Hylke Dijkstra

Hylke Dijkstra
Maastricht University | UM · Department of Political Science

PhD (Maastricht); MPhil (Cambridge)

About

51
Publications
56,260
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658
Citations
Introduction
Dr Hylke Dijkstra is an Associate Professor and the Director of the Research Programme "Politics and Culture in Europe (PCE)" at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. He is also the Principal Investigator of a prestigious ERC research project on the decline and death of international organizations. He is furthermore the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Contemporary Security Policy.
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2012 - August 2019
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Tenure from January 2015
September 2012 - August 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • Marie Curie Fellow
Education
November 2007 - June 2011
Maastricht University
Field of study
  • Political Science
October 2006 - July 2007
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Contemporary European Studies

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
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International organizations continuously deploy civilian capabilities as part of their peacekeeping and crisis management operations. This presents them with significant challenges. Not only are civilian deployments rapidly increasing in quantity, but civilian missions are also very diverse in nature. This article analyses how international organiz...
Article
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Many international organizations (IOs) are currently under pressure and the demise of the liberal international order is the talk of town. We theorize that institutional characteristics help to explain why some IOs survive external pressures where others fail. We test this argument through a survival analysis of 150 IOs (1815–2014). We find that th...
Article
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The liberal international order is being challenged and international organizations (IOs) are a main target of contestation. COVID-19 seems to exacerbate the situation with many states pursuing domestic strategies at the expense of multilateral cooperation. At the same time, IOs have traditionally benefited from cross-border crises. This article an...
Conference Paper
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The multilateral order is in crisis. States increasingly contest, undermine, and even withdraw from international organizations (IOs) and multilateral institutions. Challenges emanate not only from emerging powers dissatisfied with the institutional status quo forged for and by Western powers but also from established Western states as well as tran...
Preprint
Full-text available
The liberal international order is being challenged and international organizations (IOs) are a main target of contestation. COVID-19 seems to exacerbate the situation with many states pursuing domestic strategies at the expense of multilateral cooperation. At the same time, IOs have traditionally benefited from cross-border crises. This article an...
Conference Paper
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The Trump administration posed an unprecedented challenge to many international organizations (IOs). This article analyzes the ability of IOs to respond and explains variation in the survival strategies pursued by the international actors of IOs. It argues that leadership, organizational structure, competences, and external networks affect whether...
Conference Paper
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Many international organizations (IOs) are currently challenged, yet are they also in decline? Despite much debate on the crisis of liberal international order, politicization, contestation, loss of legitimacy, gridlock, pathologies, and exiting member states, there is little research on the concept of IO decline. This research note aims to concept...
Conference Paper
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Major international organizations (IOs) are heavily contested but they are rarely dissolved. Scholars have traditionally focused on their longevity making institutional arguments about replacement costs, institutional assets, and secretariat agency. This article analyzes what it takes for major IOs to die. While major IOs are dissolved at considera...
Article
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The EU seeks extensive partnership with other international organizations when it comes to security challenges. This is puzzling as the EU relies for its resources mostly on its member states. The relations between the EU and other international organizations have thoroughly been studied, yet scholars rarely question the actual rationale for partne...
Conference Paper
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International organizations do not live forever. Recent empirical studies show that around 39% of international organizations created since 1815 have formally died. Yet we know, in fact, little about their decline and death. This is surprising as it is well-known that different forms of governance-city-states, great powers, public agencies, allianc...
Book
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The third edition of this popular core textbook provides wide-ranging coverage of the structure, internal working, policies and performance of international organizations such as the UN, EU, IMF and World Bank. Such organizations have never been so important in addressing the challenges that face our increasingly globalised world. This book introdu...
Article
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A stated aim in the EU Global Strategy is for the EU to work with partners in addressing crises across the world. This article analyses such potential in the area of crisis response and peacebuilding, with an emphasis on the EU's interaction with the UN and OSCE. It starts off comparatively by examining where the EU, UN and OSCE add value in crisis...
Article
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Risks are omnipresent in contemporary international security. Despite a long tradition in security studies going at least back to Von Clausewitz, we consider that the topic of risk remains under-examined. This forum seeks to advance the research agenda on risk in security studies by showcasing work of scholars using advanced concepts of risk, based...
Chapter
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The European Union is represented on the international stage by different actors and in different constellations. This chapter tries to understand how the EU representation in the field of CFSP is organised and applied in practice. It starts by discussing representation from a conceptual perspective by outlining various legal and political dynamics...
Article
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The European Union is increasingly moving toward an integrated policy approach, which also acknowledges linkages between public health and (external) security policy. This introduction to the Special Issue sets out a research agenda on the emerging health-security nexus. It analyses recent policy developments with respect to the public health and s...
Chapter
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The principal-agent model assumes a functional division of labour. Principals delegate functions to agents, as they anticipate that the agents will implement those functions in a more credible and/or efficient manner. This chapter shows that there are also instances of non-exclusive delegation in the EU. That is, member states have delegated foreig...
Article
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In the theoretical literature on the authority of international secretariats, academics often dichotomise between states and secretariats. Even when they account for the fact that states are often divided, they normally adopt a two-step approach: states first resolve their own differences before they entertain relations with secretariats. This arti...
Technical Report
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This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE exchange civilian capabilities during crisis missions in Kosovo, Mali and Armenia.
Article
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International organizations play an important role in policy implementation. As member states do not necessarily resolve political disagreements before delegating tasks, this article focuses on how individual member states seek to influence policy implementation by international organizations. It argues that the institutional context in which deleg...
Article
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In an important article on the state of EU foreign policy research, Keuleers, Fonck and Keukeleire show that academics prefer the study of the EU foreign policy system and EU implementation over the consequences of EU foreign policy for recipient countries. While the article is empirical, based on a dataset of 451 published articles on EU foreign p...
Article
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African security, particularly conflict-related political violence, is a key concern in international relations. This forum seeks to advance existing research agendas by addressing four key themes: domestic politics and peacekeeping; security sector reform programs; peace enforcement; and the protection of civilians. Each of the articles in this fo...
Chapter
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The rational design of international institutions has been a prominent research agenda in the field of international relations. The chapter builds on this tradition by exploring how intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) design relationships with other IGOs. Using insights from organization theory on inter-organizational relations (IORs), it propos...
Article
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The member states of the European Union (EU) coordinate, define, and implement foreign policy in the context of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). This policy area, often referred to as EU foreign policy, has a broad scope. It covers all areas of foreign policy and questions relating to security and defense. The CFSP is supported by a u...
Technical Report
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This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE make resources available for civilian missions. It starts with an overview of civilian missions around the world before comparing civilian planning and conduct procedures in these international organisations. The report zooms in on EU civilian capabilities and provides policy recommendations.
Article
EU High Representative Federica Mogherini presented her EU Global Strategy (EUGS) in June 2016. Encircled by security crisis, it is difficult to think of something more important for Europe than collective action with the aim of weathering the storm. The EUGS, in this respect, seeks to define common ends and identify means. So what do we make of th...
Book
From the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations to the NATO International Staff and the European External Action Service, international bureaucrats make decisions that affect life and death. In carrying out their functions, these officials not only facilitate the work of the member states, but also pursue their own distinct agendas. This book ana...
Article
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While formal decision power in most international organizations rests with the member states, the member states often delegate the preparation of decisions to international secretariats. To prepare decisions, secretariats gather and analyze information and subsequently provide the member states with an assessment on the alternative courses of actio...
Article
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The literature on international organizations tells us that diverging member states’ preferences and concerns about the loss of control are major obstacles to institutional reform. But what if changes in the international environment necessitate institutional reform? This article examines such dilemma in the case of the North Atlantic Treaty Organi...
Chapter
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The European Union (EU) has launched more than two dozen crisis management operations, spread over three continents, since 2003.1 It has sent uniformed personnel and monitors to conflict regions in the Western Balkans, sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. It implements peace agreements, supports security-sector reform, builds up local capabiliti...
Article
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The European Union member states split over the military intervention in Libya with France, Germany and the UK voting differently in the United Nations Security Council. This article compares news media in France and Germany to better understand the foreign policy decisions of these key actors. Using a newspaper analysis of 334 articles, it shows t...
Book
EU foreign policy has long been considered the exclusive domain of member states. This book challenges such conventional state-centered wisdom by analyzing the influence of the Brussels-based EU officials in the sensitive area of security and defense. It asks why the member states have delegated important functions to the EU and continues to examin...
Article
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The European Union (EU) has launched an impressive number of crisis management missions since its Common Security and Defence Policy became operational in 2003. This article analyses the agenda-setting phase of these civilian and military operations in order to explain why the EU has sent troops, policemen, judges, prosecutors and monitors across t...
Article
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This article analyses why the UN's members delegate resources to the UN Secretariat in the sensitive field of peacekeeping. It argues that the Secretariat can carry out planning and implementation functions more efficiently, but that the states remain wary of potential sovereignty loss. Through a mixed methods approach, this article provides eviden...
Article
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European Union (EU) foreign policy has long been considered the domaine réservé of the member states. This article challenges such conventional state-centered wisdom by analyzing the influence of the Brussels-based EU officials in the Common Security and Defence Policy. Using four case studies and data from 105 semi-structured interviews, it shows...
Article
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This article studies the development of European foreign policy from an informational perspective. It shows that, over time, the European Union has changed from a platform to share foreign policy information into a system that contains bureaucracies, which gather and process information autonomously. These findings are significant, because it is wi...
Article
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This article evaluates the planning process and initial implementation of the Rule of Law Mission of the European Union in Kosovo (EULEX). It shows that the original intention was to have a smaller presence than the predecessor United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Yet as a result of a lack of settlement on the international status of Kosovo, t...
Article
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Who speaks for Europe is a major question in European integration, yet few systematic attempts have been made to study when the Presidency or the High Representative represents the European Union. This article uses two most-similar cases of conflict resolution with significant EU involvement to argue that the size of the Presidency matters. Large m...
Article
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This article analyses the actorness of the European Union (EU) in Arctic governance. As a result of melting ice caps, this region is of increasing geopolitical and commercial importance. All Arctic coastal states have therefore recently developed policies. The EU is doing so as well as it has a direct interest in many issue areas. Maritime policy i...
Article
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This article explains variation in the role of the Council Secretariat in first and second pillar policy-making. While the Council Secretariat started in both pillars as a facilitator of decision-making, it has been delegated additional tasks in foreign policy: from providing content expertise to representation. Such functions would normally have g...
Article
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This article evaluates the military operation of the European Union in Chad and the Central African Republic in 2008–09. Despite a promising conceptual approach and close cooperation with the United Nations (UN), the operation created significant political problems between member states. It led to a split – France arguing that it carried too much o...
Article
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The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureauc...
Article
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The European Commission and the EU Council Secretariat support the Member States in the conduct of European foreign policy, yet they have not always been able to get along. This article gives an overview of their inter-institutional relations across history, foreign policy instruments (declarations, crisis management joint actions and representatio...
Article
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The Council Secretariat, under the leadership of Javier Solana, has become an indispensable actor in the context of the CFSP. This article gives a comprehensive overview of this institution's development path since the beginning of European Political Cooperation (1970). It argues that with the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty and the parall...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
This five-year project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) addresses the question why do international organisations (IOs) decline or die? Many IOs are currently under significant pressure resulting in the loss of competences, resources and even member states. The ultimate way for states to show their discontent is to disband IOs: no less than a third of the IOs, created between 1905 and 2005, has formally ceased to exist. While academics have analysed how IOs are designed and develop, we know virtually nothing about decline and death.
Archived project
The goals of preventing the outbreak of conflict and promoting sustainable peace remain a fundamental challenge to policymakers and analysts alike. The European Union (EU) and its member states require an adequate set of capabilities if they are to address this challenge in a timely and effective manner. EU-CIVCAP will provide a comprehensive, comparative and multidisciplinary analysis of EU civilian capabilities for external conflict prevention and peace-building in order to identify ‘the best civilian means to enhance these capabilities’ and address existing shortfalls.
Archived project
Publication of a forum in Contemporary Security Policy consisting of an introduction and seven academic articles on the EU Global Strategy. This constitutes the first academic analysis of the EU Global Strategy presented by the High Representative Federica Mogherini to the European Council in June 2016.