Hwajin Yang

Hwajin Yang
Singapore Management University | smu · Psychology

Ph.D. (Cornell University, NY, USA)

About

72
Publications
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Publications

Publications (72)
Article
This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrat...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated bilingual advantages in general control abilities using three complex-span tasks of working memory (WM). An operation-span task served as a baseline measure of WM capacity. Additionally, two modified versions of the Stroop-span task were designed to place varying attentional-control demands during memoranda encoding by asking partic...
Article
Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis (Green & Abutalebi, 2013), we investigated whether bilinguals’ disparate interactional contexts modulate task-switching performance. Seventy-five bilinguals within the single-language context (SLC) and 58 bilinguals within the dual-language context (DLC) were compared in a typical task-switching paradigm....
Article
Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of acti...
Article
We investigated the impact of early childhood and adulthood bilingualism on the attention system in a group of linguistically and culturally homogeneous children (5- and 6-year olds) and young adults. We administered the child Attention Network Test (ANT) to 63 English monolingual and Korean-English bilingual children and administered the adult ANT...
Article
Recent studies suggest that grit serves as a protective trait against maladaptive smartphone use. However, little is known about possible boundary conditions, such as cognitive abilities, that could modulate the relations. Evidence suggests that the cognitive functions that underlie goal-maintenance abilities—specifically, inhibition—could moderate...
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Full-text available
Previous studies suggest that inconsistent parenting leads to undesired consequences, such as a child’s defiant reactance or parent–child conflicts. In light of this, we examined whether mothers’ inconsistent smartphone mediation strategies would influence their children’s problematic smartphone use during early childhood. Furthermore, given that h...
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Given that crucial psychological attributes of smartphone addiction have been studied in isolation from each other, we examined latent profiles of emotional distress (depression, stress, loneliness, and fear of missing out; i.e., FoMO); protective traits (self-control, mindfulness, grit); the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and approach system (...
Article
Previous studies suggest that executive functions (EF)-a set of domain-general cognitive control processes that contribute to the regulation of emotion-are generally associated with ruminative tendencies. However, there is a dearth of research that examines how EF influences changes in rumination over time, especially in middle-aged and older adult...
Article
Although past work has investigated the psychosocial and biological correlates of psychological well-being (PWB), little is known regarding the cognitive underpinnings of PWB. Given that prior research has predominantly relied on indices of general cognitive abilities and PWB, we examined the relations between Ryff’s (1989) six-factor model of PWB...
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Studies have yielded mixed findings regarding the relation between older adults’ social networking site (SNS) use and well-being. Drawing on socioemotional selectivity theory, we sought to examine whether older adults’ SNS use with different socializing targets (i.e., family vs friends) would differentially predict global, social, and mental well-b...
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Despite the potential risks of excessive smartphone use for maladaptive outcomes, the link between smartphone use and aggression remains less understood. Furthermore, prior findings are inconclusive due to a narrow focus on limited aspects of smartphone use (e.g., screen time) and reliance on self-reported assessments of smartphone use. Therefore,...
Article
Bilinguals engage in qualitatively different code-switching patterns (alternation, insertion, and congruent lexicalization) to different degrees, according to their engagement in different types of interactional contexts (single-language context, dual-language context, and dense code-switching context). Drawing on the adaptive control hypothesis, w...
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Given the inconclusive findings regarding the relation between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms, it is important that we determine whether this relation is modulated by emotion dysregulation, which is a prominent risk factor for eating disorders. We sought to identify specific cognitive emotion regulatory strategies—rumination, self-blame...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion-regulation strategy that positively impacts various facets of adaptive functioning (e.g., interpersonal relations, subjective well-being). Although reappraisal implicates cognitive processing, no clear consensus has been reached regarding its cognitive correlates. Therefore, we examined how executive function (EF...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need to understand the protective factors that can buffer individuals against psychological distress. We employed a latent-variable approach to examine how control-related factors such as religiosity, self-control, cognitive control, and health locus of control can act as resilience resources during stres...
Article
Full-text available
The pervasiveness of smartphone engagement among young adults has attracted growing interest regarding its impact on cognitive processes. However, research on the relation between smartphone use and executive function (EF)—a set of adaptive, goal-directed control processes—remains inconclusive due to imprecise estimation of EF dimensions and incons...
Article
Recent studies have suggested that executive functions (EF) predict life satisfaction for older adults. However, the mechanism is not known. By analyzing a sample (N = 3,287, ages 32- 84 years) from the Midlife Development in the United States 2, we examined the mediational role of coping strategies in the relation between EF and life satisfaction....
Article
Rumination has consistently been found to predict excessive smartphone use. However, a paucity of research has examined the mechanism that underlies this relation. Drawing on relevant theoretical accounts, we examined whether specific coping functions that can be fulfilled through smartphones—i.e., mental disengagement, problem-focused, and socioem...
Article
Despite the well-documented negative effects of anxiety on task-switching (switch costs), few studies have directly tested major theoretical assumptions about (a) the specific processing component of task-switching that is impaired by anxiety, (b) anxious individuals' strategies during task-switching, and (c) the mediating role of mind wandering in...
Article
Emotion regulation strategies, such as reappraisal and suppression, have been shown to dissimilarly affect life satisfaction. Specifically, reappraisal is linked to higher life satisfaction, while suppression is associated with lower life satisfaction. Less is known, however, about the potential moderators of these established relations. Given that...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the predictive relations of social media and smartphone use to body esteem in female adolescents and the mechanism that underlies these relations. As a result of frequent social media and smartphone use, adolescents are continually exposed to appearance-related media content. This likely reinforces a thin ideal and fosters appearance-ba...
Article
Objectives Despite the rising prevalence of dementia, little research has been conducted to identify modifiable psychological factors that alleviate the risk of dementia in older adults and the underlying mechanisms. Given that loneliness is, in part, concomitant with a weakened sense of control, we examined whether sense of control would mediate t...
Article
Objectives: A growing body of research has investigated psychosocial predictors of subjective well-being (SWB), a key component of healthy ageing, which comprises life satisfaction and affective well-being. However, few studies have examined how executive function (EF)-a collection of adaptive, goal-directed control processes-could affect SWB in m...
Article
Given the paucity of research on the cognitive implications of social media use in middle and late adulthood, we sought to understand the relations between middle-aged and older adults' social media use and their executive functions (EF)—a set of domain-general cognitive control processes—and the underlying mechanism. By analyzing a nationally repr...
Article
Given the dearth of research regarding the relations of trait fear and trait anxiety to cognitive control processes, we sought to investigate how trait fear and trait anxiety are uniquely related to inhibitory control, which is a crucial component of the regulatory processes that inhibit inappropriate responses that interfere with goal achievement...
Article
There is accumulating evidence of a prospective relation between early language problems and ADHD, a disorder associated with deficits in executive functioning. However, little is known regarding this link among bilingual children. Here, we investigate whether (i) the prediction from language to ADHD may be lower among bilinguals, and (ii) explore...
Article
Despite a growing number of studies on bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), their findings have been inconsistent. To shed light on this issue, we aimed to address both the conceptual and methodological limitations that have prevailed in the literature: failure to consider diverse bilingual experiences when assessing bilingual advantag...
Article
Prior research suggesting that longer bilingual experience benefits inhibitory control and monitoring has been criticized for a lack of control over confounding variables. We addressed this issue by using a propensity-score matching procedure that enabled us to match early and late bilinguals on 18 confounding variables—for example, demographic cha...
Article
Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES...
Article
Although little is known about the link between bilingualism and mathematical achievement in children, the established link between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical achievement suggests that bilingualism—which has been shown to affect EFs—may positively predict math skills. Drawing on two large-scale datasets collected in the US—the Multi...
Article
To examine script effects, monoscriptal Spanish–English (SE) bilinguals, who use two similar Roman alphabetic systems, were compared to biscriptal Chinese–English (CE) bilinguals, who use logographs and Roman alphabets. On the Attention Network Test, script effects were most evident in global processing efficiency (i.e., inverse efficiency and reac...
Article
Video gaming has been a source of serious concern for parents and educators, based on the belief that video games disrupt adolescents' academic activities. However, previous studies have been mixed regarding video games’ effects on academic outcomes. We revisited this issue by analyzing data on approximately 30,000 adolescents from three large-scal...
Article
We examined the influence of bilingualism on task switching by inspecting various markers for task-switching costs. English monolinguals and Korean–English bilinguals completed a modified Dimensional Change Card Sort task based on a nonverbal task-switching paradigm. We found advantages for Korean–English bilinguals in terms of smaller single-task...
Article
Using the item-method directed forgetting paradigm (i.e. intentionally forgetting specified information), we examined directed forgetting of facial identity as a function of facial expression and the sex of the expresser and perceiver. Participants were presented with happy and angry male and female faces cued for either forgetting or remembering,...
Article
Despite a huge spike in smartphone overuse, the cognitive and emotional consequences of smartphone overuse have rarely been examined empirically. In two studies, we investigated whether separation from a smartphone influences state anxiety and impairs higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive functions. We found that smartphone separation...
Article
Sympathy is usually evoked by heightened awareness of and concern for others’ suffering by perceiving or reacting to their distress or need. Sympathetic contexts appear to spur creative solutions, because those who react sympathetically to others’ suffering tend to seek novel, desirable, and prosocial solutions that alleviate suffering and promote...
Article
Full-text available
In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals’ different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis—which postulates a critical link betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence that positive affect enhances associative processing has lent weight to the idea that positive affect increases false memory for information that is thematically interrelated. Using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm, we examined whether mild positive affect facilitates monitoring processes in modulating false memory for asso...
Article
Full-text available
These authors have contributed equally to this work. Keywords: cognitive development in children of low-socioeconomic families, holistic intervention program, family context, home environment, early intervention program A commentary on Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status presc...
Article
We examined the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and executive attention among Chinese-English bilingual children in the process of learning to read. Seventy-four bilingual children (mean age 67.5 months) completed phonological tasks assessing onset and rime awareness and the Attention Network Test (ANT), a nonverbal measure of exec...
Article
Full-text available
Using the modified Dimensional Change Card Sort task, we examined the influence of positive affect on task switching by inspecting various markers for the costs, including restart cost, switch cost and mixing cost. Given that the executive-control processes that underlie switching performance-i.e., inhibition or shifting-are distinct from the compo...
Article
Full-text available
The literature on directed forgetting has employed exclusively visual words. Thus, the potentially interesting aspects of a spoken utterance, which include not only vocal cues (e.g., prosody) but also the speaker and the listener, have been neglected. This study demonstrates that prosody alone does not influence directed-forgetting effects, while t...
Data
The list of voice samples used in the Experiment. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether early especially efficient utilization of executive functioning in young bilinguals would transcend potential cultural benefits. To dissociate potential cultural effects from bilingualism, four-year-old U. S. Korean-English bilingual children were compared to three monolingual groups - English and Korean monolinguals...
Article
We investigated the effects of positive mood on risky choice versus advice. We found that people in happy mood are more likely to give a risky advice but less likely to make a risky decision for themselves than those in neutral mood. However, this effect was context-dependent.
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether bilinguals could show higher working memory (WM) capacity by controlling their attention well on an attention-impeded Stroop-span task while undergoing constant interference. Our research question sprang up from the two existing bodies of research in Cognitive Psychology as an effort to connect the two. First,...
Article
Full-text available
To find out how the representations of structured visual objects depend on the co-occurrence statistics of their constituents, we exposed subjects to a set of composite images with tight control exerted over (1) the conditional probabilities of the constituent fragments, and (2) the value of Barlow 's criterion of "suspicious coincidence" (the rati...

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