxa. In line with the slightly altered e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Large mammalian herbivores and the ecosystems in which they live are intimately connected through the food choices the animals make. Herbivores eat plants and plants have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves from being eaten. This arms race between plants and vertebrate herbivores continues to this day. The outcomes of this arms race are seen in...
Article
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In 2016, the United Nations (UN) launched the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a framework for sustainable development and a sustainable future. However, the global challenge has been to engage, connect, and empower communities, particularly young people, to both understand and deliver the 17 SDGs. In this study, we show the benefit of a...
Article
Ecosystems can buffer against adverse events and, by so doing, reduce the costs of risk-bearing to society; benefits which have been termed 'insurance value'. Although the terminology is recent, the concept is older and has its roots in ecological resilience. However, a synthesis of studies through the lens of the insurance value concept is lacking...
Article
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As human populations increase and become wealthier, the demand for red meat will increase. Much of this increased demand will be supplied through the traditional livestock supply chains; however, there are alternative commodities that can be used to meet some of the demand. Game meat harvested from wildlife is a growing commodity in the developed w...
Article
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Leaders of sustainability research organizations need to provide an environment where interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science flourish. Developing the necessary leadership skills and attributes requires new, targeted training programmes.
Article
The eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi), a medium-sized digging marsupial, was reintroduced to a predator-free reserve after 100 years of absence from the Australian mainland. The bettong may have the potential to restore temperate woodlands degraded by a history of livestock grazing, by creating numerous small disturbances by digging. We investig...
Book
Domestic and wild large mammalian herbivores occur on every continent except Antarctica. Through their browsing and grazing, they affect the structure and distribution not only of vegetation, but also of associated fauna. Consequently, the interactions between management practices and herbivore populations influence the biodiversity, structure and...
Article
Full-text available
With the growing human population, and their improving wealth, it is predicted that there will be significant increases in demand for livestock products (mainly meat and milk). Recent years have demonstrated that the growth in livestock production has generally had significant impacts on wildlife worldwide; and these are, usually, negative. Here I...
Article
Full-text available
A debt-based economy cannot survive without economic growth. However, if private debt consistently grows faster than GDP, the consequences are financial crises and the current unprecedented level of global debt. This policy dilemma is aggravated by the lack of analyses factoring the impact of debt-growth cycles on the environment. What is really th...
Data
Overview, Design Concepts and Details (ODD) Protocol. Standardized protocol describing the ABM in detail. (PDF)
Data
Model calibration. Calibration of the ABM, based on a comparative (qualitative) analysis between Keen’s (2009, 2010a) results and our ABM results. (PDF)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis of the ABM, focused on analysing changes in model outputs with all parameters constant but the critical-biomass-stock parameter (for which a series of different values are considered). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Tropical countries lie at the nexus of three pressing issues for global sustainability: agricultural production, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. The forces that drive forest protection do not necessarily oppose those that drive forest clearance for development. This decoupling, enhanced by the stronger economic forces compa...
Article
Sugarcane is an important forage resource in sub-tropical and tropical areas as it is used during the winter or dry season when the growth rate of pastures is significantly reduced. The current research study assessed the effect of four vertical sections of sugarcane in a pen trial and the level of sugarcane utilization in a grazing trial on the in...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is important in reintroduction biology because it can influence mortality, dispersal and recruitment and determine establishment success. As stress is unavoidable during reintroduction, it requires deliberate management. Release tactics (e.g. ‘delayed- and immediate-release’) are often selected specifically based on their presumed effect on...
Book
Full-text available
Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving nature, agriculture and nature must be reconnected and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current economic crisis draws renewed attention to the underlying mechanisms of our economic system and its increasing effects on the environment. The interest rates associated with debt stocks forces society to create an increasing income flow, resulting on the accumulation of more and more debt to finance the economic growth. The impact on th...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s perceptions of their environment carry with them into adulthood, determining their capacity to learn about and interact with their world. It is, therefore, important for children to have an informed knowledge of the role, value and function of the environment. The Arts and storytelling are ideal tools with which to glean understanding of...
Article
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In a recent review, Pimm et al. (2015) highlight emerging technologies in protecting biodiversity. While their list is noteworthy, the authors’ exclusion of innovations in genomic research, with the exception of single-species DNA barcoding methods, was surprising given recent advances in genome-editing technology and its potential application to c...
Article
Full-text available
Across the globe, many species of reptile are threatened with extinction, with changes in grazing pressure as a significant factor in their decline. Few studies have investigated the role of native herbivores, yet studying natural grazers may provide insight into natural grazing regimes, not apparent in studies of domestic livestock. In this study,...
Research
Full-text available
Developed at the March 2015 workshop “Working Together for Better Outcomes” by 36 participants from 21 research, funding and end-user organisations. This guide aims to alert national and international funding agencies to specific funding requirements for interdisciplinary research which involves researchers from diverse disciplines and/or non-resea...
Article
Commonly cited requirements for bridging the "science-practice divide" between practitioners and scientists include: political support, communication and experimentation. The Subtropical Thicket Restoration Programme was established in 2004 to catalyse investment in large-scale restoration of degraded subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding animal movement behaviour is key to furthering our knowledge on intra- and inter-specific competition, group cohesion, energy expenditure, habitat use, the spread of zoonotic diseases or species management. We used a radial basis function surface approximation subject to minimum description length constraint to uncover the state-space...