Huichao Song

Huichao Song
Peking University | PKU · Department of Physics

About

91
Publications
3,025
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,017
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (91)
Preprint
Full-text available
The light-nuclei yield ratio is one of the candidates to probe the critical fluctuations of hot QCD matter. In this paper, we investigate the \textit{background effects}, namely the non-critical effects coming from the non-trivial thermal background, on the light-nuclei production within the framework of the coalescence model. Specifically, we anal...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a generation of spin polarization for moving spin carriers in materials under an external electric field and has been observed in semiconductors, metals, and insulators at or below room temperature. Recent theoretical analyses show that spin Hall current can be induced by the baryon chemical potential gradient which pl...
Article
We provide a concise review on recent theory advancements towards full-fledged (3+1)D dynamical descriptions of relativistic nuclear collisions at finite baryon density. Heavy-ion collisions at different collision energies produce strongly coupled matter and probe the QCD phase transition at the crossover, critical point, and first-order phase tran...
Article
A series of new flow observables mixed harmonic multiparticle cumulants, which allow for the first time to quantify the strength of the correlation between different orders of flow coefficients with various moments, was investigated using the hydrodynamic model. These new observables are constructed based on multiparticle cumulants and, thus, by de...
Article
Full-text available
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a powerful tool to simulate the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Using 10 000 initial and final profiles generated from (2+1)-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics vish2+1 with Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glauber) initial conditions, we train a deep neural network based on the stac...
Preprint
Full-text available
A series of new flow observables mixed harmonic multi-particle cumulants (MHC), which allow for the first time to quantify the correlations strength between different order of flow coefficients with various moments, was investigated using hydrodynamic model. These new observables are constructed based on multi-particle cumulants, and thus by design...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the spin polarization generated by the hydrodynamic gradients. In addition to the widely studied thermal vorticity effects, we identify an undiscovered contribution from the fluid shear. This shear-induced polarization (SIP) can be viewed as the fluid analog of strain-induced polarization observed in elastic and nematic materials. We obtai...
Article
Full-text available
We perform a systematic study of the spin polarization of hyperons in heavy ion collisions using the music hydrodynamic model with a multiphase transport preequilibrium dynamics. Our model calculations nicely describe the measured collision energy, centrality, rapidity, and pT dependence of the Λ polarization. We also study and predict the global s...
Article
In this proceeding, we present our recent investigations on hydrodynamic collectivity in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions at s=13TeV using the iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with different initial condition models, called HIJING, super-MC and TRENTo. We find that with carefully tuned parameters, hydrodynamic simulations can give reasonable desc...
Article
Full-text available
We briefly summarize our recent study on the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling of hadron elliptic flows in high multiplicity p-Pb collisions at sNN=5.02TeV. With the inclusion of hadron production via the quark coalescence model at intermediate pT, the viscous hydrodynamics at low pT, and jet fragmentation at high pT, our Hydro – Coal – Fra...
Preprint
We perform a systematic study of the spin polarization of hyperons in heavy-ion collisions using the MUSIC hydrodynamic model with A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) pre-equilibrium dynamics. Our model calculations nicely describe the measured collision-energy, centrality, rapidity, and $p_T$ dependence of $\Lambda$ polarization. We also study and pred...
Article
Full-text available
We study in the coalescence model the collision energy dependence of (anti-)deuteron and (anti-)triton production in the most central Au + Au collisions at sNN=7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV. The needed phase-space distribution of nucleons at the kinetic freeze-out is generated from a new three-dimensional hybrid dynamical model (iebe-m...
Preprint
We study the collision energy dependence of (anti-)deuteron and (anti-)triton production in the most central Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=$ 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV, using the nucleon coalescence model. The needed phase-space distribution of nucleons at the kinetic freeze-out is generated from a new 3D hybrid dynamical...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic collectivity in proton-proton collisions at s= 13 TeV, using iEBE-VISHNU with three different initial conditions, namely, HIJING, super-MC and TRENTo. With properly tuned parameters, hydrodynamics gives reasonable descriptions of the measured two-particle correlations, including the integrated and pT-d...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the role of partonic degrees of freedom in high-multiplicity p−Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV carried out at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by studying the production and collective flow of identified hadrons at intermediate pT via the coalescence of soft partons from the viscous hydrodynamics (VISH2+1) and hard partons from the ener...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this proceeding, we present our recent investigations on hydrodynamic collectivity in high-multiplicity proton--proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV using the VISHNU hybrid model with different initial condition models, called HIJING, super-MC and TRENTo. We find that with carefully tuned parameters, hydrodynamic simulations can give reasonab...
Preprint
We briefly summarize our recent study on the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling of hadron elliptic flows in high multiplicity p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 5.02 TeV. With the inclusion of hadron production via the quark coalescence model at intermediate $p_T$, the viscous hydrodynamics at low $p_T$, and jet fragmentation at high $p_T$,...
Preprint
In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic collectivity in high-multiplicity events of proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV, using iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with three different initial conditions, namely, HIJING, super-MC and TRENTo. With properly tuned parameters, hydrodynamic simulations with each initial model give reasonable descr...
Preprint
In this work, we investigate the role of partonic degrees of freedom in high multiplicity p-Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 5.02 TeV, based on the coalescence model for the production of intermediate transverse momentum $p_T$ using soft partons from the VISH2+1 hydrodynamics and hard partons from the LBT energy loss model. This coalescence model...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we implement principal component analysis (PCA) to study the single particle distributions generated from thousands of \(\mathtt {VISH2+1}\) hydrodynamic simulations with an aim to explore if a machine could directly discover flow from the huge amount of data without explicit instructions from human-beings. We found that the obtained...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the Kibble-Zurek scaling of the σ field and net-protons within the framework of Langevin dynamics of model A. After determining the characteristic scales τKZ,lKZ, and θKZ and properly rescaling the traditional cumulants, we construct universal functions for the σ field and approximate universal functions for net-proton...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we implement Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to study the single particle distributions generated from thousands of {\tt VISH2+1} hydrodynamic simulations with an aim to explore if a machine could directly discover flow from the huge amount of data without explicit instructions from human-beings. We found that the obtained PCA eig...
Preprint
In this paper, we explore the Kibble-Zurek scaling of the conserved charge, using the stachastic diffusion dynamics. After determining the characteristic scales $\tau_{kz}$ and $l_{kz}$ and properly rescaling the traditional correlation function and cumulant, we construct universal functions for both the two-point correlation function $C(y_1-y_2;\t...
Article
Full-text available
In this proceeding, we will briefly review our recent progress on implementing deep learning to relativistic hydrodynamics. We will demonstrate that a successfully designed and trained deep neural network, called stacked U-net, can capture the main features of the non-linear evolution of hydrodynamics, which also rapidly predicts the final profiles...
Preprint
In this paper, we investigate the Kibble-Zurek scaling of the sigma field and net-protons within the framework of Langevin dynamics of model A. After determining the characteristic scales $\tau_{kz},l_{kz}$ and $\theta_{kz}$ and properly rescaling the traditional cumulants, we construct universal functions for the sigma field and approximate univer...
Article
Full-text available
Within the framework of the coalescence model based on the phase-space distributions of protons and neutrons generated from the iebe-vishnu hybrid model with ampt initial conditions, we study the spectra and elliptic flow of deuterons and helium-3 in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN La...
Preprint
In this proceeding, we will briefly review our recent progress on implementing deep learning to relativistic hydrodynamics. We will demonstrate that a successfully designed and trained deep neural network, called {\tt stacked U-net}, can capture the main features of the non-linear evolution of hydrodynamics, which could also rapidly predict the fin...
Preprint
Within the framework of the coalescence model based on the phase-space distributions of protons and neutrons generated from the {{\tt iEBE-VISHNU}} hybrid model with {{\tt AMPT}} initial conditions, we study the spectra and elliptic flow of deuterons and helium-3 in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and...
Article
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a powerful tool to simulate the evolution of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Using 10000 initial and final profiles generated from 2+1-d relativistic hydrodynamics VISH2+1 with MC-Glauber initial conditions, we train a deep neural network based on stacked U-net, and use it to predict...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic collectivity in proton--proton (pp) collisions at 13 TeV, using iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with HIJING initial conditions. With properly tuned parameters, our model simulations can remarkably describe all the measured 2-particle correlations, including integrated and differential elliptic flow coefficien...
Article
Within the framework of the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism, we investigate the universal behavior of the non-equilibrium critical fluctuations, using the Langevin dynamics of model A. With properly located typical time, length and angle scales, $\tau_{\mbox{KZ}}$, $l_{\mbox{KZ}}$, and $\theta_{\mbox{KZ}}$, the constructed functions $\bar{f}_n((\tau-\tau_c)...
Article
Full-text available
In this proceeding, we investigate the dynamical evolution of the $\sigma$ field with a trajectory across the 1st order phase transition boundary, using Langevin dynamics of model A. We find the high order cumulants of the $\sigma$ field are largely enhanced during the dynamical evolution, compared with the equilibrium values, due to the supercooli...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we study and predict flow observables in 2.76 and 5.02 A TeV Pb + Pb collisions, using the iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with TRENTo and AMPT initial conditions and with different forms of the QGP transport coefficients. With properly chosen and tuned parameter sets, our model calculations can nicely describe various flow observables in 2...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the non-critical fluctuations of (net) charges and (net) protons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 7.7, 39 and 200 GeV, using iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with Poisson fluctuations added in the particle event generator between hydrodynamics and UrQMD. Various effects, such as volume fluctuations hadronic evolution a...
Article
Full-text available
In this proceeding, we study the dynamical evolution of the sigma field within the framework of Langevin dynamics. We find that, as the system evolves in the critical regime, the magnitudes and signs of the cumulants of sigma field, $C_{3}$ and $C_{4}$, can be dramatically different from the equilibrated ones due to the memory effects near $T_c$. F...
Article
In this paper, we study and predict flow observables in 2.76 A TeV and 5.02 A TeV Pb +Pb collisions, using the iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with TRENto and AMPT initial conditions and with different forms of the QGP transport coefficients. With properly chosen and tuned parameter sets, our model calculations can nicely describe various flow observables...
Article
In this article, we briefly review the recent progress on collective flow and hydrodynamics in large and small systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which includes the following topics: extracting the QGP viscosity from the flow data, initial-state fluctuations and final-state correlations at 2.76 A TeV Pb-Pb collisions, correlations, and col...
Article
In this proceeding, we summarize the main results of our recent paper, which introduces a freeze-out scheme to the dynamical models near the QCD critical point. Within such framework of static critical fluctuations, the Beam Energy Scan (BES) data of $C_4$ and $\kappa \sigma^2$ for net protons within different $p_T$ ranges can be roughly described....
Article
Full-text available
This proceeding briefly summarizes our recent investigations on the correlations of flow harmonics in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb collisions with viscous hydrodynamics {\tt VISH2+1}. We calculated both the symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(m, n)$ and the normalized symmetric cumulants $NSC^{v}(m, n)$, and found $v_{2}$ and $v_{4}$, $v_{2}$ and $v_{5}$, $v_{3}$ and...
Article
Using the event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics VISH2+1 with MC-Glauber, MC-KLN, and AMPT initial conditions, we investigate the correlations of flow harmonics, including the symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(m, n)$, the normalized symmetric cumulants $NSC(m, n)$, and the Pearson correlation coefficients $C(v_{m}^{2}, v_{n}^{2})$ in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb colli...
Article
Using iEBE-VISHNU hybrid model with the AMPT initial conditions, we study the higher order flow harmonics of identified hadrons in 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. Comparison with the recent ALICE measurements at 20-30\% centrality shows that our calculations nicely describe the data below 2 GeV, especially for the $v_2$, $v_3$ and $v_4$ mass-orderings...
Article
Full-text available
Using VISHNU hybrid model, we calculate the pT-spectra and elliptic flow of Λ, Ξ, and Ω in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions. Comparisons with the STAR measurements show that the model generally describes these soft hadron data. We also briefly study and discuss the mass ordering of elliptic flow among π, K, p, Λ, Ξ, and Ω in minimum bias Au+Au collisions...
Article
This proceeding briefly summarizes our recent work on calculating the correlated fluctuations of net protons on the hydrodynamic freeze-out surface near the QCD critical point. For both Poisson and Binomial baselines, our calculations could roughly reproduce the energy dependent cumulant $C_4$ and $\kappa \sigma^2$ of net protons, but always over-p...
Article
In this article, we introduce a freeze-out scheme for the dynamical models near the QCD critical point through coupling the decoupled classical particles with the order parameter field. With a modified distribution function that satisfies specific static fluctuations, we calculate the correlated fluctuations of net protons on the hydrodynamic freez...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies are expected to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We report theoretical investigations of the ph...
Article
Using VISHNU hybrid model, we calculate the $p_{\rm T}$-spectra and elliptic flow of $\Lambda$, $\Xi$, and $\Omega$ in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions. Comparisons with the STAR measurements show that the model generally describes these soft hadron data. We also briefly study and discuss the mass ordering of elliptic flow among $\pi$, $K$, $p$, $\Lambda...
Article
Full-text available
This proceeding briefly summarizes our recent VISHNU hybrid model investigations on the chemical and thermal freeze-out of various hadrons species in 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. Detailed analysis on the evolution of particle yields and the last elastic collisions distributions during the hadronic evolution reveals that the two multi-strange hadron...
Article
Full-text available
Using the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics ({\tt UrQMD}) model, we investigate the azimuthal correlations in p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. It is shown that the simulated hadronic p--Pb system can not generate the collective flow signatures, but mainly behaves as a non-flow dominant system. However, the characteri...
Article
Using the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model, we investigate azimuthal correlations in p-Pb collisions at sNN=5.02TeV. Comparison with the experimental data shows that UrQMD cannot reproduce the multiplicity dependence of two- and four-particle cumulants, especially the transition from positive to negative values of c2{4} in...
Article
Full-text available
Using the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model, we investigate azimuthal correlations in p--Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{\rm NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. Comparison with the experimental data shows that UrQMD can not reproduce the multiplicity dependence of 2- and 4-particle cumulants, especially the transition from positive to negative...
Article
Full-text available
Using the VISHNU hybrid model, we calculate the multiplicity, spectra, and elliptic flow of $\Lambda$, $\Xi$ and $\Omega$ in 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. Comparisons between our calculations and the ALICE measurements show that the model generally describes the soft hadron data of these strange and multi-strange hadrons at several centrality bins....
Article
Full-text available
The elliptic flow v_2 for strange and multi-strange bayons in 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions is investigated with VISHNU hybrid model that connects 2+1-d viscous hydrodynamics with a hadron cascade model. It is found that VISHNU nicely describes v_2(p_T) data for \Lambda, \Xi and \Omega at various centralities. Comparing with the ALICE data, it roughl...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we briefly review recent progress on hydrodynamic modeling and its implementations to relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The related topics include: 1) initial state fluctuations, final state correlations and event-by-event hydrodynamics, 2) extracting the QGP shear viscosity from flow data, 3) flow and hydrodyn...
Article
Full-text available
Using the VISHNU hybrid model that couples viscous hydrodynamics to a microscopic hadronic transport model, we calculate the multiplicity, p_T spectra and elliptic flow for pions, kaons, and protons in 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions, and compare the results of our calculation to data taken by the ALICE collaboration. Using the same inputs, we predict...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we will briefly review the recent progress on hydrodynamic modeling and the extraction of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) specific shear viscosity with an emphasis on results obtained from the hybrid model VISHNU that couples viscous hydrodynamics for the macroscopic expansion of the QGP to the hadron cascade model for the microscopic...
Article
Full-text available
In this proceeding, we briefly describe the viscous hydrodynamics + hadron cascade hybrid model VISHNU for relativistic heavy ion collisions and report the current status on extracting the QGP viscosity from elliptic flow data.
Article
A comprehensive viscous hydrodynamic fit of spectra and elliptic flow for charged hadrons and identified pions and protons from Au+Au collisions of all centralities measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is performed and used as the basis for predicting the analogous observables for Pb+Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC...
Article
Full-text available
The specific shear viscosity (eta/s)_QGP of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) can be extracted from elliptic flow data in heavy-ion collisions by comparing them with the dynamical model VISHNU which couples a viscous fluid dynamic description of the QGP with a microscopic kinetic description of the late hadronic rescattering and freeze-out stage. A robust m...
Article
With the new viscous hydrodynamic + hadron cascade hybrid code VISHNU, a rather precise (O(25%)) extraction of the QGP shear viscosity (eta/s)_QGP from heavy-ion elliptic flow data is possible if the initial eccentricity of the collision fireball is known with <5% accuracy. At this point, eccentricities from initial state models differ by up to 20%...
Article
A new robust method to extract the specific shear viscosity (η/s)(QGP) of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at temperatures T(c) < T ≲ 2T(c) from the centrality dependence of the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow v2/ε measured in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. Coupling viscous fluid dynamics for the QGP with a microscopic transport m...
Article
The successes of ideal hydrodynamics in describing RHIC data at lower pT region led to the well known announcement that "RHIC Scientists Serve Up Perfect Liquid" (the Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP). In order to answer "How perfect is the QGP fluid?," one needs to extract the QGP viscosity from experimental data. Viscous hydrodynamics is such a tool that...
Article
Using the newly developed hybrid model VISHNU which connects viscous hydrodynamics with a hadron cascade model, we study the differential and integrated elliptic flow v_2 at different centrality bins for 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions and 2.76 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions. We find that the average Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) specific shear viscosity eta/s sligh...
Article
It is shown that the recently developed hybrid code VISHNU, which couples a relativistic viscous fluid dynamical description of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with a microscopic Boltzmann cascade for the late hadronic rescattering stage, yields an excellent description of charged and identified hadron spectra and elliptic flow measured in 200 A GeV A...
Article
A hybrid transport approach for the bulk evolution of viscous QCD matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions is presented. The expansion of the dense deconfined phase of the reaction is modeled with viscous hydrodynamics while the dilute late hadron gas stage is described microscopically by the Boltzmann equation. The advantages of...
Article
In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. C 80 (2009) 061901] we showed that systematic studies of the impact parameter dependence of the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow v2/ε can distinguish between different models for the calculation of the initial source eccentricity. These calculations were done with viscous relativistic hydrodynamics in 2+1 space-time d...
Article
The successes of ideal hydrodynamics in describing RHIC data at lower pT region led to the well known announcement that ``RHIC Scientists Serve Up Perfect Liquid'' (the Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP). In order to answer ``How perfect is the QGP fluid?,'' one needs to extract the QGP viscosity from experimental data. Viscous hydrodynamics is such a tool t...
Article
Using the (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code VISH2+1, we present systematic studies of the dependence of pion and proton transverse momentum spectra and their elliptic flow in 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions on the parameters of the hydrodynamic model (thermalization time, initial entropy density distribution, decoupling temperature, equation o...
Article
Using viscous relativistic hydrodynamics we show that systematic studies of the impact parameter dependence of the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow v2/ε can distinguish between different models for the calculation of the initial source eccentricity ε. This removes the largest present uncertainty in the extraction of the specific viscosity of the m...
Article
Bulk viscosity suppresses elliptic flow ν2, as does shear viscosity. It can thus not be neglected when extracting the shear viscosity from elliptic flow data. We here explore uncertainties in the bulk viscous contribution to viscous ν2 suppression that arise from presently uncontrolled uncertainties in the initial value of the bulk viscous pressure...
Article
Full-text available
For a hard parton moving through a dense QCD medium, we compute self-consistently the energy loss and the fraction deposited into the medium due to showering and rescattering of the shower, assuming weak coupling between probe and medium. The same transport coefficients thus determine both the energy loss and its deposition into the medium. This al...
Article
We perform viscous hydrodynamic calculations in 2+1 dimensions to investigate the influence of bulk viscosity on the viscous suppression of elliptic flow in non-central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Bulk and shear viscous effects on the evolution of radial and elliptic flow are studied with different model assumptions for the transport coe...
Article
Full-text available
The viscosity of the QGP is a presently hotly debated subject. Since its computation from first principles is difficult, it is desirable to try to extract it from experimental data. Viscous hydrodynamics provides a tool that can attack this problem and which may work in regions where ideal hydrodynamics begins to fail. This thesis focuses on viscou...
Article
We report recent progress on causal viscous hydrodynamics for relativistic heavy ion collisions. For fixed specific shear viscosity eta/s, uncertainties in the elliptic flow arising from initial conditions, equation of state, bulk viscosity and numerical viscosity, and the treatment of the highly viscous hadronic stage and freeze-out procedure are...
Article
We report on recent results from VISH2+1, a code that solves the relativistic Israel-Stewart equations for causal viscous hydrodynamics for heavy-ion collisions with longitudinal boost invariance. We find that even ``minimal'' shear viscosity eta/s=hbar/(4pi) leads to a large reduction of elliptic flow compared to ideal fluid dynamics. We explore s...
Article
Using numerical results from ideal and viscous relativistic hydrodynamic simulations with three different equations of state, for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at different centralities and initial energy densities, we explore the dependence of the eccentricity-scaled elliptic flow, v_2/epsilon, and the produced entropy fraction, Delta S/S_0, on the f...
Article
The viscosity of the QGP is a hotly debated theoretical subject, and first principles calculations are difficult. It is thus important to try to extract the viscosity from experimental data. Viscous hydrodynamics provides a tool that can attack this problem and which may work in regions where ideal hydrodynamics fails. Using the 2nd order Israel-St...
Article
We explore the effects of shear viscosity on the hydrodynamic evolution and final hadron spectra of Cu+Cu collisions at ultrarelativistic collision energies, using the newly developed (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code VISH2+1. Based on the causal Israel-Stewart formalism, this code describes the transverse evolution of longitudinally boos...