I. C. Madakadze

Agricultural Plant Science, Agronomy, Animal Science

17.53

Publications


  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Source
    Zira Mavunganidze · Ignacio Casper Madakadze · Justice Nyamangara · Paramu Mafongoya
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of tillage system in combination with different herbicides on weed density, diversity, crop growth and yields on 18 farms in Kadoma, Zimbabwe. Experiments were set up as a split plot design with three replications on each farm. Tillage was the main plot (Conservation Tillage (CT), Conventional Tillage (CONV)) and weeding option (hand weeding, cyanazine, atrazine, glyphosate only and mixture of cyanazine + alachlor and atrazine + alachlor) as the sub-plots. Due to the heterogeneous nature of farmers' resource base, the farms were grouped into three farm types: high (Type 1), medium (Type 2) and poorly resourced farmers (Type 3). The hand hoe weeded treatments had 49 percent higher total weed densities in CT relative to CONV, and was statistically similar to the glyphosate treatment. The mixed pre-emergence herbicides reduced the diversity indices by 69 and 70 percent when compared to the hand hoe weeded treatment under CT in cotton and maize, respectively. The effectiveness of all pre-emergence herbicides were not influenced by tillage but were affected by farmers resource endowments with pronounced effect in Farm Type 1. Maximum plant heights of 85 and 238 cm were recorded for mixed pre-emergence herbicides under CT for cotton and maize, respectively. Minimum plant heights of 75 and 217 cm were recorded for the respective hand hoe weeded treatments. The hand hoe weeded treatments resulted in average cotton lint yield of 1497 and 2018 kg ha−1 for maize. The mixed pre-emergence herbicides treatments gave yields of 2138 and 2356 kg ha−1 of cotton and maize, respectively. The higher weed densities in CT under hand weeded treatments underscored the need for other weeding options. Similarly, a mixture of cyanazine + alachlor in cotton and atrazine + alachlor in maize is recommended for suppressing broad and grass weed populations and enhancing yields in CT systems.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Crop Protection
  • Source
    Habtamu Teka Keba · Ignacio Casper Madakadze · Ayana Angassa · Abubeker Hassen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
  • Source
    H Teka · IC Madakadze · A Hassen · A Angassa

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · African journal of agricultural research
  • Source
    Habtamu Teka · I. Casper Madakadze · Ayana Angassa · Abubeker Hassen

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012
  • Source
    I C Madakadze · T M Masamvu · T Radiotis · J Li · D L Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shortage of conventional raw material for the pulp and paper products together with the increasing world demand for paper has renewed interest in non-wood fibres. Non-wood pulping capacity has been increasing steadily over the last decade. A lot of crops grown for biomass, like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), are good examples of plants with potential for pulp production. Raw material chemical composition, kraft pulp yield and properties, and fibre characteristics of elephant grass or hybrid pennisetum (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. SDPN3) and switchgrass (cv. Cave-in-Rock) were determined in an effort to evaluate them as raw materials for pulp and paper production. Elephant grass had -cellulose and Klasson lignin contents of 45.6 and 17.7%, respectively. The respective values for switchgrass were 41.2 and 23.89 %. Pulp yields, following a mild kraft process, were 48 and 50% for switchgrass and elephant grass, respectively. The corresponding kappa numbers were 15.5 and 9.2. The weight-weighted fibre length averaged 1.32 mm. Pulp freeness was higher for switchgrass (330 mL) than for elephant grass (139 mL). Elephant grass had a burst index above 5.85 kP.m 2 g -1 . These characteristics demonstrate the suitability of both elephant grass and switchgrass for pulp production.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010
  • Source
    D. L. Smith · C. Costa · B. Ma · C. Madakadze · B. Prithiviraj · F. Zhang · X. Zhou
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Crop production in the northeastern North America poses unique challenges in that soils tend to be cool and wet in the spring, and there is only a brief period each summer when sufficient heat is obtained for the growth of the main crops produced in the area. This paper reviews seven areas of crop production and ecophysiology research in the context of the geo-climatic conditions of the extreme North American humid northeast. The seven areas are: (1) intercropping systems, (2) leafy reduced-stature corn, (3) intensive cereal management, (4) production of C4 grasses, (5) development of a chronic injection system for physiology research, (6) legume-to-rhizobia signals and inhibition of soybean nodulation, and (7) rhizobia-to-legume signals and crop growth. Progress has been made in each area and there is now a longer-term need to integrate some of these findings at the cropping system level.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Crop Production
  • I. C. Madakadze · KA Stewart · R. M. Madakadze · D. L. Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Initial screening of warm-season grasses for cultivation in cool, short season growing areas has been focused on frost and chilling tolerance. Adoption of warm-season grasses in these areas has resulted in an increase in degree-day modeling of their growth. These predictive models are dependent on accurate determination of the basal temperatures for growth. In this study, base temperatures for seedling growth were estimated for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans L. Nash), and prairie sandreed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn.]. Seedlings at the two-leaf stage were grown at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24°C in growth chambers for 4 wk with representative harvests every week. Relative growth rates were calculated for each species at each temperature and these were used, in conjunction with regression techniques, to estimate base temperatures for growth. The base temperatures were then correlated with chilling sensitivity of the plants, estimated using visual scores, chlorophyll fluorescence, and electrolyte leakage. The estimated base temperatures ranged from 2.6 to 7.3°C. There were variations among and within species in base temperatures for seedling growth. There were positive correlations between base temperatures for growth and rate of electrolyte leakage (r=0.73), chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/FM; r = 0.80) and leaf damage (visual score; r = 0.76). These correlations confirm the differences in adaptation of warm-season grasses, both within and across species. They also support the differences in base temperatures. This highlights the need to use different base temperatures in statistical growth models for different species or cultivars.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Crop Science
  • Source
    Smith DL · Costa C · Ma B · Madakadze C · Prithiviraj B · Zhang F · Zhou X

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Crop Production
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently efforts have been made to develop heat unit based growth models for warm season grass production in cool season environments. These models require the accurate determination of base temperatures. Variations in base temperatures for germination of four switchgrasses (Panicum virgatum L.), three big bluestem grasses (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), two indian grasses (Sorghastrum nutans L. Nash) and two prairie sandreeds (Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn.) were determined. During the germination study seeds were allowed to germinate in Petri dishes at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20°C. The germination rates were used in estimating base temperatures using regression techniques. There were variations, among and within species in germination. Estimates of base temperature for germination were 5.5 to 10.9, 7.3 to 8.7, 7.5 to 9.6 and 4.5 to 7.9 for switchgrass, big bluestem, indian grass and prairie sandreed. Absolute values in each case depended on whether linear or non-linear techniques were used. The results also indicated differences between base temperature estimates for germination.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Seed Science and Technology
  • Madakadze IC · Madakadze RM · Stewart K · Peterson PB · Coulman BE · Smith DL
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. L.) is being developed and evaluated as summer forage and for biomass production in eastern Canada. Uneven germination and slow seedling growth in spring are some of the factors limiting its cultivation. A study was conducted to reduce seed dormancy and to improve germination at suboptimal temperatures in switchgrass cultivars Cave-in-Rock (CIR), Dakota (DK) and New Jersey 50 (NJ). Seeds of these cultivars were conditioned either with 0.2% potassium nitrate (KNO3) or 1 mM gibberellic acid or osmoconditioned with polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) solution with or without 0.2% KNO3 or 1 mM gibberellic acid (GA3); or matriconditioned with Micro-Cel E (MC) with either water, 0.2% KNO3 or 1 mM GA3. The seeds were conditioned at 8 or 16°C for 4 days and then germinated at 8, 16 or 24°C. Conditioning treatment and temperature influenced germination. For CIR seeds germinated at 8°C, conditioning with PEG at 8°C increased germination from 0 (control) to 22%. All the conditioning treatments germinated earlier and the proportion of seeds that eventually germinated was higher than for the unconditioned control. In the cultivar NJ conditioning at 16°C with water or 1 mM GA3 increased germination to 12 and 17% respectively (0 for the control) when seeds were germinated at 8°C. When germinated at 16°C treatments containing 1 mM GA3 germinated earlier. Osmoconditioning in PEG with 1 mM GA3 had the highest final germination at 56% (37% for control). Cultivar DK did not significantly respond to the various conditioning treatments. Overall, both osmoconditioning and matriconditioning hastened germination and total germination in switchgrass cultivars CIR and NJ.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Seed Science and Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is one of several warm-season grasses that have been identified as potential biomass crops in North America. A two-year field study was conducted, on a free-draining sandy clay loam (St. Bernard, Typic Hapludalf), to characterize the growth and evaluate changes in biomass accumulation and composition of switchgrass at Montreal, QC. Three cultivars, Cave-in-Rock, Pathfinder, and Sunburst, were grown in solid stands in a randomized complete block design. Canopy height, dry matter (DM) accumulation and chemical composition were monitored biweekly throughout the growing season. Average maximum canopy heights were 192.5 cm for Cave-in-Rock, 169.9 for Pathfinder, and 177.8 for Sunburst. The respective end-of-season DM yields were 12.2, 11.5, and 10.6 Mg/ha. Biomass production among cultivars appeared to be related to time of maturation. Nitrogen concentration of DM decreased curvilinearly from 25 g/kg at the beginning of the season to 5 g/kg DM at season's end. Both acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations increased to a maximum early in the season, after which no changes were detected. The average maximum values of ADF and NDF were, respectively, 647.6 and 849.0 g/kg DM for Cave-in-Rock, 669.1 and 865.2 for Pathfinder, and 661.8 and 860.9 for Sunburst. Changes in canopy height, DM accumulation, and chemical composition could all be described by predictive regression equations. These results indicate that switchgrass has potential as a biomass crop in a short-season environment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Agronomy Journal
  • I.C. Madakadze · T. Radiotis · J. Li · K. Goel · D.L. Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-wood fibres are increasingly being used in the pulp and paper industry to help meet the increasing world demand for paper. Their use also helps to reduce demand on declining forest reserves. In this study several warm season grasses, prairie sandreed (Calmovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn.), cordgrass (Spartina pectinata L.), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv. Pathfinder (PF) and New Jersey 50 (NJ50)), were evaluated as potential raw materials for pulp and paper production. Raw material chemical composition, kraft pulp yield and properties, and fibre characteristics were evaluated. All these grasses were easily pulped under a mild kraft process, with pulp yields ranging from 44 to 51%, highest yields were recorded for NJ50 and big bluestem; and kappa numbers ranging from 10 to 16. The weight-weighted fibre length ranged from 1.29 to 1.43 mm, the highest value being recorded for big bluestem. The unbeaten pulp freeness ranged from 275 ml for sandreed to 411 ml for NJ50. Sandreed, NJ50 and big bluestem had high tear indices of 7.49, 7.12 and 7.07 mN m2 g−1, respectively. Cordgrass and sandreed had burst indices above 5.0 kPa m2 g−1 (5.68 and 5.22 kPa m2 g−1, respectively). Other physical and strength properties are also presented.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Bioresource Technology
  • I. C. Madakadze · KA Stewart · P. R. Peterson · B. E. Coulman · D. L. Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adapted warm season grasses have potential for both summer forage and biomass production in eastern Canada. A field study was conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine the response of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cv. Cave-in-Rock, Pathfinder, and Sunburst to nitrogen (N) fertilization at 0, 75, or 150 kg ha-1 and three harvest schedules in a short season area. The grass was harvested at 4- or 6-wk intervals or left uncut until the end of the season. These treatments were combined in a split-plot design in each of three blocks on a St. Bernard sandy clay loam (Typic Hapludalf). Herbage yield and herbage N concentration were determined at each harvest for the cutting schedules. Herbage yields revealed a cultivar x N x harvest schedule interaction in 1996, while in 1995 only the two-way interactions between cultivar x harvest schedule and N x harvest schedule were evident (P < 0.05). Total yield ranking for the harvest regimes was uncut > 6-wk > 4-wk with their respective mean yields being 11, 10, and 8 Mg ha-1 for Cave-in-Rock; 10, 8, and 6 Mg ha-1 for Pathfinder and 11, 8, and 7 Mg ha-1 for Sunburst. Nitrogen concentrations increased with fertilization and varied with harvest and year, but not with cultivar. Mean N concentrations were 12.4, 13.9, and 15.4 g kg-1 dry matter (DM) for the 0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 N levels, respectively, under the 4-wk system. Corresponding values were 10.1, 11.6, and 12.9 g kg-1 for the 6-wk system. End of season N concentrations for the uncut regime averaged 5.4, 6.0, and 7.6 g kg-1 DM in increasing order of N fertilization. The results indicate that switchgrass has potential in both grazed or hay forage systems in eastern Canada.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Crop Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlorophyll meters have been used to estimate leaf chlorophyll content, and therefore nitrogen (N) status and fertilization requirements for several crops. However, until now C4 forage grasses have not been investigated in this regard. A field study was conducted in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate the potential of chlorophyll (SPAD) meter readings to determine switchgrass N concentration and herbage yield. Meter readings were taken on the top most fully expanded leaves of switchgrass grown on a free draining sandy clay loam soil (St Bernard, Typic Hapludalf) fertilized at 0, 75, or 150 kg N ha. The switchgrass was either cut at the end of the season or every four or six weeks. Herbage N concentration in uncut stands declined with time while SPAD readings increased to a mid‐season maximum, beyond which they declined rapidly. The relationship between N concentration and SPAD readings was linear (r=0.62–0.93; p
    No preview · Article · Jan 1999 · Journal of Plant Nutrition
  • I. C Madakadze · K Stewart · P. R Peterson · B. E Coulman · R Samson · D. L Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as a potential biomass crop in North America. A two-year study was conducted to characterize leaf area development and estimate radiation-use efficiency (RUE) of switchgrass in eastern Canada. Three cultivars, Cave-in-Rock (CIR), Pathfinder (PF) and Sunburst (SB) were grown in solid stands in a randomized complete block design. Dry matter (DM) yield, leaf area development and light interception were monitored bi-weekly throughout the growing season. Herbage subsamples were hand separated into leaf and sheath-stem fractions. Mean seasonal maximum leaf area indices (LAI) were 6.1, 5.3 and 5.1 for CIR, PF and SB, respectively. By early July of each season the canopies were intercepting about 90% of the incoming light. End of season DM yields were 12.2, 11.5 and 10.6Mg ha−1 for CIR, PF and SB, respectively. The stem plus leaf sheaths constituted the major component of DM and its accumulation trend parallelled that of total DM. End of season stem-sheath components averaged 764, 714 and 691 of the total g kg−1 DM for CIR, PF and SB, respectively. Energy contents of the switchgrasses averaged 17.4 MJ g−1 DM and did not vary among cultivars or during the season. This translated into total energy yields ha−1 of 216 GJ for CIR, 197 for PF and 186 for SB. Radiation-use efficiencies computed using total incoming solar radiation, for the near linear growth phases, averaged 1.07g DM MJ−1 for CIR, 0.90 for PF and 0.89 for SB. The respective values based on photosynthetically active radiation were 2.20, 2.00 and 1.96g DM MJ−1. Changes in LAI, relationships between LAI and light interception and DM yield could all be described by predictive regression equations. These results indicate the potential of switchgrass as a biomass crop in short season areas.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Biomass and Bioenergy
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Warm-season grasses are increasingly being cultivated in North America for summer forage and biomass production. The cooler temperatures and shorter growing seasons typical of Canadian production areas, are major limiting factors to warm-season grass production in these areas. This research assessed the morphological development and relationship of growing degree-days (GDD) to plant morphology and tiller characteristics in nine cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock, Dakota, Forestburg, Pathfinder, Shelter, Sunburst, ND3743, and New Jersey 50) and in 'Niagara' big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman). The study was conducted for three years on a St. Bernard sandy clay loam (Typic Hapludalf) in southwestern Quebec. Stand cover, plant morphology, tiller number, height, and diameter, and leaf number per tiller were all assessed during the season. All entries persisted through the three years of the study and showed increases in tiller number (from an average of 565 to 683 m-2) from one year to the next. Dakota, Cave-in-Rock, and Shelter switchgrass had the highest ground cover ratings after three years (85, 85, and 84%, respectively). Dakota, ND3743, and Forestburg were early maturing; New Jersey 50 was the latest in maturity. Niagara big bluestem had the tallest tillers (183 cm) and largest rates of increase in height (2.8 cm d-1), followed by Cave-in-Rock (2.0 cm d-1) and Blackwell (1.9 cm d-1). The shortest tillers were recorded for Dakota (111 cm) and ND3743 (118 cm). Changes in leaf number per tiller with GDD were best described by quadratic (r2 = 0.80-0.97). These models were stable over two regression models years. Cultivars varied in the number of GDD required for maximum number of leaves per tiller, with later-maturing cultivars generally requiring greater GDD accumulation. These data indicate that warm-season grasses can be grown successfully in eastern Canada.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 1998 · Agronomy journal
  • I.C. Madakadze · B.E. Coulman · A.R. Mcelroy · K.A. Stewart · D.L. Smith
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Field studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the phenology, leaf and tiller characteristics and yield of 22 warm-season grasses in south western Quebec, Canada. Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata L.), two cultivars of Indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans L. (Nash)], two cultivars of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), 12 cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and five cultivars of prairie sandreed [Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn., were included in the study. In terms of initial spring growth, CWNC (cordgrass) and New Jersey 50 (switchgrass) were the earliest and latest, respectively. Initial spring regrowth from sandreeds was predominantly from continued growth of biennial tillers, from rhizomes in cordgrass and from buds on stem bases for the other species. The earliest maturing entries were ND3743, Dakota, Ottawa3 (switchgrasses) and Bison (big bluestem). New Jersey 50 and CWNC were the latest maturing. CWNC had high tiller numbers throughout the season while the rest of the entries showed increases in tiller numbers in summer. There were significant differences among entries in height development across the season. Biomass yields ranged from 65 to 861 g per plant. Lignocellulose concentration was high in all entries with neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) ranging from 770–860 g kg−1 and 460–540 g kg−1, respectively. Nitrogen and ash concentrations ranged from 4–10 and 40–70 g kg−1, respectively. The results indicate potential for cordgrass (CWNC) and several switchgrasses for biomass production in the short season areas of Quebec.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Bioresource Technology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cool spring and early summer temperatures have limited the adoption of warm season grasses in northern environments like eastern Canada. This study characterized the performance of nine switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) populations ('Blackwell', 'Cave-in-Rock', 'Dakota', 'Forestburg', 'New Jersey 50', 'Pathfinder', 'Sunburst', 'Shelter', and 'ND3743') in southwestern Quebec. These populations were evaluated for 3 yr on a St. Bernard sandy clay loam (Typic Hapludalf) near Montreal. Leaf area development patterns during the season fitted second degree polynomial models, increasing with time after planting and decreasing in the fall. Maximum leaf area index (LAI) ranged from 6.1 to 8 m2 m-2, with Cave-in-Rock and New Jersey 50 having the highest LAIs. The populations had different vertical leaf area distributions. For Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock, and Shelter, more than 50% of the leaf area was in the top third of the canopy. New Jersey 50 and Pathfinder had uniform vertical leaf area distributions through the canopy. Light extinction coefficients (k) ranged from 0.57 to 0.72. Average end-of-season biomass yields were 8477, 9943 and 10 869 kg ha-1 in 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively. The relationship between end of season yield and leaf area duration was linear. Cave-in-Rock, New Jersey 50, and Blackwell produced the greatest yields. All entries had high neutral detergent fiber (NDF) [810-870 g kg-1 dry matter (DM)] and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (510-570 g kg-1 DM). Nitrogen and ash concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 8.2 and 47 to 66 g kg-1 DM, respectively. This study showed that switchgrass can be successfully grown in southwestern Quebec.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Crop Science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Twenty-four Bos indicus cows of the Mashona/Nkone breeds, 36 dairy crossbreds (Mashona/ Nkone x Friesian), 48 Holsteins, 42 Friesians and 25 Jerseys were used to study the effect on milk production of sometribove (500 mg), a prolonged release formulation of bovine somatotropin (BST). BST was administered at 14-day intervals by subcutaneous injections into the ischio-rectal fossa which lies lateral to and on either side of the anus (tailhead). With the exception of the Bos indicus cows, which received seven injections of BST, all other treated cows received eight.The administration of BST to Bos indicus cows, significantly (P < 0·05) increased milk yield from 0·45 to 1·75 kg/cow per day, and extended lactation. These effects combined to increase total milk production during the 14-week trial from 226 kg for the control group to 993 kg for the group treated with BST. With dairy crossbreds the use of BST significantly (P < 0·01) increased milk yield from 8·6 to 11·0 kg/cow per day. Milk composition for Bos indicus and dairy crossbreds wasunaffected by the administration of BSTBST significantly (P < 0·05) increased milk yield in Jersey (+ 2·9 kg/day), Friesian (+ 3·6 kg/day) and Holstein (+ 2·7 kg/day) cows. Bodycondition of treated cows tended to be slightly lower than that of the control cows at the end of treatment.Cows remained in excellent health throughout all the trials. Farmers commented on how easy the injection was to give in the tailhead site, and on the complete absence of any adverse injection site reaction.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1991 · The Journal of Agricultural Science

8 Following View all

35 Followers View all