Iain Gilchrist

Iain Gilchrist
University of Bristol | UB · School of Experimental Psychology

BSc PhD

About

221
Publications
28,104
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7,129
Citations
Citations since 2016
52 Research Items
2844 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (221)
Article
The locus coeruleus (LC), a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem, plays a significant role in attention and cognitive control. Here, we use an adapted auditory oddball paradigm and measured the pupil dilation response, to provide a marker of LC activity in humans. In Experiment 1, we show event-related pupil responses to rare auditory events which...
Preprint
When an audience member becomes immersed, attention is shifted towards the media and story, and this is accompanied by the allocation of mental resources to represent events and characters. Here we investigate whether it is possible to measure immersion using continuous behavioural or physiological measures. Using television and film clips, we vali...
Article
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This paper presents the results from two studies which used a dual-task methodology to measure an audience's experience of immersion while watching video under typical television viewing conditions. Immersion was measured while participants watched either a high dynamic range, wide color gamut video or a standard dynamic range, standard color gamut...
Article
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Visual search in dynamic environments, for example lifeguarding or CCTV monitoring, has several fundamentally different properties to standard visual search tasks. The visual environment is constantly moving, a range of items could become targets and the task is to search for a certain event. We developed a novel task in which participants were req...
Article
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In the present paper we present a dataset that provides data of two experiments in which we investigated the presence of Inhibition of Return (IOR) during and after a visual search. Participants either had to saccade (Experiment 1 and 2) or make a manual response (Experiment 2) to a probe during a visual search task (searching for a target letter a...
Article
Good translatability of behavioral measures of affect (emotion) between human and nonhuman animals is core to comparative studies. The judgment bias (JB) task, which measures "optimistic" and "pessimistic" decision-making under ambiguity as indicators of positive and negative affective valence, has been used in both human and nonhuman animals. Howe...
Article
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Children with Special Educational Needs (SEN) often have impaired eye movement control which can impact on a wide range of everyday activities including in the classroom, socialising, participation in sport or crossing a road. Although some health practitioners offer eye movement therapies these tend not to have been systematically developed or eva...
Article
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Eye movements can support ongoing manipulative actions, but a class of so-called look ahead fixations (LAFs) are related to future tasks. We examined LAFs in a complex natural task-assembling a camping tent. Tent assembly is a relatively uncommon task and requires the completion of multiple subtasks in sequence over a 5- to 20-minute duration. Part...
Preprint
Live performances are immersive shared experiences, traditionally taking place in designated, carefully designed physical spaces such as theatres or concert halls. As it is becoming increasingly common for audiences to experience this type of content remotely using digital technology, it is crucial to reflect on the design of digital experiences an...
Article
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In serial visual search we shift attention successively from location to location in search for the target. Although such search has been investigated using fMRI, overt attention (i.e., eye movements) was usually neglected or discouraged. As a result, it is unclear what happens in the instant when our gaze falls upon a target as compared to a distr...
Article
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Links between affective states and risk-taking are often characterised using summary statistics from serial decision-making tasks. However, our understanding of these links, and the utility of decision-making as a marker of affect, needs to accommodate the fact that ongoing (e.g., within-task) experience of rewarding and punishing decision outcomes...
Article
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Altered connectivity within neuronal networks is often observed in Alzheimer’s disease. However, delineating pro-cognitive compensatory changes from pathological network decline relies on characterising network and task effects together. In this study we interrogated the dynamics of occipito-temporo-frontal brain networks responsible for implicit a...
Article
Sound perception is a fundamental skill for many people with severe sight impairments. The research presented in this article is part of an ongoing project with the aim to create a mobile guidance aid to help people with vision impairments find objects within an unknown indoor environment. This system requires an effective non-visual interface and...
Article
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Beta frequency oscillations in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings over the primary motor cortex have been associated with the preparation and execution of voluntary movements. Here, we test whether changes in beta frequency are related to the preparation of adapted movements in human, and whether such effects generalise to other species...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive and proactive cognitive control are fundamental for guiding complex human behaviour. In two experiments, we evaluated the role of both types of cognitive control in navigational search. Participants searched for a single hidden target in a floor array where the salience at the search locations varied (flashing or static lights). An a-prior...
Article
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The influence of affective states on decision-making is likely to be complex. Negative states resulting from experience of punishing events have been hypothesised to generate enhanced expectations of future punishment and ‘pessimistic’/risk-averse decisions. However, they may also influence how decision-outcomes are valued. Such influences may furt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Links between affective states and risk-taking are often characterised using summary statistics from serial decision-making tasks. However, our understanding of these links, and the utility of decision-making as a marker of affect, needs to accommodate the fact that ongoing (e.g. within-task) experience of rewarding and punishing decision outcomes...
Article
Full-text available
Saccadic eye movements occur in sequences, gathering new information about the visual environment to support successful task completion. Here, we examine the control of these saccadic sequences and specifically the extent to which the spatial aspects of the saccadic responses are programmed in parallel. We asked participants to saccade to a series...
Preprint
Full-text available
Beta frequency oscillations in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings over the primary motor cortex have been associated with the preparation and execution of voluntary movements. Here, we test whether changes in beta frequency are related to the preparation of adapted movements in human, and whether such effects generalise to other species...
Chapter
The ActiVis project’s aim is to build a mobile guidance aid to help people with limited vision find objects in an unknown environment. This system uses bone-conduction headphones to transmit audio signals to the user and requires an effective non-visual interface. To this end, we propose a new audio-based interface that uses a spatialised signal to...
Article
Full-text available
One of the core mechanisms involved in the control of saccade responses to selected target stimuli is the disengagement from the current fixation location, so that the next saccade can be executed. To carry out everyday visual tasks, we make multiple eye movements that can be programmed in parallel. However, the role of disengagement in the paralle...
Preprint
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In this paper we present the concept for an interactive clinical decision support system that will replace the intensive care unit dashboards currently deployed at the Bristol Royal Infirmary. The proposed system is intended to promote compliance with treatment guidelines and will improve on the pre-existing dashboards by introducing predictive mod...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an outdoor video dataset annotated with action labels, collected from 24 participants wearing two head-mounted cameras (GoPro and SMI eye tracker) while assembling a camping tent. In total, this is 5.4 hours of recordings. Tent assembly includes manual interactions with non-rigid objects such as spreading the tent, securing guyl...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has indicated that Inhibition of return (IOR)supports visual search by discouraging the re-inspection of recently inspected items during search. However, it is not clear whether IOR persists after a search is completed or whether this depends on the presence of a further search in the same display. To investigate this issue, we ha...
Article
Full-text available
Saccadic eye movements move the high-resolution fovea to point at regions of interest. Saccades can only be generated serially (i.e., one at a time). However, what remains unclear is the extent to which saccades are programmed in parallel (i.e., a series of such moments can be planned together) and how far ahead such planning occurs. In the current...
Article
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Objective The primary objective is to develop an automated method for detecting patients that are ready for discharge from intensive care. Design We used two datasets of routinely collected patient data to test and improve on a set of previously proposed discharge criteria. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary general intensive care unit (GICU). Pati...
Article
The ability to select the task-relevant stimulus for a saccadic eye movement, while inhibiting saccades to task-irrelevant stimuli, is crucial for active vision. Here, we present a novel saccade-contingent behavioral paradigm and investigate the neural basis of the central cognitive functions underpinning such behavior, saccade selection, saccade i...
Article
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The probability of an event occurring and the reward associated with the event can both modulate behaviour. Response times are decreased to stimuli that are either more rewarding or more likely. These two factors can be combined to give an Expected Value (EV) associated with the event (i.e., probability of the event x reward magnitude). In four exp...
Article
Full-text available
Brain tumour detection and diagnosis requires clinicians to inspect and analyse brain magnetic resonance images. Eye-tracking is commonly used to examine observers’ gaze behaviour during such medical image interpretation tasks, but analysis of eye movement sequences is limited. We therefore used ScanMatch, a novel technique that compares saccadic e...
Article
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Attention in the “ real world ” fluctuates over time, but these fluctuations are hard to examine using a timed trial- based experimental paradigm. Here we use film to study attention. To achieve short-term engagement, filmmakers make use of low-level cinematic techniques such as color, movement and sound design to influence attention. To engage aud...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of preschool children playing five commercially available mobile computer games, the results of which will inform the user-led redesign of 'Space Vision', a serious mobile game for early identification and home-monitoring of vision problems for children of preschool age (3-5 years). Currently,...
Article
We investigated how decision-making is affected by the visual presentation of flood hazard information. We exposed participants to different formats of flood hazard information while they simulated selecting a property to purchase. We compared three flood hazard formats: (i) maps currently used by the UK Environment Agency, (ii) tables that present...
Article
When participants search the same letter display repeatedly for different targets we might expect performance to improve on each subsequent search as they memorize characteristics of the display. However, here we find that search performance improved from a first search to a second search but not for a third search of the same display. This is pred...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The primary objective is to work towards a clinical decision support tool that can improve discharge practice on the intensive care unit. Design: We used two datasets of routinely collected patient data to test and improve upon a set of previously proposed discharge criteria. Setting: Bristol Royal Infirmary general intensive care unit (...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction People with visual field loss after stroke often experience difficulties in everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability of search training as used within occupational therapy and the feasibility of possible measures for use in a future trial. Method Nine participants took part in a goal oriented inte...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of the low-level features and key spatial points used by humans during locomotion over diverse types of terrain. Although, a number of methods for creating saliency maps and task-dependent approaches have been proposed to estimate the areas of an image that attract human attention, none of these can straightforwardly...
Article
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In the laboratory, the abrupt onset of a visual distractor can generate an involuntary orienting response: this robust oculomotor capture effect has been reported in a large number of studies (e.g. Theeuwes, Kramer, Hahn, & Irwin, 1998; Ludwig & Gilchrist, 2002) suggesting it may be a ubiquitous part of more natural visual behaviour. However the vi...
Article
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Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic...
Data
Changes in mean (+/- SEM) (a) Affective Grid Activation score and (b) PANAS NA score across the study in Pleasant Room (solid line) and Unpleasant Room (dashed line) subjects. (EPS)
Article
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Duncan and Humphreys (1989) identified two key factors that affected performance in a visual search task for a target among distractors. The first was the similarity of the target to distractors (TD), and the second was the similarity of distractors to each other (DD). Here we investigate if it is the perceived similarity in foveal or peripheral vi...
Article
Full-text available
Duncan and Humphreys (1989) identified two key factors that affected performance in a visual search task for a target among distractors. The first was the similarity of the target to distractors (TD), and the second was the similarity of distractors to each other (DD). Here we investigate if it is the perceived similarity in foveal or peripheral vi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Low tidal volume (TVe) ventilation improves outcomes for ventilated patients, and the majority of clinicians state they implement it. Unfortunately, most patients never receive low TVes. ‘Nudges’ influence decision-making with subtle cognitive mechanisms and are effective in many contexts. There have been few studies examining their impa...
Article
Introduction Visual searching is an essential component of many everyday activities. Search training is practised as part of occupational therapy to improve performance skills both in people with hemianopia and those with spatial inattention post stroke. Evaluation of the effectiveness of such training first requires a systematic and detailed descr...
Article
Full-text available
When searching for two targets consecutively in the same display, participants use memory of recently fixated distractors that become the target in the second search to find that target more quickly. Here we ask whether participants are also using memory for fixated distractors that do not become the target. In Experiment 1 we show that search is f...
Article
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There is an increasing recognition that visuocognitive difficulties occur in children with neurodevelopmental problems. We obtained normative data for the performance of primary school children using three tests of visuocognitive function that are practicable in a clinical setting. We tested 214 children aged between 4 and 11 years without known de...
Article
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We investigate whether a computational model of V1 can predict how observers rate perceptual differences between paired movie clips of natural scenes. Observers viewed 198 pairs of movies clips, rating how different the two clips appeared to them on a magnitude scale. Sixty-six of the movie pairs were naturalistic and those remaining were low-pass...
Article
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Large variability between individual response times, even in identical conditions, is a ubiquitous property of animal behavior. However, the origins of this stochasticity and its relation to action decisions remain unclear. Here we focus on the state of the perception-action network in the pre-stimulus period and its influence on subsequent saccadi...
Article
Hierarchical graphs (e.g. file system browsers and preference trees) represent objects (e.g. files and folders) as graph nodes and relations between them (e.g. sub-folder relations) as lines. We investigated the temporal organisation of two processes that are necessary for comprehending such graphs—search for the graph nodes and reasoning about the...
Article
Consecutive search for different targets in the same display is supported by a short-term memory mechanism: Distractors that have recently been inspected in the first search are found more quickly in the second search when they become the target (Exp. 1). Here, we investigated the properties of this memory process. We found that this recency advant...
Article
During search, executive function enables individuals to direct attention to potential targets, remember locations visited, and inhibit distracting information. In the present study, we investigated these executive processes in large-scale search. In our tasks, participants searched a room containing an array of illuminated locations embedded in th...
Article
Jeffery et al. accurately identify the importance of developing an understanding of spatial reference frames in a three-dimensional world. We examine human spatial cognition via a unique paradigm that investigates the role of saliency and adjusting reference frames. This includes work with adults, typically developing children, and children who dev...
Article
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Perception of scenes has typically been investigated by using static or simplified visual displays. How attention is used to perceive and evaluate dynamic, realistic scenes is more poorly understood, in part due to the problem of comparing eye fixations to moving stimuli across observers. When the task and stimulus is common across observers, consi...