Hui Pan

Hui Pan
Joslin Diabetes Center

Doctor of Philosophy

About

54
Publications
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1,601
Citations
Introduction
Hui Pan currently works at Joslin Diabetes Center. Hui does research in Bioinformatics. Their most recent publication is 'Metabolic Effects of Betaine: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Betaine Supplementation in Prediabetes'.

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Insulin acts through the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase and two major canonical post-receptor signaling pathways (the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway and the Shc/Ras/MAP kinase pathway) to exert its classic metabolic and mitogenic actions. To create a detailed map of how different domains of the receptor might be linked to different insulin actions,...
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Insulin and IGF-1, acting through the insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), maintain muscle mass and mitochondrial function, at least part of which occurs via their action to regulate gene expression. Here, we show that while muscle-specific deletion of IR or IGF1R individually results in only modest changes in the muscle transcriptome,...
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To improve the power of mediation in high-throughput studies, here we introduce High-throughput mediation analysis (Hitman), which accounts for direction of mediation and applies empirical Bayesian linear modeling. We apply Hitman in a retrospective, exploratory analysis of the SLIMM-T2D clinical trial in which participants with type 2 diabetes wer...
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Insulin resistance is present in one-quarter of the general population, predisposing to a wide-range of diseases. Our aim was to identify cell-intrinsic determinants of insulin resistance in this population using IPS cell-derived myoblasts (iMyos). We found that these cells exhibited a large network of altered protein phosphorylation in vitro. Inte...
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Background Human pancreatic islets are a central focus of research in metabolic studies. Transcriptomics is frequently used to interrogate alterations in cultured human islet cells using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). We introduce single-nucleus RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) as an alternative approach for investigating transplanted human isle...
Article
Previous studies have shown that there is a strong interaction between the diet and the gut microbiome. This is often linked to circulating metabolites, however, in most studies these metabolites are measured in peripheral circulation, after hepatic clearance of intestinal venous drainage. In the present study, we have determined the effects of hig...
Article
Insulin resistance in muscle precedes and predicts type 2 diabetes in offspring of diabetic parents and is also observed in ~25% of the general population. However, whether these changes represent cell autonomous defects or are secondary to changes in circulating factors is unclear. To define possible cell autonomous determinants of insulin resista...
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We previously demonstrated that paternal obesity is associated with offspring metabolic risk during later life, and that paternal SGLT2i treatment improves offspring metabolic phenotypes. Since the placenta is a key determinant of prenatal growth and development, we hypothesized the placenta could mediate the impact of paternal obesity and paternal...
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Many hormones and growth factors, including insulin, act through networks of protein phosphorylation. Insulin resistance is an important factor in the pathophysiology of many metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to uncover the cell autonomous determinants of insulin action and protein phosphorylation using induced pluripotent stem cell (i...
Article
Significance Insulin and IGF-1 receptors share many downstream signaling pathways but have unique biological effects. Here, using global phosphoproteomics, we demonstrate that there are important differences in phosphorylation-mediated signaling between IR and IGF1R in both the basal and ligand-stimulated states involving multiple pathways of cellu...
Article
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the earliest defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D), preceding and predicting disease development. To what extent this reflects a primary defect or is secondary to tissue cross talk due to changes in hormones or circulating metabolites is unknown. To address this question, we have developed an in vitro disease-in-a-di...
Article
Flow-limiting atherosclerotic lesions of arteries supplying the limbs are a cause of symptoms in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Musculoskeletal metabolic factors also contribute to the pathophysiology of claudication, which is manifest as leg discomfort that impairs walking capacity. Accordingly, we conducted a case–control study to...
Article
To identify disease-specific indicators associated with insulin resistance by using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a “disease-in-a-dish” model, iPSCs were derived from 20 nondiabetic individuals, with 10 each in the most insulin resistant (IR) or insulin sensitive (IS) quintiles as determined using SSPG measurements. Half of each g...
Article
Insulin and IGF-1 regulate a wide variety of biological processes through insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R). These receptors are highly homologous and share many overlapping downstream signaling pathways. To determine differences in signaling between IR and IGF1R that could account for their unique physiological actions, we performed globa...
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One severe complication of gastrointestinal and bariatric surgery is post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH). Affected patients may develop severe hypoglycemia, typically 1-3 hours after meals. While exaggerated postprandial incretin hormone and insulin secretion has been implicated, additional contributors to hypoglycemia remain uncertain. We performed...
Article
Paternal obesity has a detrimental impact on metabolic health of his offspring, suggesting an opportunity for preventive strategies prior to conception. Indeed, treatment of male mice with the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin (CANA, 25mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks prior to breeding reduces obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glycemia in offspring. To identify mole...
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Importance While prenatal nutrition and maternal obesity are recognized as important contributors to epigenetic changes and childhood obesity, the role of paternal obesity in the epigenome of offspring has not been well studied. Objectives To test whether periconception paternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with DNA methylation patterns in...
Preprint
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Molecular mechanisms by which Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycemic control and metabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain incompletely understood. In the SLIMM-T2D trial, participants with T2D were randomized to RYGB or nonsurgical management and their fasting plasma proteome and metabolome were analyzed for up to 3 years. To identify...
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Background Hypoglycemia is an increasingly recognized complication of bariatric surgery. Mechanisms contributing to glucose lowering remain incompletely understood. We aimed to identify differentially abundant plasma proteins in patients with post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), compared to asymptomatic post-RYGB...
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OBJECTIVE: Elevated glycolytic enzymes in renal glomeruli correlated with preservation of renal function in the Medalist Study, individuals with ≥50 years of type 1 diabetes. Specifically, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activation protected insulin-deficient diabetic mice from hyperglycemia-induced glomerular pathology. This study aims to extend these...
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Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 induces glycosuria and reduces glycemia. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce mortality and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, improved understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating these metabolic effects is required. Treatment of obese but nondiabetic mice with the...
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Exercise improves health and well-being across diverse organ systems, and elucidating mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise can lead to new therapies. Here, we show that transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is secreted from adipose tissue in response to exercise and improves glucose tolerance in mice. We identify TGF-β2 as an e...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is driven by dysfunction between host genetics, the microbiota, and immune system. Knowledge gaps remain regarding how IBD genetic risk loci drive gut microbiota changes. The Crohn’s disease risk allele ATG16L1 T300A results in abnormal Paneth cells due to decreased selective autophagy, increased cytokine release, a...
Article
Insulin deficiency and uncontrolled diabetes lead to a catabolic state with decreased muscle strength, contributing to disease-related morbidity. FoxO transcription factors are suppressed by insulin and thus are key mediators of insulin action. To study their role in diabetic muscle wasting, we created mice with muscle-specific triple knockout of F...
Article
Context Plasma betaine correlates with insulin sensitivity in humans. Betaine supplementation in high-fat fed mice improves glucose homeostasis, hepatic fat, insulin sensitivity, and increases energy expenditure and oxidative capacity of inguinal white adipose tissue. Objective To assess metabolic effects of oral betaine in obese participants with...
Article
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We have reported that up-regulation of PKM2 in renal glomeruli isolated from patients with more than 50 years of type 1 diabetes (Joslin Medalist Study) correlated with preservation of renal function even in the presence of chronic hyperglycemia. Further, pharmacological activation of PKM2 in T1D mice and podocyte-specific deletion of PKM2 in cultu...
Article
Diet, genetics, and the gut microbiome are determinants of metabolic status, in part through production of metabolites by the gut microbiota. To understand the mechanisms linking these factors, we performed LC-MS-based metabolomic analysis of cecal contents and plasma from C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac mice on chow or a high-fat diet (HF...
Article
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities and carry a wide variety of genetic material, including the ability to encode host-like proteins. Here we show that viruses carry sequences with significant homology to several human peptide hormones including insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1 and -2, FGF-19 and -21, endothelin-1, inhibin...
Article
Cell growth and proliferation are tightly coupled to metabolism, and dissecting the signaling molecules which link these processes is an important step toward understanding development, regeneration, and cancer. The transcriptional regulator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) is a key regulator of liver size, development, and function. We now show that...
Article
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Despite a high degree of homology, insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) mediate distinct cellular and physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate how domain differences between IR and IGF1R contribute to the distinct functions of these receptors using chimeric and site-mutated receptors. Receptors with the intracellular domain of IGF1...
Article
Isolated islets used for transplantation are known to be stressed, which can result from the circumstances of death, in particular brain death, the preservation of the pancreas with its warm and cold ischemia, from the trauma of the isolation process, and the complex events that occur during tissue culture. The current study focused upon the events...
Article
Genetic factors play important roles in the development of tuberculosis (TB). SP110 is a promising candidate target for controlling TB infections. However, several studies associating SP110 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with TB have yielded conflicting results. This may be partly resolved by studying other genes associated with SP110, such...
Article
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) plays important physiological roles in the heart and lung and is the primary target of β-agonists, the mainstay asthma drugs. Activation of β2AR by β-agonists is attenuated by receptor down-regulation, which ensures transient stimulation of the receptor but reduces the efficacy of β-agonists. Here we report the ide...
Article
Prolonged stimulation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) leads to receptor ubiquitination and downregulation. Using a genome-wide RNA interference screen, we identified arrestin domain-containing 3 (ARRDC3) as a gene required for beta2AR regulation. The ARRDC3 protein interacts with ubiquitin ligase neural precursor development downregulate...
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Infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can cause different outcomes in hosts with variant genetic backgrounds. Previously, we identified an intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) gene with the role of resistance of MTB infection in mice model. However, until now, its binding proteins have been little known even for its human homology,...
Article
The egress of HIV particles from virus-infected cells is accomplished by the recruitment of proteins that normally mediate host cell endocytic functions. This process requires interaction of the HIV Gag protein with the host protein TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101). Here, we report the use of a bacterial reverse two-hybrid system to identify...
Article
In-depth studies of innate immunity require efficient genetic manipulation of macrophages, which is especially difficult in primary macrophages. We have developed a lentiviral system for inducible gene expression both in macrophage cell lines and in primary macrophages. A transgenic mouse strain C3H.TgN(SRA-rtTA) that expresses reverse tetracycline...
Article
LAG1 contributes to the substrate specificity and catalytic activity of ceramide synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Double deletion of LAG1 and its yeast homologue LAC1 results in the slow growth defect of the cell under certain genetic backgrounds. LASS2, containing the conserved TLC domain and the specific HOX domain, is a human homologue of...
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An estimated eight million people are infected each year with the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and more than two million die annually. Yet only about 10% of those infected develop tuberculosis. Genetic variation within host populations is known to be significant in humans and animals, but the nature of genetic control of host resistance to...
Article
We have identified LASS2, a previously unknown human homologue of the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1. The LASS2 transcript is highly expressed in liver and kidney, which is very different from the expression of the previously identified human LAG1 homologue LAG1Hs-1. Radiation hybrid mapping studies indicated that LASS2 is located on chromosom...
Article
The effect of gene copy number and chromosomal position on heterologous gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae has been tentatively investigated using a modified hepatitis B virus surface antigen SA-28 gene. The plasmids containing different copies of SA-28 gene expression cassette were integrated into different chromosomal loci via FLP recombi...
Article
By mating a yeast haploid expressing hybrid HBsAg gene SA-28, Y19/YFD158, with another hapolid Y95, the diploid Y95xY19/YFD158 was constructed. The experiments showed that the cell density of the diploid in fermentation was three time higher than that of the haploid, the stability of expression vector in the diploid was much higher than in the hapl...

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