Howard Schuman

Howard Schuman
University of Michigan | U-M

About

119
Publications
44,076
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
13,692
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
3351 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Three conclusions about collective memory are developed from data obtained before and after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the United States. First, generational effects, as predicted by the critical years hypothesis, show that a dramatic new national or world event can have an impact on young cohorts that leads to a lasting collective...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the effect of the anniversary commemorations of September 11 and Woodstock on the American public's collective memory or collective knowledge of each event. We are able to examine both the eighth-and the tenth-anniversary commemorations of the September 11 attacks (in 2009 and 2011), as well as the fortieth anniversary of the 1969 Wo...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the distribution of collective memories in national populations has often been conducted in relatively stable societies, where most individuals have experienced a limited range of event types. We examine collective memories in Lithuania, a society that has seen substantial change, using three surveys conducted during the two decades sin...
Article
Full-text available
Sociologists and psychologists have independently identified the same general period in individual development for the formation of many memories. Yet the cross-disciplinary similarity is rarely recognized, because most psychologists study autobiographical memories of personal events, while sociologists focus on collective memories of national and...
Article
Full-text available
Central to American identity have been public memories of events like the struggle for independence and the achievements of key figures from the past. The individual most often subject to hagiographic accounts is Abraham Lincoln, with emphasis both on his epic achievements in saving the Union and ending slavery and on his personal characteristics,...
Article
Full-text available
Central to American identity have been public memories of events like the struggle for independence and the achievements of key figures from the past. The individual most often subject to hagiographic accounts is Abraham Lincoln, with emphasis both on his epic achievements in saving the Union and ending slavery and on his personal characteristics,...
Article
Full-text available
We bring together survey data from sources both new and old in order to test the generational hypothesis that national and world events experienced during a "critical period" of later childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood have a disproportionate effect on memories, attitudes, and actions in later life. We also consider competing explanations...
Article
Attempting to look systematically at the limited term of one editor is a little like trying to interpret the univariate results of a single survey item when there are no other items with which to compare it and few other variables to which it might relate. Rather than attempting that impossible task, this essay reflects briefly on what indicators t...
Article
Full-text available
Claims that Thomas Jefferson fathered the children of Sally Hemings, a slave at Monticello, have received support over the past 35 years from revisionist biographies, DNA testing and other evidence. The claims have also been communicated to the general public through novels, films and other popular media. Both those persuaded by the claims and thos...
Book
A Telescope on Society seeks to convey the development of social science in the twentieth century through its interaction with a major new instrument for gathering data about society-survey research. The story of survey research and social science is largely told by social scientists affiliated with the Survey Research Center (SRC) and Institute fo...
Article
Strack and Martin (1987) have proposed that although probability samples of general populations are needed for studying attitude content, psychological processes such as context and other response effects can be investigated quite well or even better with homogeneous convenience samples. The present paper shows that, in contrast, when social change...
Article
Cross-section samples in five states were asked in December 2004 and July 2005 whether the Iraq war is more like the Vietnam War or more like World War II. The Vietnam analogy was chosen disproportionately by those who were alive during that war, though the choice was not limited to exposure to the Vietnam period during what have been called the “c...
Article
Although the response "moral values" to a 2004 exit poll question did not point to the decisive factor in George W. Bush's victory that some commentators at first claimed, it may nevertheless have identified an important element in the election and quite possibly for the future. Various criticisms of the question are considered, and found to be wan...
Article
A Telescope on Society seeks to convey the development of social science in the twentieth century through its interaction with a major new instrument for gathering data about society-survey research. The story of survey research and social science is largely told by social scientists affiliated with the Survey Research Center (SRC) and Institute fo...
Article
Full-text available
Ever since Maurice Halbwachs's pioneering work, most scholars have been content to explore collective memory through texts and commemorative symbolism. Assuming that a study of collective memory has fuller meaning when it takes into account what ordinary people think about the past, we compare historians' and commemorative agents' representations o...
Article
Full-text available
According to revisionist historians and American Indian activists, Christopher Columbus deserves condemnation for having brought slavery, disease, and death to America’s indigenous peoples. We ask whether the general public’s beliefs about Columbus show signs of reflecting these critical accounts, which increased markedly as the 1992 Quincentenary...
Article
We asked Americans to tell us the national and world events that they believe to have been especially important since the 1930s, using replicated cross-section surveys carried out in 1985, in 2000, and after September 11, 2001. Our primary interests are, first, in how collective memories change as new events occur, such as the end of the Cold War o...
Article
We asked in an open-ended way in 1999–2000 what national and world events Israeli Jews consider most important from the past 60 years. Ten events were identified as foremost, including three from the time of independence and one that was quite recent. All the major memories are associated with efforts of the state through commemorations and in othe...
Article
Ces deux articles traitent des travaux de recherche concernant les efforts et le temps de travail consacres aux etudes par les etudiants dans l'en- seignement superieur et les resultats obtenus aux examens. Les auteurs debattent de la finalite de l'etude mais egalement des points de methodologie employes dans leurs recherches respectives
Article
We explore the knowledge of a probability sample of Russians in 1994 about nine events that occurred within the past 60 years. We consider three competing hypotheses about how knowledge relates to age: (1) adolescence and early adulthood constitute a critical age for acquiring knowledge of public events; (2) the unique content of an event creates a...
Article
Beliefs about sources of the socioeconomic disadvantages suffered by blacks have been investigated by major continuing surveys since the 1970s. Results indicate that most whites tend to place responsibility mainly on blacks themselves, with the primary emphasis on a presumed lack of motivation on the part of blacks. Drawing on two survey questions...
Article
We investigate the collective memories of two samples drawn in 1991, one from the former West Germany and one from Yokohama, Japan. In the early 1990s such samples included many members of World War II cohorts and also cohorts born long after that war had ended. We consider the relation of age, conceptualised as birth cohort, to the salience of mem...
Chapter
Full-text available
Provides an introduction to the logic of survey research and reviews the current state of the art in survey methodology. It is assumed that most social psychologists will be users rather than producers of survey data. When social psychologists undertake a major survey, they are likely to draw on the services of a professional survey center to condu...
Article
Bishop (1987) observed that being unable to answer a political knowledge question decreased self-reported interest in public affairs. This effect was unaffected by the introduction of up to 101 unrelated buffer items. In contrast, a single buffer item that provided respondents with an external explanation for their lack of knowledge greatly reduced...
Article
Survey respondents were asked to provide knowledge responses to public events and names that occurred as long ago as the 1930s and as recently as the 1980s. Respondents made errors that reflect the use of semantic and lexical memory systems, and reconstructive processes based on a semantic theme. Errors, as well as correct responses, are affected b...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the kinds of mistakes that are frequently made when the general public is asked to identify political symbols from the past half century. A particularly striking phenomenon is inversion: the event is recalled backwards, so that Rosa Parks is remembered for having given up her seat on a bus to a white person. A second type of error occurs...
Article
Three samples from a major U.S. metropolitan area are used within a quasi-experimental design to study individuals who contributed money to the far right campaign of David Duke to become Governor of Louisiana in 1991. Using mail survey and Census data, contributors are compared both with their near neighbors and with a probability sample of the pre...
Article
We conducted a randomized experiment on a face-to-face interview survey in order to test the effects on response rates of a prepaid nonmonetary incentive. Results showed a statistically significant increase in response rates, mostly through reduction in refusal rates, in the half sample that received the incentive (a gift-type ballpoint pen) as com...
Article
Two surveys were administered based on the same area probability sampling frame and with some of the same questions: one sample was used for hour-long face-to-face interviewing in the 1992 Detroit Area Study; the other sample received a much shorter questionnaire in the mail for sell-administration. The sample segments had previously been stratifie...
Chapter
Although most research on autobiographical memory has been on individual memory for events of everyday life, some attention has been paid to memories of public events, both political and nonpolitical. In research on memory for public events, two links between individual memory and the larger social group have been suggested and are much debated. On...
Book
Full-text available
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/64018/1/Autobiographical_memory.pdf
Book
Full-text available
How to conduct a proper contingent valuation study. Reccomendations
Article
Full-text available
The negative association between educational level and measures of authoritarianism has been recognized for many years. Here we present evidence that the problem is treated more usefully as one of statistical interaction: the relation of authoritarianism to other substantive measures is largely artifactual at lower educational levels, but is substa...
Article
The widespread belief that racism among young white adults has increased in the 1980s is scrutinized using 12 racial policy questions from the General Social Surveys and the National Election Studies. Under the assumption that age effects can be treated as negligible, the article evaluates the importance of period and cohort effects in shaping the...
Article
Debates over initiating war with Iraq turned to a considerable extent on which of two analogies from the past were most relevant: World War II or the Vietnam War. Along with three other theoretical conditions, the debate provided an unusual opportunity to develop and assess important implications of Mannheim's theory of generational effects. Nation...
Article
Full-text available
In order to understand the problems of interpreting political surveys in highly polarized societies, we analyze the results of 17 preelection polls carried out during the three months preceding the 1990 Nicaraguan election. We also draw on findings from a survey-based experiment on response bias administered in the last days of the election campaig...
Chapter
Data from two national samples, one of Americans and one of Lithuanians, are generally consistent with the hypothesis that people tend to remember as important those national and world events that they lived through during their own youth, roughly the ages 13 to 25. The American data indicate that in describing such events, people tend to give them...
Book
Full-text available
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/64020/1/Context_effects.pdf
Article
Answers to open survey questions, because they represent a respondent's own words rather than a choice among preformulated responses, are often assumed to reflect concern over or involvement in an issue mentioned spontaneously. Stouffer (1955) makes such an assumption in his classic book, Communism, Conformity, and Civil Liberties, which includes b...
Article
Data from samples of biochemists and sociologists show that nearly all are familiar with citation indexes and that the two groups are equally likely to have used a citation index for bibliographic purposes. We develop three hypotheses from social comparison theory to account for variation in use and evaluation of citation counts as indicators of sc...
Article
Claims that M. Rokeach and S. J. Ball-Rokeach (see record 1989-25677-001) noted an isolated trend in their research data on the ranking of equality in national samples and pulled 1 supporting indicator from research on changes in White racial attitudes (H. Schuman et al, 1985) without examining the larger body of evidence. Trend data and incompara...
Article
Claims that M. Rokeach and S. J. Ball-Rokeach (see record 1989-25677-001 ) noted an isolated trend in their research data on the ranking of equality in national samples and pulled 1 supporting indicator from research on changes in White racial attitudes (H. Schuman et al, 1985) without examining the larger body of evidence. Trend data and incompara...
Article
Full-text available
A national sample of adult Americans was asked to report "the national or world events or changes over the past 50 years" that seemed to them especially important, and then to explain the reasons for their choices. The resulting data are used both quantitatively and qualitatively to explore hypotheses related to generational effects, life course, a...
Article
Full-text available
Two split-ballot experiments on attitude questions—one on inclusion or exclusion of “don't know” options and one on agree/disagree versus forced-choice format—were included in the General Social Survey in 1974 and replicated in 1982. Response effects occurred in each experiment in 1974 and were generally replicated in 1982, but the effects do not i...
Article
We develop and test several predictions about who feels most strongly concerning the legalization of abortion. Our initial prediction is that if those who hold a mixed stance about abortion are excluded, the remaining consistent supporters and opponents of abortion should show equal strength of feeling with regard to their respective positions. Usi...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in attitude question form, wording, and context have repeatedly been shown to produce change in responses. It is often assumed that such response effects are less pronounced among individuals whose attitudes are intense, personally important, or held with great certainty. We report the results of 27 experiments conducted in national surveys...
Article
Sample interview surveys are frequently proposed and sometimes used as a way of studying public choices among alternatives. Questions in such surveys may be either "open" or "closed." Two experiments are reported that demonstrate the difficulty of inferring not only absolute levels but even relative orderings of public choices from either type of q...
Article
The most serious problem facing the United States, according to many scientific and political leaders, is the threat of nuclear war. Yet the standard survey question on the most important problem facing the country has often shown little public concurrence with this assumption. Our article uses experimentation in national samples to test whether th...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between college grades and self-reported amount of effort was examined in four major and several minor investigations of undergraduates in a large state university. Grades were operationalized mainly by using grade point average (GPA), though in one investigation grades in a particular course were the focus. Effort was measured in seve...
Article
Survey techniques are combined with behavioral observations in this attempt to replicate a 1950 baseline study in order to examine trends in racial discrimination. In the 1950 study, treatment of black and white couples was compared in a sample of 62 restaurants drawn from a population of all restaurants in a large area of East Side Manhattan. In 1...
Article
Previous experiments have shown an order effect for two adjacent items, one concerning the admittance of American reporters to Russia and the other concerning the admittance of Communist reporters to the U.S. The experiment reported here found that this effect remained when the two items were separated by a series of 17 other unrelated questions.
Article
Results from four past split-ballot experiments are drawn on to show that a norm of even-handedness operates in surveys much as it does in the rest of life: contextual linkage leads to greater consistency in the treatment of two competing parties than would occur if each were considered in isolation. A fifth experiment, developed to test this theor...
Article
The proportion of favorable responses to a general question about abortion was significantly smaller in an NORC survey than were responses to the same item in an SRC survey. We hypothesized that questionnaire context was the main source of the difference–in one survey the general item followed a more specific question about abortion–and carried out...
Article
This article examines the claim that opponents of gun permit laws feel much more intensely about the matter than do proponents and that this helps explain the political success of the opponents, despite their smaller number. Surprisingly, results from a national sample survey provide no support for the claim at the purely subjective level. In fact,...
Article
When a question on change in interest in religion follows questions on religious beliefs and attitudes, more respondents report either an increase or a decrease in interest (instead of ‘same’) than when the antecedent questions concern religious identification and participation. The association between change in interest and change in attending rel...
Article
The majority of people asked their position on a highly obscure bill before Congress gave a 'don't know' response in two different national surveys, but between 25% and 30% offered an opinion. Contrary to findings concerning most issues, more educated persons showed greater willingness to admit ignorance in cases involving an unknown object. For th...
Article
Full-text available
Five split-ballot experiments, plus replications, were carried out in several national surveys to compare the effects of offering or omitting a middle alternative in forced-choice attitude questions. Explicitly offering a middle position significantly increases the size of that category, but tends not to otherwise affect univariate distributions. T...
Article
Two quite different reasons for employing open as opposed to closed attitude questions can be distinguished. One is to discover the responses that individuals give spontaneously; the other is to avoid the bias that may result from suggesting responses to individuals. The first goal can be satisfied through careful pretesting, whereas the second req...
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/43700/1/11205_2004_Article_BF00289437.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Almost a decade ago, the Kerner Commission warned that this country was moving toward two societies—one white and one black. Data on residential segregation indicate clear-cut boundaries for these two societies—large cities are becoming black but most suburban areas remain white. Detroit is a case in point and this led the 1976 Detroit Area Study t...
Article
Full-text available
The discrepancy between public support for gun registration as measured in national surveys and legislative inaction onthe same issue leads to questions about the adequacy of traditional poll measures of public opinion. Hypotheses about three kinds of shortcomings are tested: (1) gun registration sentiment tends to vary appreciably with question wo...
Article
This paper renews the line of research into the effects of changes in survey question wording and form which occupied researchers during the 1940s. We suggest two reasons for the cessation of such research: the idiosyncratic nature of many of the items experimented with and the near exclusive focus on single-variable distributions. In the present s...
Article
Full-text available
Perceptions of the opinions of others are examined on a variety of issues using data from three sample surveys of metropolitan Detroit. A greal deal of inaccuracy in such perception is evident. Three broad tendencies or patterns can be discerned: “looking glass perceptions,” the general propensity to believe that others' opinions are the same as on...
Article
Some people refer to the United States government as “we,” some people as “they,” in responses to an open-ended survey question on American intervention in Vietnam. This seemingly trivial linguistic difference (and perhaps others) can be included as part of a regular coding operation. In the present instance, race seems to be the most important det...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
changes in racial attitudes, generational changes, Christopher Columbus, Sally Hemings, Thomas Jefferson