Hugenholtz Philip

Hugenholtz Philip
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences

PhD

About

599
Publications
191,821
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77,951
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2004 - June 2010
DOE Joint Genome Institute
Position
  • Microbial Ecology group leader

Publications

Publications (599)
Article
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Most prokaryotes are not available as pure cultures and therefore ineligible for naming under the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP). Here we summarize the development of the SeqCode, a code of nomenclature under which genome sequences serve as nomenclatural types. This code enables valid publi...
Article
Heterotrophic bacterial diazotrophs (HBDs) are ubiquitous in the pelagic ocean, where they have been predicted to carry out the anaerobic process of nitrogen fixation within low-oxygen microenvironments associated with marine pelagic particles. However, the mechanisms enabling particle colonization by HBDs are unknown. We hypothesized that HBDs use...
Article
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Over the last fifteen years, genomics has become fully integrated into prokaryotic systematics. The genomes of most type strains have been sequenced, genome sequence similarity is widely used for delineation of species, and phylogenomic methods are commonly used for classification of higher taxonomic ranks. Additionally, environmental genomics has...
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The capacity of planktonic marine microorganisms to actively seek out and exploit microscale chemical hotspots has been widely theorized to affect ocean-basin scale biogeochemistry1,2,3, but has never been examined comprehensively in situ among natural microbial communities. Here, using a field-based microfluidic platform to quantify the behavioura...
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Actinic keratosis (AK) is a premalignant lesion, common on severely photodamaged skin, that can progress over time to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A high bacterial load of Staphylococcus aureus is associated with AK and SCC, but it is unknown whether this has a direct impact on skin cancer development. To determine whether S. aureus can...
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Actinic keratoses (AK) arise in severely photo-damaged skin and can progress to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AK and SCC are common in Caucasian populations, and immunosuppressed individuals have a markedly higher risk of developing SCC. An overabundance of Staphylococcus aureus has been reported in AK and SCC lesions of immunocompetent individua...
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Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common type of skin cancer that typically arises from premalignant precursor lesions named actinic keratoses (AK). Chronic inflammation is a well-known promoter of skin cancer progression. AK and SCC have been associated with an overabundance of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ). Certain secreted p...
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Investigating the composition and metabolic capacity of aquatic microbial assemblages usually requires the filtration of multi-litre samples, which are up to 1 million-fold larger than the microenvironments within which microbes are predicted to be spatially organised. To determine if community profiles can be reliably generated from microlitre vol...
Preprint
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Members of the genus Shigella have high genomic similarity to Escherichia coli and are often considered to be atypical members of this species. In an attempt to retain Shigella species as recognizable entities, they were reclassified as Escherichia species in the Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB) using an operational average nucleotide identity (ANI)...
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The Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB; https://gtdb.ecogenomic.org) provides a phylogenetically consistent and rank normalized genome-based taxonomy for prokaryotic genomes sourced from the NCBI Assembly database. GTDB R06-RS202 spans 254 090 bacterial and 4316 archaeal genomes, a 270% increase since the introduction of the GTDB in November, 2017. The...
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The domestication of the laboratory mouse has influenced the composition of its native gut microbiome, which is now known to differ from that of its wild ancestor. However, limited exploration of the rodent gut microbiome beyond the model species Mus musculus has made it difficult to interpret microbiome variation in a broader phylogenetic context....
Article
The structural diversity in metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), especially in the vicinity of the active site, has been a major hurdle in the development of clinically effective inhibitors. Representatives from three variants of the B3 MBL subclass, containing either the canonical HHH/DHH active site motif (present in the majority of MBLs in this subclass...
Article
Significance Termites are textbook examples of the “extended phenotype” given their ability to construct complex mounds and regulate environments. Here, we show that termites also control microbial composition and biogeochemical cycling in their mounds through their emissions of hydrogen. These emissions drive remarkable enrichments of mound bacter...
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The accrual of genomic data from both cultured and uncultured microorganisms provides new opportunities to develop systematic taxonomies based on evolutionary relationships. Previously, we established a bacterial taxonomy through the Genome Taxonomy Database. Here, we propose a standardized archaeal taxonomy that is derived from a 122-concatenated-...
Article
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Bacteriophages have important roles in the ecology of the human gut microbiome but are under-represented in reference databases. To address this problem, we assembled the Metagenomic Gut Virus catalogue that comprises 189,680 viral genomes from 11,810 publicly available human stool metagenomes. Over 75% of genomes represent double-stranded DNA phag...
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Asgardarchaeota have been proposed as the closest living relatives to eukaryotes, and a total of 72 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing six primary lineages in this archaeal phylum have thus far been described. These organisms are predicted to be fermentative heterotrophs contributing to carbon cycling in sediment ecosystems. Here, we...
Article
Immunopathology and intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the prima-facie manifestation of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and is responsible for significant mortality after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Approaches to prevent GVHD to date focus on immune-suppression. Here we identify interferon-lambd...
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Ecological theory suggests that habitat disturbance differentially influences distributions of habitat generalist and specialist species. While well-established for macroorganisms, this theory has rarely been explored for microorganisms. Here we tested these principles in permeable (sandy) sediments, ecosystems with much spatiotemporal variation in...
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The ability to preserve microbial communities in faecal samples is essential as increasing numbers of studies seek to use the gut microbiome to identify biomarkers of disease. Here we use shotgun metagenomics to rigorously evaluate the technical and compositional reproducibility of five room temperature (RT) microbial stabilisation methods compared...
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The classification of life forms into a hierarchical system (taxonomy) and the application of names to this hierarchy (nomenclature) is at a turning point in microbiology. The unprecedented availability of genome sequences means that a taxonomy can be built upon a comprehensive evolutionary framework, a longstanding goal of taxonomists. However, th...
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A fundamental goal of microbial ecology is to accurately determine the species composition in a given microbial ecosystem. In the context of the human microbiome, this is important for establishing links between microbial species and disease states. Here we benchmark the Microba Community Profiler (MCP) against other metagenomic classifiers using 1...
Preprint
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Asgardarchaeota have been proposed as the closest living relatives to eukaryotes, and a total of 72 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) representing six primary lineages in this archaeal phylum have thus far been described. These organisms are predicted to be fermentative organoheterotrophs contributing to carbon cycling in sediment ecosystems. Her...
Article
Objectives Analysis of oral dysbiosis in individuals sharing genetic and environmental risk factors with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients may illuminate how microbiota contribute to disease susceptibility. We studied the oral microbiota in a prospective cohort of patients with RA, first-degree relatives (FDR) and healthy controls (HC), then genom...
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Comprehensive, high-quality reference genomes are required for functional characterization and taxonomic assignment of the human gut microbiota. We present the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, comprising 204,938 nonredundant genomes from 4,644 gut prokaryotes. These genomes encode >170 million protein sequences, which we col...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Efficient response to the pandemic through the mobilization of the larger scientific community is challenged by the limited reusability of the available primary genomic data. Here, the Genomic Standards Consortium board highlights the essential need for contextual genomic data FAIRness, for empowering key data-driven biological questions.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third commonest cause of death globally, and manifests as a progressive inflammatory lung disease with no curative treatment. The lung microbiome contributes to COPD progression, but the function of the gut microbiome remains unclear. Here we examine the faecal microbiome and metabolome of COPD pa...
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The class Deltaproteobacteria comprises an ecologically and metabolically diverse group of bacteria best known for dissimilatory sulphate reduction and predatory behaviour. Although this lineage is the fourth described class of the phylum Proteobacteria , it rarely affiliates with other proteobacterial classes and is frequently not recovered as a m...
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The Genome Taxonomy Database is a phylogenetically consistent, genome-based taxonomy that provides rank-normalized classifications for ~150,000 bacterial and archaeal genomes from domain to genus. However, almost 40% of the genomes in the Genome Taxonomy Database lack a species name. We address this limitation by using commonly accepted average nuc...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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The assembly of single-amplified genomes (SAGs) and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) has led to a surge in genome-based discoveries of members affiliated with Archaea and Bacteria, bringing with it a need to develop guidelines for nomenclature of uncultivated microorganisms. The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) only recog...
Preprint
Full-text available
The increasing wealth of genomic data from cultured and uncultured microorganisms provides the opportunity to develop a systematic taxonomy based on evolutionary relationships. Here we propose a standardized archaeal taxonomy, as part of the Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB), derived from a 122 concatenated protein phylogeny that resolves polyphyleti...
Article
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Objective: The gut microbiome plays a key role in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here we investigate the individual contribution of the pre- and post-transplant gut microbiome to acute GVHD using a well-studied mouse model. Design: Wild-type mice were cohoused...
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Viral discovery is accelerating at an unprecedented rate due to continuing advances in culture-independent sequence-based analyses. One important facet of this discovery is identification of the hosts of these recently characterized uncultured viruses. To this end, we have adapted the viral tagging approach, which bypasses the need for culture-base...
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The GTDB Toolkit (GTDB-Tk) provides objective taxonomic assignments for bacterial and archaeal genomes based on the Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB). GTDB-Tk is computationally efficient and able to classify thousands of draft genomes in parallel. Here we demonstrate the accuracy of the GTDB-Tk taxonomic assignments by evaluating its performance on...
Preprint
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We recently introduced the Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB), a phylogenetically consistent, genome-based taxonomy providing rank normalized classifications for nearly 150,000 genomes from domain to genus. However, nearly 40% of the genomes used to infer the GTDB reference tree lack a species name, reflecting the large number of genomes in public rep...
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Viruses of bacteria and archaea are important players in global carbon cycling as well as drivers of host evolution, yet the taxonomic classification of viruses remains a challenge due to their genetic diversity and absence of universally conserved genes. Traditional classification approaches employ a combination of phenotypic and genetic informati...
Article
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Permeable (sandy) sediments cover half of the continental margin and are major regulators of oceanic carbon cycling. The microbial communities within these highly dynamic sediments frequently shift between oxic and anoxic states, and hence are less stratified than those in cohesive (muddy) sediments. A major question is, therefore, how these commun...
Article
The composition of the lung microbiome is increasingly well characterised, with changes in microbial diversity or abundance observed in association with several chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the precise effects of the microbiome on pulmonary health a...
Article
For well over a hundred years, members of the bacterial phylum Cyanobacteria have been considered strictly photosynthetic microorganisms, reflected in their classification as “blue-green algae” in the botanical code. Recently, genomes recovered from environmental sequencing surveys representing two major uncultured basal lineages (classes) of Cyano...
Article
Objectives Certain gut bacterial families, including Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae, are increased in people suffering from spondyloarthropathy (SpA), a disease group associated with IL23R signalling variants. To understand the relationship between host interleukin (IL)-23 signalling and gut bacterial dysbiosis in SpA, we inh...
Article
Despite some notable progress in data sharing policies and practices, restrictions are still often placed on the open and unconditional use of various genomic data after they have received official approval for release to the public domain or to public databases. These restrictions, which often conflict with the terms and conditions of the funding...
Article
Methane is a key compound in the global carbon cycle that influences both nutrient cycling and the Earth’s climate. A limited number of microorganisms control the flux of biologically generated methane, including methane-metabolizing archaea that either produce or consume methane. Methanogenic and methanotrophic archaea belonging to the phylum Eury...
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We present an extension of the Minimum Information about any (x) Sequence (MIxS) standard for reporting sequences of uncultivated virus genomes. Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG) standards were developed within the Genomic Standards Consortium framework and include virus origin, genome quality, genome annotation, taxon...
Article
Type strains of species are one of the most valuable resources in microbiology. During the last decade, the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) projects at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and their collaborators have worked towards sequencing the genome of all the type strains of prokaryotic species. A new p...
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Taxonomy is an organizing principle of biology and is ideally based on evolutionary relationships among organisms. Development of a robust bacterial taxonomy has been hindered by an inability to obtain most bacteria in pure culture and, to a lesser extent, by the historical use of phenotypes to guide classification. Culture-independent sequencing t...
Article
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Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second-most-common cancer in Australia. The majority of SCCs progress from premalignant actinic keratosis (AK) lesions that form on chronically sun-exposed skin. The role of skin microbiota in this progression is not well understood; therefore, we performed a longitudinal microbiome analysis of AKs and...
Article
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Marine Group II (MGII) archaea represent the most abundant planktonic archaeal group in ocean surface waters, but our understanding of the group has been limited by a lack of cultured representatives and few sequenced genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative phylogenomic analysis of 270 recently available MGII metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) t...
Article
The genus Methanosphaera is a well-recognized but poorly characterized member of the mammalian gut microbiome, and distinctive from Methanobrevibacter smithii for its ability to induce a pro-inflammatory response in humans. Here we have used a combination of culture- and metagenomics-based approaches to expand the representation and information for...
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Naming of uncultured Bacteria and Archaea is often inconsistent with the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. The recent practice of proposing names for higher taxa without designation of lower ranks and nomenclature types is one of the most important inconsistencies that needs to be addressed to avoid nomenclatural instability. The C...
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We show that a citizen science, self-selected cohort shipping samples through the mail at room temperature recaptures many known microbiome results from clinically collected cohorts and reveals new ones. Of particular interest is integrating n = 1 study data with the population data, showing that the extent of microbiome change after events such as...
Preprint
The recent discovery of key methane-metabolizing genes in the genomes from the archaeal phyla Bathyarchaeota and Verstraetearchaeota has expanded our understanding of the distribution of methane metabolism outside of the phylum Euryarchaeota. Here, we recovered two near-complete crenarchaeotal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from circumneutral...
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Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique innate-like T cell subset that responds to a wide array of bacteria and yeast through recognition of riboflavin metabolites presented by the MHC class I-like molecule MR1. Here, we demonstrate using MR1 tetramers that recipient MAIT cells are present in small but definable numbers in graft-ve...