Hyug Moo Kwon

Hyug Moo Kwon
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | UNIST · School of Nano-Bioscience and Chemical Engineering

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51
Publications
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Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play a key role in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a primary component of invasive hypertrophied pannus. FLSs of RA patients (RA-FLSs) exhibit cancer-like features, including promigratory and proinvasive activities that largely contribute to joint cartilage and bone destruction. In this study, we...
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Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that overexpression of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is associated with many inflammatory diseases, including diabetes mellitus, which causes neuroinflammation in the hippocampus as well as hepatic steatosis. However, the exact mechanism in diabetic neuroinflammation is unknown. We report that haplo...
Article
Full-text available
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer and arthritis. However, therapeutic agents inhibiting NFAT5 activity are currently unavailable. To discover NFAT5 inhibitors, a library of >40,000 chemicals was screened for the suppression of nitric oxide, a direct targ...
Article
Defective apoptotic death of activated macrophages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular signatures defining apoptotic resistance of RA macrophages are not fully understood. Here, global transcriptome profiling of RA macrophages revealed that the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear fact...
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Full-text available
NFAT5, a well known osmo-protective factor, can be activated by isotonic stimuli, such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) triggering. However, it is unclear how NFAT5 discriminates between isotonic and hypertonic stimuli to produce different functional and molecular outcomes. Here, we identified a novel xanthine oxidase (XO)-reactive oxygen species (ROS)-...
Article
Recent studies revealed that Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) directly regulates the transcription of aldose reductase (AR), which catalyzes the first step of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism. Activation of protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) is dependent on AR and it has been linked to diabetic complications. However, whether To...
Article
Renal ischemic events open tight junctions and disrupt epithelial polarity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury on expression and distribution of the tight junction proteins, occludin and ZO-1, in the rat kidney. IR injury was induced by clamping both renal pedicles for 30 min and animals were ki...
Article
TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) is a transcription factor that promotes cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes in the hypertonic renal medulla by stimulating expression of its target genes. Genetically modified animals with deficient TonEBP activity in the kidney suffer from severe medullary atrophy in association with cel...
Article
During antidiuresis with elevated vasopressin, urea accumulates in the renal medulla to very high concentrations, imposing considerable cellular stress. How local cells cope with urea stress is relevant to the whole kidney because the renal medulla is the major site of residence for the renal stem cells. Previous studies showed that renal cells wer...
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Full-text available
Tonicity-responsive binding-protein (TonEBP or NFAT5) is a widely expressed transcription factor whose activity is regulated by extracellular tonicity. TonEBP plays a key role in osmoprotection by binding to osmotic response element/TonE elements of genes that counteract the deleterious effects of cell shrinkage. Here, we show that in addition to t...
Article
The transcriptional activator TonEBP is a central regulator of osmolality in the renal medulla and whole body water homeostasis. In order to understand the regulation of TonEBP in the renal medulla, we examined MDCK cells, a kidney-derived epithelial cell line, under conditions mimicking the renal medulla. Moderate changes in ambient tonicity, whic...
Article
The interstitium of the renal medulla is hypertonic, imposing deleterious effects on local cells. At the same time, the hypertonicity provides osmotic gradient for water reabsorption and is a local signal for tissue-specific gene expression and differentiation of the renal medulla, which is a critical organ for water homeostasis.
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Full-text available
Cells in the hyperosmotic kidney medulla, express a transcriptional activator termed tonicity responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP). Genes targeted by TonEBP protect kidney cells from the deleterious effects of hyperosmolality by inducing the expression of organic osmolytes and molecular chaperones, and other genes that mediate urine concent...
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Full-text available
Hypertonicity in the renal medulla stimulates local cyclooxygenase 2 expression, leading to abundant PGE(2) production. Here we found that mRNA expression by the PGE(2)-activated G-protein-coupled receptors, EP3 and EP4 in the renal medulla was decreased by furosemide treatment, a procedure that reduces medullary hypertonicity. When HepG2 cells wer...
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In our previous studies of varying osmotic diuresis, UT-A1 urea transporter increased when urine and inner medullary (IM) interstitial urea concentration decreased. The purposes of this study were to examine 1) whether IM interstitial tonicity changes with different urine urea concentrations during osmotic dieresis and 2) whether the same result oc...
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Descending vasa recta (DVR) are 15-microm vessels that perfuse the renal medulla. Ouabain has been shown to augment DVR endothelial cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](CYT)) signaling. In this study, we examined the expression of the ouabain-sensitive Na-K-ATPase alpha2 subunit in the rat renal vasculature and tested effects of acute ouabain exposure and...
Article
Water is the most abundant molecule of the body, around 60% by weight. Volume and composition of cellular water, also known as internal milieu, are critical factors that affect cellular function because cellular water is the medium in which the majority of biochemical reactions take place. How cells adapt to hypertonic environment is an important s...
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Renal tubulo-interstitial inflammation is frequently associated with polyuria and urine concentration defects. This led us to investigate the effects of the major pro-inflammatory nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway on aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression by the collecting duct. Using immortalized collecting duct principal cells (mpkCCDcl4), we foun...
Article
Changes in cardiac osmolarity occur in myocardial infarction. Osmoregulatory mechanisms may, therefore, play a crucial role in cardiomyocyte survival. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a key transcription factor participating in the adaptation of cells to increases in tonicity. However, it is unknown whether cardiac TonEBP is...
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Full-text available
TonEBP is a Rel domain-containing transcription factor implicated in adaptive immunity, viral replication, and cancer. In the mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a central regulator of water homeostasis. Animals deficient in TonEBP suffer from life-threatening dehydration due to renal water loss. Ambient tonicity (effective osmolality) is the prominent sig...
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Hypokalemia causes a significant decrease in the tonicity of the renal medullary interstitium in association with reduced expression of sodium transporters in the distal tubule. We asked whether hypokalemia caused downregulation of the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) transcriptional activator in the renal medulla due to the re...
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Full-text available
Urea accumulation in the renal inner medulla plays a key role in the maintenance of maximal urinary concentrating ability. Urea transport in the kidney is mediated by transporter proteins that include renal urea transporter (UT-A) and erythrocyte urea transporter (UT-B). UT-A1 and UT-A2 are produced from the same gene. There is an active tonicity-r...
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Full-text available
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional activator that is regulated by ambient tonicity. TonEBP protects the renal medulla from the deleterious effects of hyperosmolality and regulates the urinary concentration by stimulating aquaporin-2 and urea transporters. The therapeutic use of cyclosporin A (CsA) is limited...
Article
The TonE-binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional activator in the Rel family that includes NFkappaB and NFAT. TonEBP is critical for the development and function of the renal medulla, which is a major regulator of water homeostasis. TonEBP is also implicated in diabetic nephropathy and inflammation. Established methods for biochemical and his...
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Full-text available
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that, during renal development, the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter type 2 (NKCC2) activates the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) transcription factor by creating medullary hypertonicity. TonEBP, in turn, drives the expression of aldose reductase (AR) and urea transporter-A (UT-A). Kidneys...
Article
Growth hormone binds to its membrane receptor (GHR), whereby it regulates many cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and chemotaxis. However, although the activation of growth hormone-mediated signalling is well understood, the precise mechanism responsible for its regulation has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that...
Article
Cells have developed compensatory mechanisms to restore cell volume, and the ability to resist osmotic swelling or shrinkage parallels their resistance to necrosis or apoptosis. There are several mechanisms by which cells adapt to hyposmotic stress including that of regulatory volume decrease. In ischemia and reperfusion, cardiomyocytes are exposed...
Article
Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins interact with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins via the RGS domain and attenuate their activity by accelerating GTPase activity. RGS2, a member of the RGS family, regulates synaptic development via hereto unknown mechanism. In this study, we found that RGS2 directly interacted with tubulin v...
Article
When exposed to hypertonic conditions, cells accumulate double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) like they are exposed to ionizing radiation. It has been proposed that inactivation of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex due to nuclear exit is responsible for the accumulation of DSBs as cells fail to repair DSBs produced during normal cellular activity. In th...
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Full-text available
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) plays a key role in protecting renal cells from hypertonic stress by stimulating transcription of specific genes. Under hypertonic conditions, TonEBP activity is enhanced via increased nuclear translocation, transactivation, and abundance. It was reported previously that hypertonicity exerted a...
Article
Full-text available
The expression of aldose reductase is tightly regulated by the transcription factor tonicity response element binding protein (TonEBP/NFAT5) binding to three osmotic response elements (OREs; OREA, OREB, and OREC) in the gene. The aim was to investigate the contribution of NFAT5 to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Peripheral blood mononucle...
Article
Here we report inhibition of phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1)-mediated signaling by post-translational glycosylation with beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc modification). In C2C12 myoblasts, isoform-specific knock-down experiments using siRNA showed that activation of bradykinin (BK) receptor led to stimulation of PLC-beta1 and subsequent intrace...
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Full-text available
TonEBP [TonE (tonicity-responsive enhancer)-binding protein] is a transcriptional activator of the Rel family like NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells). TonEBP plays a key role in the protection of cells in the kidney medulla from the deleterious effects of hyperosmolality. This is achieved by enhancing e...
Article
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcriptional activator of the Rel family. In the renal medulla, TonEBP stimulates genes encoding proteins involved in cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes, the vasopressin-regulated urea transporters (UT-A), and heat shock protein 70. To understand the role of TonEBP in the develop...
Article
Full-text available
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), also known as NFAT5, belongs to the Rel family of transcriptional activators. In the kidney medulla and thymus, TonEBP plays a major role in protecting renal cells and T cells from the deleterious effects of ambient hypertonicity. TonEBP is stimulated by hypertonicity via several pathways: incr...
Article
TonEBP is a transcriptional activator that is expressed throughout development in many tissues and cell types. In the kidney medulla, TonEBP appears to be an important local regulator of differentiation by virtue of stimulating several genes. To study the function of TonEBP, two small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes were developed that reduced Ton...
Article
In response to ambient hypertonicity, TonEBP (tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein) stimulates certain genes including those encoding cytokines, transporters for organic solutes, and a molecular chaperone. TonEBP is regulated in a bidirectional manner, upregulated by an increase in ambient tonicity while downregulated by a decrease. To inve...
Article
TonEBP is a member of the Rel family of transcriptional activators, distinct from other members NFkappaB and NFAT. In the medulla of mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a local differentiation factor that stimulates the transcription of several genes. The activity of TonEBP is regulated by changes in diuretic status mainly at the level of nucleocytoplasmic...
Article
While hyperosmolality of the kidney medulla is essential for urinary concentration, it imposes a great deal of stress. Cells in the renal medulla adapt to the stress of hypertonicity (hyperosmotic salt) by accumulating organic osmolytes. Tonicity-responsive enhancer (TonE) binding protein (TonEBP) (or NFAT5) stimulates transcription of transporters...
Article
TonEBP (NFAT5) is a newly identified member of the Rel family of transcriptional activators that include NF-kappaB and NFAT1 to NFAT4. Activated in response to hypertonicity, TonEBP stimulates transcription of transporters of organic osmolytes, certain cytokines, and a molecular chaperone. We provide biochemical data demonstrating that full-length...
Article
Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP)- nuclear factor of activated T cell family 5 is a DNA binding protein that plays a key role in the response of cells to hypertonicity. However, TonEBP is expressed and active in tissues that are in an isotonic milieu. To explore the biological role of TonEBP, we cloned mouse TonEBP that shares 9...
Article
The osmolality of the mammalian kidney medulla is very high. The high osmolality provides the driving force for water reabsorption and urinary concentration, key functions of the kidney for maintaining proper body fluid volume and blood pressure. Salt and urea are the major solutes in the renal medullary interstitium. Unfortunately, high salt (hype...
Article
Osmolality of the mammalian renal medulla is high because of the operation of the urinary concentrating mechanism. To understand molecular events during the early phase of cellular adaptation to hypertonicity, we performed comprehensive searches for genes induced in response to hypertonicity using a cell line (mIMCD3) derived from the inner medulla...
Article
Virtually all cells respond to hypertonicity by accumulating certain small organic solutes (compatible osmolytes) that, in contrast to intracellular ions, do not perturb macromolecular function. Several important compatible osmolytes are accumulated by coupled transport. Transcription of genes encoding these cotransporters is increased by hypertoni...
Article
The family of Na+- and Cl-dependent, 12 transmembrane domain transporter proteins now includes transporters for neuretransmitter molecules in the brain and for substances important in extraneuronal tissues, including adrenal, kidney, and gut. Transported substrates include monoamine and amino acid neuretransmitters and nonper-turbing osmolytes. A c...

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