Hussain Zakaria

Hussain Zakaria
Universiti Teknologi MARA | UiTM · Faculty of Electrical Engineering

PhD in Automatic Control and System Engineering

About

99
Publications
14,039
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753
Citations
Citations since 2017
27 Research Items
512 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Known vibrational energy harvesting methods use a source of vibration to harvest electric energy. Piezoelectric material works as a sensing element converted mechanical energy (vibration) to electrical energy (electric field). The existing piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEHs) devices have low sensitivity, low energy conversion, and...
Article
Full-text available
The gait cycle prediction model is critical for controlling assistive rehabilitation equipment like orthosis. The human gait model has recently used statistical models, but the dynamic properties of human physiology limit the current approach. Current human gait cycle prediction models need detailed kinematic and kinetic data of the human body as i...
Article
Full-text available
Deep Learning has ignited great international attention in modern artificial intelligence techniques. The method has been widely applied in many power system applications and produced promising results. A few attempts have been made to classify fault on transmission lines using various deep learning methods. However, a type of deep learning called...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the analytical study of flexible stimulation waveforms in muscle fatigue reduction for functional electrical stimulator (FES)-assisted hemiplegic muscle activities. The major challenge of muscle contraction induced by FES is early muscle fatigue which greatly limits activities such as FES-assisted standing and walking. The fixed...
Article
Full-text available
Faults frequently occur in transmission lines and become a major issue in power system engineering. It is an unavoidable incident and leads to many problems such as failure of equipment, instability in power flow and economical losses. Protection relay is a device installed in transmission lines to perform detection, classification and estimation o...
Article
Full-text available
Piezoelectric Acoustic Transducer (PAT) is a transducers used in many application such as medical diagnostic, medical ultrasonic imaging and underwater acoustic applications. Latest research, PAT were investigated in marine application and underwater acoustic imaging. Conventional PAT is design based on sensing element, Piezoelectric Material, matc...
Article
Faults in power distribution system are important to be detected, classified and located to ensure the power supply can be restored in the shortest possible time. The conventional fault classification technique, which is using steady state component, is obviously affected by many factors especially surrounding conditions. Thus, it is important to p...
Conference Paper
The development of FES-assisted exercise system is a challenging task due to the dynamic behavior of the muscular skeletal system. This paper presents the design of the cycle to cycle control technique based on the fuzzy logic control (FLC) algorithm for FES-assisted elliptical stepping exercise. The control aims to produce an appropriate FES stimu...
Conference Paper
This paper proposed a new teaching technique for engineering courses based on the implementation of drone technology. In some engineering related courses, teaching and learning are difficult due to very complex theoretical and technical explanation need to be digested by the non experienced students. In Malaysia, quadcopter is one of the technologi...
Article
Fault occurred in transmission line can cause many problems such as failure of equipment, instability in power flow, and economical losses. Many of the techniques proposed for fault classification in transmission line have applied steady state component as it is easily affected by the surroundings. Then, protection scheme based on fault generated t...
Article
Welded joints are widely used in automotive industry in order to form a complete vehicle. The welded joints not only provide connections between components but are essential in controlling the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The dynamic characteristic of the vehicle is highly influenced on determining the level of car Noise, Vibration and H...
Conference Paper
In this paper, an adjustable angle sensor based on rotary potentiometer for measuring and monitoring finger flexion is proposed. Most of the current system is unadjustable, inaccurate, costly and hard to calibrate. The proposed system in this study consists of a rotary potentiometers and adjustable case, which makes it adjustable, compact and light...
Conference Paper
Random-valued impulse noise (RVIN) is a randomly distributed noise of two significant pixel values that degrades the quality of digital images during acquisition, processing, and storage. It is a variation of the salt-and-pepper or fixed-valued impulse noise (FIN) which instead of the black and white pixel, the noisy pixel value can be anywhere in...
Article
Full-text available
Much efforthas been devoted to evaluating the usability of web-based system. With the increase in the mobile-based applications coupled with the limitations and challenges of mobile devices, it becomes mandatory to evaluate the web-based systems in the context of smartphone usability. In addition, a number of international standards/models on usabi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Conventional genetic algorithm (GA) has several drawbacks such as premature convergence and incapable of fine tuning around potential region. Thus, new enhanced GA that focuses on new search, crossover and elitism strategy is proposed in this study. It involves solution enhancement phase by performing search among high quality chromosomes via new c...
Conference Paper
Power system protective relaying is an important feature for efficient and reliable power flow operation. The traditional fault classification scheme using the steady state component is easily affected by environment factors. Then, it is important to provide power protection scheme that offers a better classification performance based on fault-gene...
Article
Fast and accurate fault classification in transmission lines is important for any protection devices. The present of extra transient signals cause to phase misclassification and malfunction of protection devices. Thus, it is crucial to provide a proper protection scheme that offer a good classification performance when the signals are influenced by...
Article
This paper presents the parameter optimization of the fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-assisted elliptical stepping exercise. The FLC is used to control the cadence of the elliptical stepping exercise for smooth exercise movement. Genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are used to op...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A current conceptual studies and researches are focusing on rehabilitation of SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) and stroke sufferer by using FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation) induced. The amount of FES induced is depending on level of injury and the muscle since the electrical stimulate is only in μvolt. To have sufficient amount of FES stimu...
Article
This paper describes the implementation of PID control strategy for a functional electrical stimulation (FES) in specific rehabilitation exercise known as elliptical stepping exercise. The PID controller is used to regulate the FES in controlling the knee joint torque of the paretic and non-paretic legs of the hemiplegic stroke patient during the e...
Article
This paper presents the implementation of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for an FES-assisted elliptical stepping exercise in stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of the system is to restore the function of the lower extremities for the stroke subject through the application of a Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) in specified exercise technique....
Article
This paper describes the parameter optimization of PID controllers of knee-FES-ergometer used to control the paralyzed knee for smooth swinging exercise. The knee-FES-ergometer is a machine that helps elongate knee swinging exercise of paralyzed people by reducing the required electrical stimulus. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to optimi...
Article
Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed and cause of death among women worldwide. There is evidence that early detection and treatment can increase the survival rate of breast cancer patients. The traditional method for diagnosing the disease relies on human experiences to identify the presence of certain pattern from the database. It is...
Article
The dual-power PV-grid system was introduced to manipulate the lower tariff rate at off-peak period and to reduce the capital installation cost of PV energy system. The power converter in the PV energy system is used to process solar energy captured by PV modules into usable electrical energy. In the dual-power PV-grid system, the power converter c...
Article
The Dual-power PV-grid energy system was initiated to reduce the capital installation cost of PV energy system and to make use the lower tariff rate offered at off-peak period. In this paper, the system configuration, architecture and operation of the system are described and discussed. The prototype has been developed and runs 24-hours to supply t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a conceptual of EEG analysis and classification of brainwaves signal for alpha and beta signals during Functional Electrical Stimulation, FES-assisted exercise. The characteristics of brainwave signals, data acquisition for electroencephalograph (EEG) signal and data session are identified. This paper also includes the criteria...
Article
This paper presents the development of a model of knee swinging ergometer for stroke patient. Knee swinging ergometer is introduced as a hybrid exercise for restoration of function of the knee for stroke patients through the application of functional electrical stimulation. The aim of the new FES-assisted knee swinging ergometer is to provide high...
Conference Paper
Stroke disease is one of the major killer diseases worldwide and most of the survivors will end with certain level of impairment. They commonly are wheelchair bounded and require scheduled rehabilitation exercise to regain their walking capability or mobility. This paper presents the design of elliptical stepping exercise ergometer for functional e...
Conference Paper
Knee-FES-ergometer for knee swinging exercise is introduced as a hybrid exercise for restoration of function of the knee for stroke patients through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The aim of the new knee-FES-ergometer is to provide high intensity knee swinging exercise. It is able to reduce required electrical stimulati...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the development of FES-assisted abdominal exercise that specially designed for persons with neurological disorder such as stroke. A model of modified abs flex exercise equipment namely abdominal exercise ergometer and the humanoid models were developed using the dynamic simulation software. The body composition of the humanoid m...
Article
This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic controller for a knee-FES-ergometer for stroke patients knee swinging exercise. The knee-FES-ergometer is introduced as a hybrid exercise for a long repetitive knee swinging exercise for stroke patient through the application of a knee swinging ergometer and functional electrical stimulation. The...
Conference Paper
Breast cancer prevails as one of the infamous deathly diseases among women worldwide. Early detection and treatment of breast cancer can increase the survival rate of patients. Presently, the method of diagnosis depends on the human experiences. The method is time-consuming, subjected to human error and cause unnecessary burden to radiologists. Thi...
Conference Paper
One of the important tool in genomic analysis is Gel Eletrophoresis. It is a tool that is routinely used in genetics, microbiology, forensics, molecular biology and biochemistry. GE is also used in separating DNA, RNA and protein molecules by using electric field applied to a gel matrix. This paper describes the application of Particle Swarm Optimi...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the development of physiologically based mathematical model of quadriceps muscle and the implementation on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) assisted wheel-chaired elliptical stepping exercise. Two muscles that make up quadriceps muscle namely rectus femoris and vasti were developed. The muscle models were integrated with...
Conference Paper
This work is focused on the development of physiological and mathematical model of muscle extension induced by FES-assisted knee swinging ergometer. A muscle model composed of muscle activation, muscle contraction and body segmental dynamics is developed to perform full knee extension. The developed muscle model is then incorporated with a humanoid...
Conference Paper
Dual-power PV-grid system was introduced to manipulate the lower tariff rate at off-peak period and to reduce the capital installation cost of PV energy system. The power converter system consists of a boost regulator to boost and regulate PV outputs to fixed voltage of 240V, 50Hz, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to derive maximum power from...
Article
An improved genetic algorithm procedure is introduced in this work based on the theory of the most highly fit parents (both male and female) are most likely to produce healthiest offspring. It avoids the destruction of near optimal information and promotes further search around the potential region by encouraging the exchange of highly important in...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the model development of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-assisted wheel-chaired elliptical stepping exercise. This exercise specially designed for persons with hemiplegic or spinal cord injury (SCI). The design involves the development of humanoid, wheelchair and elliptical stepping machine models. A feedback control sys...
Conference Paper
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) - induced limb movement is believed to provide therapeutic benefits for stroke patients. However, direct stimulation for a continuous repetitive movement can cause early muscle fatigue and ruin the patients desire to continue exercising. In this study, a model of a FES-assisted knee ergometer was developed to...
Article
The conventional technique for diagnosing the breast cancer disease relies on human experiences to identify the presence of certain pattern from the database. It is time-consuming and incurs unnecessary burden to radiologists. This work proposes a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization of an Artificial Neural Network classifier, namel...
Article
Full-text available
This paper present an identification of model system performance for Photovoltaic (PV) System under normal and shading operating condition in UiTM Pulau Pinang, Malaysia of 2.4 kW systems. A system identification approach was implemented by employing a Hammerstein-Weiner (HW) model as model structure. The approach concerned on the estimation of the...
Conference Paper
Gel electrophoresis (GE) is a process of DNA, RNA and protein molecules separation using electric field applied to a gel matrix. This paper describes the image processing techniques applied on GE image to segment the bands from their background. A few pre-processing steps are applied on the image prior to the segmentation technique for the purpose...
Article
The lower extremities of a humanoid model having the parameters of stroke patient is designed to promote an understanding of its paralysis behaviour. The assemblies of the model are designed using SolidWork, a three dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) software and converted into SimMechanics models for further simulations. The humanoid-lower ex...
Article
Dual-power PV-grid system was introduced to manipulate the lower tariff rate at off-peak period and to reduce the capital installation cost of PV energy system. In this paper, the system and simulation design of the system is discussed to evaluate the design parameters which affect the design performance of the power converter. It consists of a boo...
Article
The detection of moving object in dynamic case especially outdoor case is very challenging for computer vision. One of the problems in dynamic case is detection of shadow in moving object. This paper presents the improvement of moving vehicle detection using removal shadow technique in RGB color space and frame difference technique. In RGB color sp...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the development of a self adaptive neuro-fuzzy control mechanism for FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing). The FES-rowing is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower body through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The neuro-fuzzy control technique is a cont...
Article
This paper describes the evaluation of the spreading factor inertia weight Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the fuzzy logic control (FLC) of FES-assisted paraplegic indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing). The FES-rowing is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of lower extremities through the application of functional electrical...
Article
Gel electrophoresis (GE) is an important tool in genomic analysis. It is a process of DNA, RNA and protein molecules separation using electric field applied to a gel matrix. This paper describes the image processing techniques applied on GE image to segment the bands from their background. Numerous pre-processing steps are applied on the image prio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduce the adaptive kalman filter to modeling dynamic background for background subtraction. Background subtraction is a method to identify object and famous used in moving object segmentation. In this paper we also investigate a comparison study on Gaussian subtraction method, frame differencing method and approximate median method....
Conference Paper
One of the major issues concerning the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) design is a proper adjustment of the weights of the network. There have been a number of studies comparing the performance of evolutionary and gradient based ANNs learning. But the results of the studies, sometime conflicting to each other although the same and standard datase...
Conference Paper
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of the most promising biological inspired computational intelligence techniques. However designing an ANN is a difficult task as it requires setting of ANN structure and tuning of some complex parameter. On the other hand, Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a global search technique is useful for complex optimization p...
Article
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a popular computational intelligence technique in many applications. However, the performance depends on appropriate structure design and considered as a difficult task. Until now, there is no standard procedure in designing an optimal ANN. Two important issues in designing ANN are the selection of significant inp...
Article
This paper presents the development of paraplegic muscle model with Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). A series of experiments using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) with different stimulation frequencies, pulse width and pulse duration to investigate the impact on muscle output torque are conducted. The data that is obtained is...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the development of a fuzzy control scheme for functional electrical stimulation, (FES)-assisted paraplegic walking with wheel walker. The simulation in this study starts with a model of humanoid with wheel walker using the Visual Nastran (Vn4D) dynamic simulation software. The humanoid model is designed based on anthropometric...
Article
This paper describes the parameter optimization of fuzzy logic control (FLC) of FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing) using multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The indoor rowing exercise is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower extremities through the application of functional electrical stimul...
Article
This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to control the stimulation pulses of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with spring brake orthosis (SBO). The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spr...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the effect of dynamically inclined rowing machine in assisting indoor rowing exercise for paraplegics. The indoor rowing exercise is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower extremities through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The angle of inclination of the rowing m...
Conference Paper
FES requires an accurate model of electrically stimulated muscles to control the muscle contraction force. Characterization of electrically stimulated muscle is complex because of the non-linearity and time varying nature of the system with interdependent variables. The muscle model consists of passive properties and active properties. In this rese...
Article
Full-text available
Improving the FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing) performance enables the spinal cord injury (SCI) people to perform hybrid FES-exercise in a higher level of intensity. High level of exercise volume and intensity can play a big role in prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity which is a significant threat to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of an adaptive control mechanism for FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise (FES-rowing). The FES-rowing is intro-duced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower body through the application of functional elec-trical stimulation (FES). A model of the rowing ergometer with humanoid is develope...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the effect of inclined track in an indoor rowing machine on the rowing exercise for paraplegics. The indoor rowing exercise is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower extremities through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). A model of the machine is developed using the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, a virtual wheelchair (WC) model is developed within Visual Nastran (VN) software environment where the model is further linked with Matlab/Simulink for control purposes. The goal is to have stable two-wheeled WC by transforming the two front wheels (caster) to the upright position. Theoretically, when the two big wheels are fed by th...