Howard NOTE:  SCOtton is not the co-author Giles

Howard NOTE: SCOtton is not the co-author Giles
University of California, Santa Barbara | UCSB · Department of Communication

Ph.D., D.Sc.

About

407
Publications
325,944
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20,565
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January 1987 - August 2014
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (407)
Article
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This study’s purpose was to examine if older adults sharing a group identity with third-party family members moderated how older adults’ perceptions of receiving accommodation to the group identity from their romantic partner predicted older adults’ romantic relational satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Two-hundred and seventy-four older adults...
Article
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Patient-perpetrated workplace violence (WPV) in healthcare is common. Although communication skills trainings are helpful, they may be strengthened by having a theoretical framework to improve replicability across contexts. This study developed and conducted an initial test of a training framed by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) using long...
Article
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Health professionals face high rates of workplace violence from patients. This study systematically informed registration staff about pre-violent behaviors and tested its impacts on staff approaches to aggression. In this study, staff were concerned that the implementation of the new patient registration questions as mandated by the Affordable Care...
Article
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This dyadic study examined how grandparents’ and grandchildren’s perceptions of receiving accommodation, overaccommodation, and underaccommodation were indirectly associated with grandchildren’s intentions to provide instrumental care and grandparents’ expectations that they would receive instrumental care, via both parties’ communication satisfact...
Article
In this study, older adults’ reports of their romantic partner’s accommodation based on older adults’ membership in three groups were examined as predictors of relational closeness and loneliness. The three groups were older adults’ most important, second-most important, and third-most important group affiliations. A two-way interaction involving a...
Article
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As people age, experiences of depression, loneliness and loss of physical capabilities can emerge. As with previous work on the benefits of music as an intervention for social belonging and valued social identity, dance may increase similar feelings. Although theoretical chapters have been written on dance as it relates to social identity, belongin...
Article
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Interlocutors make a variety of verbal and nonverbal adjustments to facilitate comprehension and enhance relational solidarity. This article examines research on vocal accommodation and mimicry as a specific subset of scholarship on nonverbal adjustments. We begin by introducing communication accommodation theory and discussing how accommodation is...
Article
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In an attempt to enhance the likelihood that a lie is perceived as truthful, deceivers might strategically attempt to build rapport in an interaction. Deceivers can build this rapport by coordinating behaviors with their interaction partners, thereby creating interpersonal synchrony. The goal of this study was to empirically test whether deceptive...
Article
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Butler (Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London, UK: Versa; 2004) observed cultural shifts immediately after 9/11 and suggested that, with regard to grievable and ungrievable lives, societal power structures “produce and maintain certain exclusionary conceptions of who is normatively human” (p. xiv–xv). The current study brings...
Article
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This paper expands the theoretical base of intergroup and intercultural communication by testing a new communication model of interdependence (CMII), defined in terms of the embedded nature of groups Giles, M., R. Pines, H. Giles, and A. Gardikiotis. 2018. “Towards a Communication Model of Intergroup Interdependence.” Atlantic Journal of Communicat...
Article
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Using the Communicative Ecology Model of Successful Aging (CEMSA), this study examined how one’s own age-related communication and memorable message characteristics indirectly predict successful aging, via aging efficacy. Older adults with higher dispositional hope recalled memorable messages as (a) higher in positivity, (b) higher in efficacy, and...
Article
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This article provides key group vitality concepts followed by a selective overview of four decades of research on vitality issues. Group vitality is what makes language communities behave as distinctive and active collective entities within multilingual settings. Three structural factors combine to foster strong to weak group vitality: demographic...
Article
Using the communicative ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA), this study examined whether or not older adults’ ways of communicating about a variety of age-related issues (e.g., making age-related excuses for their shortcomings, teasing other people about their age) predict older adults’ dietary habits. Participants were classified as engaged,...
Article
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This study examined how the accommodative environments experienced from grandparents and grandchildren’s own age-related communication are indirectly associated with grandchildren’s life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and loneliness, via grandchildren’s self-efficacy with respect to aging. The communication experienced from grandparents was cla...
Article
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Addressing the current gap in the literature regarding cultural festivals as a unique site of intergroup discourse, we invoke social identity and group vitality theories to explore the effect of attending an international cultural festival on members of different groups. A total of 143 participants at the 2016 Festival of Pacific Arts in Guam compl...
Article
The communicative ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA), which theorizes how people’s communication can influence their experiences of successful aging, takes as axiomatic that aging involves uncertainty. In two studies, with data from the U.S. and the U.K., we compared the viability of two conceptualizations of uncertainty about aging in the C...
Article
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This study investigates the impact of perceived police accommodation on police–civilian interactions. Elaborating theoretically beyond a range of cross-cultural studies, we examine the cultural impact of accommodative communication in the United Arab Emirates and the USA, as the prior context demonstrates sociocultural parallels and differences inc...
Article
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Researchers have repeatedly called for more careful attention to how ethnicity and culture influence grandparent–grandchild communication. Using affection exchange theory as our guiding lens, we examined how grandchildren’s perceptions of receiving affection from their grandparents differ according to grandparents’ ethnicity. After controlling for...
Article
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We examined how older adults’ communication about age-related topics is related to aging efficacy, successful aging, and well-being. Guided by the communicative ecology model of successful aging, three profiles of “environmental chatter”—that is, patterns of accommodation and overaccommodation older adults received from relational partners—were ide...
Article
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Intergroup relations have been studied systematically for more than 60 years and have become embedded in mainstream communication studies. The intergroup communication (IGC) approach provides a crucial level of understanding beyond the interpersonal and the societal, highlighting the interconnections and mutual influences between groups and individ...
Article
This article seeks to expand the theoretical base of intergroup communication by proposing a new model of interdependence. As a backdrop toward this end, historical and contemporary uses of the concept of interdependence are briefly reviewed across a range of different disciplines and research fields. Defining interdependence in terms of the embedd...
Article
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In this prologue to a special issue on intergroup communication, we highlight areas of intersection across its field. To start, we provide a brief history of the field, simultaneously highlighting 6 central principles guiding the work in this area. We then review 4 key themes—areas of intersection uniting the contributions in this special issue: (a...
Article
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Using identity implications theory as a guiding lens, this study examined how siblings, dating partners, and friends pursue relational repair or relational distancing after a hurtful conflict. Identity implications theory addresses how people pursue goals, but few studies have examined how varying types of relationships fit into the theory’s framew...
Article
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This mixed-methods study applies Communication Accommodation Theory to explore how liking, power, and sex predict one’s likelihood for using textisms in digital interpersonal interactions. Textisms are digital cues that convey nonverbal meaning and emotion in text communication. The main experiment used a hypothetical texting scenario to manipulate...
Article
This study explored how type of grandparent is related to grandparents’ affectionate communication and grandchildren’s relational closeness to grandparents. We predicted that grandchildren would be closest to and receive the most affection from maternal grandmothers, followed by maternal grandfathers, paternal grandmothers, and paternal grandfather...
Article
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This article reviews theoretically informed research on grandparent-grandchild (GP-GC) communication. Research has been organized herein according to whether it is guided by an intergroup theory, an affect theory, or another type of theory. After reviewing research under these three broad categories, a heuristic value and degree of support for each...
Article
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In this article, we review the different functions that language and symbols (in particular clothing) fulfill in group life; language and clothing are rarely, if ever, discussed together in the same conceptual space. Our review includes a consideration of how social identities are communicated and discredited, boundaries crossed, and group norms es...
Article
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Two experiments tested the prediction that heavy foreign-accented speakers are evaluated more negatively than mild foreign-accented speakers because the former are perceived as more prototypical (i.e., representative) of their respective group and their speech disrupts listeners’ processing fluency (i.e., is more difficult to process). Participants...
Article
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This article takes an intergroup communication perspective to conceptualizing language-related issues in multilingual multinational corporations (MNCs). Language is one of the most salient identifiers of individuals and groups as well as an integral aspect of self-concept. Managers of multilingual teams and MNCs, where speakers of different first l...
Chapter
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This chapter examines and overviews research on aging and communication conducted in various corners of the world, and illuminates critical issues such as age stereotypes, the changing roles of family and older person norms, intra-and intergenerational communication perceptions in general, and the subjective health implications of intra-and interge...
Chapter
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A Biological and Social Imperative Adaptation is a biological and social imperative - biologically, for the survival of a species; socially, for the survival of a society. Vertebrates and invertebrates alike come equipped with reflexes that produce involuntary survival-related forms of adaptation in the form of fight or flight responses. In the fac...
Chapter
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Communication accommodation theory (CAT) is a general theoretical framework for both interpersonal and intergroup communication. It seeks to explain and predict why, when, and how people adjust their communicative behavior during social interaction (including mediated contact), and what social consequences might result from such adjustments. This e...
Book
Most people modify their ways of speaking, writing, texting, and e-mailing, and so on, according to the people with whom they are communicating. This fascinating book asks why we 'accommodate' to others in this way, and explores the various social consequences arising from it. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT), revised and elaborated over th...
Article
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This final contribution to this special Journal of Language and Social Psychology issue on “using the science of language to improve translation of the language of science” places the articles in the context and nature of the broader literature on science communication, particularly as it relates to the media. This framework is crafted with a view...
Article
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This study examines age ingroup and outgroup communication perceptions of older Thai and American adults to assess whether communication perceptions of self and others are associated with mental health outcomes such as personal self-esteem, collective self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results suggest that more accommodation by same-age older othe...
Article
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While deception is generally viewed as an undesirable and unethical action, people evaluate some lies as more detrimental than others. This study examined factors influencing deception assessments, including the seriousness of the lie and whom it benefits. The effect of an intergroup versus an interpersonal context for the lie was examined. Utilizi...
Article
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Two experiments examined the effects of processing fluency—that is, the ease with which speech is processed—on language attitudes toward native- and foreign-accented speech. Participants listened to an audio recording of a story read in either a Standard American English (SAE) or Punjabi English (PE) accent. They heard the recording either free of...
Article
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Accent is a potent cue to social categorization and stereotyping. An important agent of accent-based stereotype socialization is the media. The present study is the first quantitative content analysis to comprehensively examine accent portrayals on American primetime television. We focused our analysis on portrayals of Standard American (SA), Nonst...
Chapter
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The authors propose a comprehensive model for analyzing the level of intergroup tensions in diverse settings defined by six parameters: 1) emotional attachment to group identity; 2) boundary impermeability; 3) ethnocentrism; 4) perceived ingroup strength, 5) perceived illegitimacy of intergroup power relations; and 6) perceived level of intergroup...
Chapter
Full-text available
Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) is a general theoretical framework of both interpersonal and intergroup communication. It seeks to explain and predict why, when, and how people adjust their communicative behavior during social interaction, and what social consequences result from those adjustments. In this entry, a brief historical overvie...
Article
Full-text available
How we adapt our behavior for others’ preferences in interpersonal interactions—particularly when those preferences differ from our own—can be a means to nonverbally communicate our attention, interest, and concern for them. Invoking communication accommodation theory (CAT), this vignette study examined how relational closeness and attraction influ...
Conference Paper
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While deception is generally viewed across communities as an undesirable an unethical action, people evaluate some lies as more detrimental or more benign than others. This study examined the various factors influencing deception assessments. These factors included the seriousness of the lie and whom the lie benefits. As a novel addition, the role...
Article
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A consensually-agreed position among scholars of communication and aging is that while psychological and physical health mutually impact each other, the quality of language to and from older adult individuals shape each of these—and are shaped by them. Encounters with others inside and outside of one's age ingroup involve stereotyped expectations w...
Article
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Building on recent revisions to communication accommodation theory (CAT), we propose and test a model relating inferred motives, perceptions of accommodation, and evaluative responses to nonaccommodation. In a vignette scenario, inferring a positive (i.e., helping) motive was found to influence evaluative responses to nonaccommodative communication...
Article
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This paper critically reviews studies that have interpretively invoked communication accommodation theory (CAT) for the study of patient-provider interaction. CAT's sociolinguistic strategies—approximation, interpretability, interpersonal control, discourse management, and emotional expression—are succinctly introduced and their use in studies of p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper critically reviews studies that have interpretively invoked communication accommodation theory (CAT) for the study of patient-provider interaction. CAT's sociolinguistic strategies—approximation, interpretability, interpersonal control, discourse management, and emotional expression—are succinctly introduced and their use in studies of p...
Article
Full-text available
This study introduces the communicative ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA). The CEMSA is predicated on the belief that individuals have agency over the aging process and, through communicative practices, construct ecologies within which they are able to age more successfully. According to the model, uncertainty about aging stimulates affecti...
Article
We draw on the recently developed communicative ecology model of successful aging (CEMSA) to examine how adults communicate about aging and how these communication patterns relate to experiences of successful aging. Using latent class analysis across 2 datasets collected in New Zealand and the United States, we identify 3 distinct classes of agers...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on social psychological processes that may be operating when youth decide to join a gang. First, it argues that gang membership can be an alternative attractive option for youth who lack a clear sense of their social identity and are marginalized by their peers or community. Then, it discusses why young people join gangs, focus...
Article
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Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory (EVT) asserts that status, demographic and institutional support (IS) factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups within intergroup relations. Specifically, IS factor refers to the extent to which a language group enjoys representation in the various institutions of a society, in particular, mass media, ed...
Article
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Gang violence, endemic to many communities in the United States and around the world is a very significant social problem. Given that the messages conveyed by, and the rivalries associated with, gang identities readily invoke constructs and processes familiar to the social psychological study of social identity, intergroup relations, and communicat...
Article
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In introducing this Special Issue on gangs, we overview the thrust of its papers, demonstrating how they assist in plugging research gaps from the dearth of psychological attention to gangs. The papers therein raise important theoretical considerations of group process effects, social identity, and communication influences in gangs. Also included a...
Article
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En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados de una investigación más amplia sobre la vitalidad etnolingüística en indígenas y mestizos de Chiapas (México). Participaron en el estudio un total de 190 estudiantes de la U niversidad Intercultural de Chiapas: 115 indígenas y 75 mestizos. Los resultados muestran una fuerte identificación como mexic...
Article
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Invoking self-categorization and social identity theories, this study predicted that ingroups would be evaluated more favorably than outgroups, but that ingroup membership would change as a function of reference frame. Using the matched-guise technique, moderate and broad American Southern English accented guises were presented to Californian liste...
Article
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Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) has served as a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the adjustments individuals make to create, maintain, or decrease social distance in interactions. We provide a systematic review of CAT by examining 149 articles (1973–2010) to identify categories and trends in the contexts of inquiry, sample ch...
Chapter
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Intergroup communication occurs when either person in a social interaction defines self or other in terms of their social identity (i.e., as a group member) rather than their personal identity (i.e., as a unique individual). In this chapter, we argue that most interactions traditionally considered interpersonal are actually intergroup in nature. Po...
Article
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Tourism is big business globally, as witnessed by the World Tourism Organization's estimation that there were more than a billion tourists in 2012. Surprisingly, the fields of intergroup and intercultural communication have, as yet, only spawned a few studies on understanding host–tourist language practices. Drawing on communication accommodation t...
Article
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This study is the first exploration of television use and program selection by indigenous groups in Chiapas (Mexico); more specifically, how members of these groups select specific media messages for reasons of ethnicity, and how this is related to social mobility strategies is examined. Data from 173 indigenous students of the Intercultural Univer...
Article
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This article examines Mongolian and American young adults' perceptions of prior experiences of intergenerational communication. Irrespective of culture, as age of targets increased from young adulthood to older adulthood, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, ster...
Article
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This study examined the utility of communication accommodation theory (CAT) to investigate stepchildren's perceptions of communication patterns in typical interactions with their stepparents. A total of 133 stepchildren completed an online survey about their perceptions of their stepparents’ accommodative and nonaccommodative behaviors. A measure o...