Hugh J Byrne

Hugh J Byrne
Technological University Dublin - City Campus | TU Dublin · Focas Research Institute

BA(mod), PhD

About

473
Publications
242,648
Reads
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13,980
Citations
Introduction
Professor Hugh J. Byrne is the Head of the FOCAS Research Institute, Technological University Dublin (http://www.dit.ie/focas/). Principal research interests are in applications of spectroscopy and the study of molecular and nano-materials. Recent activities have extended to biospectroscopy for diagnostics and biochemical analysis and nano-bio interactions.
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - March 2020
Technological University Dublin - City Campus
Position
  • Head, FOCAS Research Institute
Description
  • http://www.dit.ie/focas/
January 1996 - April 2000
Dublin Institute of Technology
Position
  • Lecturer
October 1995 - January 1996
National Institute for Materials and Chemical Research
Description
  • Visiting Researcher
Education
October 1985 - September 1989
Trinity College Dublin
Field of study
  • Nonlinear Optics of Organis p-conjugated Polymers
October 1981 - May 1985
Trinity College Dublin
Field of study
  • Experimental Physics

Publications

Publications (473)
Article
Full-text available
Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP) and Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP) are food-derived tripeptides whose antihypertensive functions have been demonstrated in hypertensive rat models. However, peptides display low oral bioavailability due to poor intestinal epithelial permeability and instability. IPP and LKP were formulated into nanoparticles (NP) usin...
Article
Full-text available
The world is facing immense challenges in terms of food security, due to the combined impacts of the ever-increasing population and the adversity of climate change. In an attempt to counteract these factors, smart nutrient delivery systems, including nano-fertilizers, additives, and material coatings, have been introduced to increase food productiv...
Article
Full-text available
Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, i.e., attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), coupled with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), were evaluated as cost-effective label-free and reagent-free tools to monitor water content in Levulinic Acid/L-Proline (LALP) (2:1, mol/mol)...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoids are naturally abundant, fat-soluble pigmented compounds with dietary, antioxidant and vision protection advantages. The dietary carotenoids, Beta Carotene, Lutein, and Zeaxanthin, complexed with in bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution, were explored using Raman spectroscopy to differentiate and quantify their spectral signatur...
Article
Full-text available
The study of human skin represents an important area of research and development in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and cosmetology, in order to assess the effects of exogenous agents, their interaction, their absorption mechanism, and/or their toxicity towards the different cutaneous structures. The processes can be parameterised by mathemat...
Article
Attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) was evaluated as a rapid, label free and cost-effective tool to quantify water content in extracts obtained from spirulina wet biomass using a glucose glycerol natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES). NADESs are green, renewable and biodeg...
Article
Full-text available
Raman microspectroscopy is a label-free technique which is very suited for the investigation of pharmacokinetics of cellular uptake, mechanisms of interaction, and efficacies of drugs in vitro. However, the complexity of the spectra makes the identification of spectral patterns associated with the drug and subsequent cellular responses difficult. I...
Article
Full-text available
Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As anal...
Article
Full-text available
Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) has become a versatile technique that can be applied routinely to monitor skin penetration of active molecules. In the present study, CRM coupled to multivariate analysis (namely PLSR—partial least squares regression) is used for the quantitative measurement of an active ingredient (AI) applied to isolated (ex vivo)...
Article
Full-text available
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products of fungi. They are poisonous, carcinogenic, and mutagenic in nature and pose a serious health threat to both humans and animals, causing severe illnesses and even death. Rapid, simple and low-cost methods of detection of mycotoxins are of immense importance and in great demand in the food and beverage ind...
Article
Full-text available
Film-forming systems are highly relevant to the topical administration of active ingredients (AI) to the body. Enhanced contact with the skin can increase the efficacy of delivery and penetration during prolonged exposure. However, after the evaporation of volatile solvents to form a thin film, the distribution of the ingredient should remain homog...
Article
The cytotoxicity of carvacrol- and thymol-functionalised mesoporous silica microparticles (MCM-41) was assessed in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and apoptosis/necrosis analys...
Article
Infrared spectroscopy (IR) enables the direct and rapid characterization of cells at the molecular level. Achieving a rapid and consistent cell preparation is critical for the development of point-of-care diagnostics for cell analysis. Here we introduce an open-source, 3D printed device for integrating the isolation, preconcentration, and measureme...
Conference Paper
In this work, we present the combination of nearinfrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to distinguish respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Sendai virus (SeV), the first study of its kind. Using a low-cost and portable spectrometer, a total of 440 virus spectra were collected over four separate sessions. The spectra were pre-processed by normalisat...
Article
Full-text available
Analytical technologies that can improve disease diagnosis are highly sought after. Current screening/diagnostic tests for several diseases are limited by their moderate diagnostic performance, invasiveness, costly and laborious methodologies or the need for multiple tests before a definitive diagnosis. Spectroscopic techniques, including infrared...
Article
The development of robust and sensitive point-of-care testing platforms is necessary to improve patient care and outcomes. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-based immunosensors are especially suited for this purpose. Here, we...
Article
Full-text available
Raman spectroscopy is a label-free, non-destructive, non-invasive analytical tool that provides insight into the molecular composition of samples with minimum or no sample preparation. The increased availability of commercial portable Raman devices presents a potentially easy and convenient analytical solution for day-to-day analysis in laboratorie...
Article
The potential of Raman microspectroscopy of exfoliated cells has been demonstrated for oral cancer diagnosis. In this study, brush biopsies were collected from the buccal mucosa/tongue of healthy donors (n=31) and from oral mucosal dysplastic lesions (n=31 patients). Raman spectra were acquired and subjected to partial least squares-discriminant an...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of 5-azacytidine on primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells (OSCCs) from human biopsies, and on Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) from the same samples, were investigated by an in vitro Fourier Transform InfraRed Microscospectroscopy (FTIRM) approach coupled with multivariate analysis. OSCC is an aggressive tum...
Chapter
Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies are being increasingly employed for the label-free analysis of biochemical samples. Both are vibrational imaging techniques, but they provide complementary information about the chemical composition of the sample, and thus the integration of Raman and IR images leads to a comprehensive understanding of the sam...
Article
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are ionic solutions, of great interest for extraction from biomass, biocatalysis, and nanoparticle synthesis. They are easily synthesised and eco-friendly, have low volatility and high dissolution power, and are biodegradable. However, water content in NADES is a critical parameter, affecting their optimal use...
Article
Raman spectroscopy can provide a rapid, label-free, nondestructive measurement of the chemical fingerprint of a sample and has shown potential for cancer screening and diagnosis. Here we report a protocol for Raman microspectroscopic analysis of different exfoliative cytology samples (cervical, oral and lung), covering sample preparation, spectral...
Article
We evaluated the use of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy for simultaneous in situ quantification of the nutritional composition of liquid food stuffs in the industrial kitchen context. Different methodologies were compared, including dry and wet acquisition along with instrument parameters and measurement times of 4 and 60 s. The...
Article
Human saliva is a unique biofluid which can reflect the physiopathological state of an individual. The wide spectrum of molecules present in saliva, compounded by the close association of salivary composition to serum metabolites, can provide valuable information for clinical diagnostic applications through highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopi...
Article
Understanding and amelioration of the effects of solar radiation exposure are critical in preventing the occurrence of skin cancer. Towards this end, many studies have been conducted in 2D cell culture models under simplified and unrealistic conditions. 3D culture models better capture the complexity of in vivo physiology, although the effects of t...
Article
Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy has been used to investigate pathophysiological changes caused by sepsis. Sepsis has been defined as a potentially fatal organic dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection and can lead a patient to risk of death. This study used samples consisting of the blood plasma of...
Article
Invasive Aspergillosis is a challenging infection that requires convenient, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostics. This study addresses the potential of infrared spectroscopy to satisfy this clinical need with the aid of machine learning. Two models, based on Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), have been trained by a set of in...
Article
Full-text available
Early diagnosis, treatment and/or surveillance of oral premalignant lesions are important in preventing progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current gold standard is through histopathological diagnosis, which is limited by inter- and intra-observer errors and sampling errors. The objective of this work was to use Raman spectrosco...
Article
Analytical Quality Control (AQC) in centralised preparation units of oncology centres is a common procedure relying on the identification and quantification of the prepared chemotherapeutic solutions for safe intravenous administration to patients. Although the use of Raman spectroscopy for AQC has gained much interest, in most applications it rema...
Article
Full-text available
A large gap pin‐to‐plate, atmospheric‐pressure plasma reactor is demonstrated as means of in vitro study of plasma species interactions with cell cultures. By employing optical emission and optical absorption spectroscopy, we report that the pin‐to‐pate plasma array had an optimal discharge frequency for cell death of 1000 Hz in ambient air for the...
Article
Vibrational spectroscopy, based on either infrared absorption or Raman scattering, has attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. Proof of concept explorations for diagnosis of oral potentially malignant disorders and cancer are reviewed, and recent advances critically appraised. Specific examples of applications of Raman microspec...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of bodily fluids using vibrational spectroscopy has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In particular, infrared spectroscopic screening of blood products, particularly blood serum, for disease diagnostics has been advanced considerably, attracting commercial interests. However, analyses requiring quantification of endogenous co...
Article
In a clinical setting, analytical quality control of the administration of chemotherapeutic preparations is required to ensure patient safety with respect to the dose and more importantly the correct anticancer drug. As such, analytical tools enabling both qualitative and quantitative verification of the composition of prepared solutions can greatl...
Article
Full-text available
Stem cell technology has attracted considerable attention over recent decades due to its enormous potential in regenerative medicine and disease therapeutics. Studying the underlying mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and tissue generation is critical, and robust methodologies and different technologies are required. Towards establishing impro...
Article
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The variable configuration of Raman spectroscopic platforms is one ofthe major obstacles in establishing Raman spectroscopy as a valuable physicochemicalmethod within real-world scenarios such as clinical diagnostics. For such real worldapplications like diagnostic classification, the models should ideally be usable to predictdata from different se...
Article
The use of Raman spectroscopy for analytical quality control of anticancer drug preparations in clinical pharmaceutical dispensing units is increasing in popularity, notably supported by commercially available, purpose designed instruments. Although not legislatively compulsory, analytical methods are frequently used post-preparation to verify the...
Article
Full-text available
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into chondrocytes, the only cellular components of cartilage and are therefore ideal candidates for cartilage and tissue repair technologies. Chondrocytes are surrounded by cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM), a complex network rich in glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and colla...
Article
Solar radiation exposure is recognised to be a significant contributor to the development of skin cancer. Monitoring the simultaneous and consecutive mechanisms of interaction could provide a greater understanding of the process of photocarcinogenesis. This work presents an analysis of the biochemical and morphological changes occurring to immortal...
Article
Oral Squamous Cells Carcinoma (OSCC) is characterised by the risk of recurrence and the onset of a refractoriness response to chemotherapy drugs. These phenomena have been recently related to a subpopulation of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which have either an innate or acquired drug resistance, triggered by chemotherapy treatments. In this light, to...
Article
Full-text available
The continued emergence of nanoscale materials for nanoparticle-based therapy, sensing and imaging, as well as their more general adoption in a broad range of industrial applications, has placed increasing demands on the ability to assess their interactions and impacts at a cellular and subcellular level, both in terms of potentially beneficial and...
Article
Herein, we investigated the use of multimodal Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic microscopy for the elucidation of drug uptake and subsequent cellular responses. Firstly, we compared different methods for the analysis of the combined data. Secondly, we evaluated whether the combined analysis provided enough benefits to justify the fusion of the...
Article
Confocal Raman Mapping (CRM) is a powerful, label free, non‐destructive tool, enabling molecular characterisation of human skin with applications in the dermo‐cosmetic field. Coupling CRM to multivariate analysis can be used to monitor the penetration and permeation of Active Cosmetic Ingredients (ACI) after topical application. It is presently ill...
Article
This study demonstrates the efficacy of Raman microspectroscopy of oral cytological samples for differentiating dysplastic, potentially malignant lesions from those of normal, healthy donors. Cells were collected using brush biopsy from healthy donors (n = 20) and patients attending a Dysplasia Clinic (n = 20). Donors were sampled at four different...
Article
Field cancerisation (FC) is potentially an underlying cause of poor treatment outcomes of Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To explore the phenomenon using Raman microspectroscopy, brush biopsies from the buccal mucosa, tongue, gingiva and alveolus of healthy donors (n=40) and from potentially malignant lesions (PML) of Dysplasia Clinic patients...
Article
Natural Deep Eutectic solvents (NADES) are green, ionic solutions prepared by mixing vegetal cellular constituents. They are renewable and biodegradable solvents composed of hydrogen bonded donor and acceptor compounds. NADES have a wide range of applications, mainly as solvents for extraction of plants, biocatalysis, and nanoparticle synthesis. Wa...
Article
Full-text available
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) enhances uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles and promotes synergistic cytotoxicity against cancer cells. However, the mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the enhanced uptake of theranostic nanomaterials by CAP. Numerical modelling of the uptake of gold nanoparticle into U373MG Gliobla...
Article
Full-text available
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful and sensitive technique for the detection of fingerprint sig-nals of molecules and for the investigation of a series of surface chemical reactions. Many studies introduced quantita-tive applications of SERS in various fields and several SERS methods have been implemented for each specific appli...
Article
The role that tobacco consumption plays in the etiology of oral cancer carcinogenesis, and of alcohol consumption acting as a co-factor, have been well established. However, in recent years, the contribution of alcohol consumption alone to oral cancer has been proposed. In fact, a high percentage of patients who develop oral cancer have both habits...
Article
There is compelling evidence in the literature to support the application of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of bodily fluids in their native liquid state. Naturally, the strategies described in the literature for Raman spectroscopic analysis of liquid samples have advantages and disadvantages. Herein, recent advances in the analysis of plasma/seru...
Chapter
Alterations in biomolecular components in human blood are commonly used as an indication of disease states, namely differences in protein concentration. Unfortunately, conventional test kits currently employed in hospitals suffer from long time delays, meaning patients often have to wait anxiously for their test results. Vibrational spectroscopic t...
Article
Full-text available
Lateral flow immunochromatographic assays are a powerful diagnostic tool for point-of-care tests, based on their simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. In this study, a rapid and sensitive gold nanoparticle (AuNP) immunochromatographic strip is produced for detecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in suspicious fungi-contaminated food samples. The 10 nm Au...
Article
Full-text available
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and new protocols for routine and early detection are required. Raman spectroscopy is an optical based method that can provide sensitive and non‐invasive real time detailed information on the biochemical content of a sample like saliva, through the unique vibratio...
Article
Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is a robust tool for molecular characterisation of matter. Applied to semi-solid formulations, it enables rapid and reliable data collection without pre-analytical requirements. Based on nano-encapsulated Omegalight®, a skin-lightening active cosmetic ingredient (ACI), incorporated in a hy...
Article
Confocal near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has been shown to have applications in the area of clinical biology. A source wavelength in the near infrared is preferred over visible wavelengths for inspecting biological samples due to superior wavenumber resolution and reduced photodamage. However, these excitation sources have a number of drawbacks wh...
Article
Full-text available
Immunoassays using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy are especially interesting on account not only of their increased sensitivity, but also due to its easy translation to point-of-care formats. The bases for these assays are bioconjugates of polyclonal antibodies and anisotropic gold nanoparticles functionalized with a Raman reporter. These bioc...
Article
Full-text available
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translate...
Article
Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translate...