Howard Edenberg

Howard Edenberg
Indiana University School of Medicine | IUSOM · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

PhD

About

755
Publications
73,540
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41,489
Citations
Citations since 2017
153 Research Items
13811 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - December 2007
Indiana University School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1978 - present
Harvard University

Publications

Publications (755)
Article
Introduction: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors have partially distinct genetic etiologies. Methods: We used PRS-CS to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) from GWAS of non-suicidal self-injury, broad sense self-harm ideation, non-fatal suicide attempt, death by suicide, and depression. Using mixed-effect models, we estimated whether these PRS were ass...
Preprint
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Memory problems are common among older adults with a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Employing a machine learning framework, the current study investigates the use of multi-domain features to classify individuals with and without alcohol-induced memory problems. A group of 94 individuals (ages 50-81 years) with alcohol-induced memory problem...
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Background and hypothesis: Risk for cannabis use and schizophrenia is influenced in part by genetic factors, and there is evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Few studies to date have examined whether genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with cannabis-related PLEs....
Article
Importance Suicide is a leading cause of death; however, the molecular genetic basis of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (SITB) remains unknown. Objective To identify novel, replicable genomic risk loci for SITB. Design, Setting, and Participants This genome-wide association study included 633 778 US military veterans with and without SITB, as ide...
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Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and related electrophysiological endophenotypes have been associated with the GABRA2 gene. However, the causal variants in GABRA2 and their mechanisms of influence on AUD and its correlates have not been established. Here we investigate the phenotypic spectrum of a GABRA2 coding variant (rs279858) through a phenome-wide...
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Introduction: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is on the ascendancy in the US older adult population. The association between AUD and adverse brain outcomes remains inconclusive. Method: In a retrospective cohort design using US insurance claim data (2007-2020), 129,182 individuals with AUD were matched with 129,182 controls by age, sex, race, and cli...
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Introduction: The G1 and G2 variants in the APOL1 gene convey high risk for the progression of chronic kidney disease in African Americans. The G3 variant in APOL1 is more common in patients of European ancestry (EA); outcomes associated with this variant have not been explored previously in EA patients receiving dialysis. Methods: DNA was colle...
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We tested whether aspects of the childhood/adolescent home environment mediate genetic risk for alcohol problems within families across generations. Parental relationship discord and parental divorce were the focal environments examined. The sample included participants of European ancestry (N = 4806, 51% female) and African ancestry (N = 1960, 52%...
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Synonymous and noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KCNJ6 gene, encoding G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit 2 (GIRK2), have been linked with increased electroencephalographic frontal theta event-related oscillations (ERO) in subjects diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD). To identify molecular and c...
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Opioid addiction (OA) is moderately heritable, yet only rs1799971, the A118G variant in OPRM1 , has been identified as a genome-wide significant association with OA and independently replicated. We applied genomic structural equation modeling to conduct a GWAS of the new Genetics of Opioid Addiction Consortium (GENOA) data together with published s...
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Substance use disorders (SUDs) incur serious social and personal costs. The risk for SUDs is complex, with risk factors ranging from social conditions to individual genetic variation. We examined whether models that include a clinical/environmental risk index (CERI) and polygenic scores (PGS) are able to identify individuals at increased risk of SU...
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Despite the substantial heritability of antisocial behavior (ASB), specific genetic variants robustly associated with the trait have not been identified. The present study by the Broad Antisocial Behavior Consortium (BroadABC) meta-analyzed data from 28 discovery samples (N = 85,359) and five independent replication samples (N = 8058) with genotypi...
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Background Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) tends to co-occur with greater alcohol consumption as well as alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, it is unknown whether the same etiologic factors that underlie PTSD-alcohol-related problems comorbidity also contribute to PTSD- alcohol consumption. Methods We used summary statistics from large-scale...
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Some styles of alcohol consumption are riskier than others. How the level and rate of alcohol exposure contribute to the increased risk of alcohol use disorder is unclear, but likely depends on the alcohol concentration time course. We hypothesized that the brain is sensitive to the alcohol concentration rate of change and that people at greater ri...
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify genetic variants associated with a trait, regardless of how those variants are associated with the outcome. Characterizing whether variants for psychiatric outcomes operate via specific versus general pathways provides more informative measures of genetic risk. In the current analysis, we used multiva...
Preprint
Background: Researchers have identified genetic and neural risk factors for externalizing behaviors. However, it has not yet been determined if genetic risk is conferred in part through associations with more proximal neurophysiological risk markers. Methods: Participants from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, a large, family-b...
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Full-text available
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors have partially distinct genetic etiologies. We used PRS-CS to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) from GWAS of non-suicidal self-injury, broad sense self-harm ideation, non-fatal suicide attempt, death by suicide, and depression. Using mixed-effect models, we estimated whether these PRS were associated with a range of...
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Full-text available
Environmental factors contribute to risk of bipolar disorder (BD), but how environmental factors impact the development of psychopathology within the context of elevated genetic risk is unknown. We herein sought to identify epigenetic signatures operating in the context of polygenic risk for BD in young people at high familial risk (HR) of BD. Peri...
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Despite the large toll of opioid use disorder (OUD), genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of OUD to date have yielded few susceptibility loci. We performed a large-scale GWAS of OUD in individuals of European (EUR) and African (AFR) ancestry, optimizing genetic informativeness by performing MTAG (Multi-trait analysis of GWAS) with genetically cor...
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in admixed populations such as African Americans (AA) have limited sample sizes, resulting in poor performance of polygenic risk scores (PRS). Based on the observations that many disease-causing genes are shared between AA and European ancestry (EA) populations, and some disease-causing variants are located wi...
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In this study, we test principal component analysis (PCA) of measured confounders as a method to reduce collider bias in polygenic association models. We present results from simulations and application of the method in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample with a polygenic score for alcohol problems, DSM-5 alcohol use...
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Full-text available
Synonymous and noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the KCNJ6 gene, encoding G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2) channel subunit 2, have been linked with increased electroencephalographic frontal theta event-related oscillations (ERO) in subjects diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD). To identify molecular and c...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder is an often-severe mental health condition characterized by alternation between extreme mood states of mania and depression. Despite strong heritability and the recent identification of 64 common variant risk loci of small effect, pathophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we analyzed genome sequences from 41 multiply-affe...
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Full-text available
Background The integration of multi-omics information (e.g., epigenetics and transcriptomics) can be useful for interpreting findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). It has additionally been suggested that multi-omics may aid in novel variant discovery, thus circumventing the need to increase GWAS sample sizes. We tested whether incorp...
Article
Aim: This study presents a measure of Social Recovery Capital (SRC) derived from the Important People and Activities instrument (IPA). Methods: The sample comprised young adults who participated in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, a high-risk family study of alcohol use disorder (N = 2472). Exploratory and confirmatory fact...
Article
Background: Early identification of individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) coupled with prompt interventions could reduce the incidence of AUD. In this study, we investigated whether Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) can be used to evaluate the risk for AUD and AUD severity (as measured by the number of DSM-5 AUD diagnostic criteria met...
Article
Purpose Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD), which are all moderately heritable. Studies suggest the genetic association between PTSD and alcohol use differs from that of PTSD and AUD, but further analysis is needed. Basic Procedures We used genomic Structural Equation Modeli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Substance use disorders (SUDs) incur serious social and personal costs. Risk for SUDs is complex, ranging from social conditions to individual genetic variation. We examined whether models that include a clinical/environmental risk index (CERI) and polygenic scores (PGS) are able to identify individuals at increased risk of SUD in young adulthood a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genetic liability to substance use disorders can be parsed into loci conferring general and substance-specific addiction risk. We report a multivariate genome-wide association study that disaggregates general and substance-specific loci for problematic alcohol use, problematic tobacco use, and cannabis and opioid use disorders in a sample of 1,025,...
Article
Background Rodent paradigms and human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on drug use have the potential to provide biological insight into the pathophysiology of addiction. Methods Using GeneWeaver, we created rodent alcohol and nicotine gene-sets derived from 19 gene expression studies on alcohol and nicotine outcomes. We partitioned the SNP-...
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Full-text available
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and they permit the use of polygenic risk scores (PRS), in combination with clinical variables, to predict the onset of AUD in vulnerable populations. Methods 2794 adolescent/young adult subjects from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoh...
Article
Substance use disorders commonly co-occur with one another and with other psychiatric disorders. They share common features including high impulsivity, negative affect, and lower executive function. We tested whether a common genetic factor undergirds liability to problematic alcohol use (PAU), problematic tobacco use (PTU), cannabis use disorder (...
Article
Background Machine learning (ML) models are beginning to proliferate in psychiatry, however machine learning models in psychiatric genetics have not always accounted for ancestry. Using an empirical example of a proposed genetic test for OUD, and exploring a similar test for tobacco dependence and a simulated binary phenotype, we show that genetic...
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Aberrant connectivity of large-scale brain networks has been observed among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as well as in those at risk, suggesting deficits in neural communication between brain regions in the liability to develop AUD. Electroencephalographical (EEG) coherence, which measures the degree of synchrony between brain regi...
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Genetic predispositions and environmental influences both play an important role in adolescent externalizing behavior; however, they are not always independent. To elucidate gene–environment interplay, we examined the interrelationships between externalizing polygenic risk scores, parental knowledge, and peer substance use in impacting adolescent e...
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Background Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools. Aims To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristi...
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Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we...
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Full-text available
Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease experience high rates of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. When kidney disease progresses to the need for dialysis, sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for 25-35% of all cardiovascular deaths. The objective was to determine if rare genetic variants known to be associated with cardiovascular...
Article
Behaviors and disorders related to self-regulation, such as substance use, antisocial behavior and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are collectively referred to as externalizing and have shared genetic liability. We applied a multivariate approach that leverages genetic correlations among externalizing traits for genome-wide association an...
Article
Background Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders. Methods We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants tha...
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Genetic predispositions play an important role in alcohol use. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence alcohol use outcomes is critical for identifying modifiable targets and developing prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support f...
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Stimulant dependence is heritable, but specific genetic factors underlying the trait have not been identified. A genome-wide association study for stimulant dependence was performed in a discovery cohort of African- (AA) and European-ancestry (EA) subjects ascertained for genetic studies of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine use disorders. The sample com...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder is an often-severe mental health disorder characterized by alternation between extreme mood states of mania and depression. Despite strong heritability and the recent identification of 64 loci of small effect, pathophysiological mechanisms and much of the genetic risk remain unknown. Here, through genome sequencing and linkage and...
Article
Background: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) behaviors are moderately heritable and may reflect an underlying predisposition to depression, impulsivity, and cognitive vulnerabilities to varying degrees. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the degrees of association between genetic liability to depression, im...
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Full-text available
Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias),...
Article
Background and aims: While epidemiologic studies support a role for heavy, high-potency cannabis use on first episode psychosis, genetic models of causation suggest reverse causal effects of schizophrenia on cannabis use liability. We estimated the genetic relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and tested whether...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Studying the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age and polarity at onset (AAO, PAO) in bipolar disorder (BD) can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools. Aims: To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with BD disease characteristics. Methods: G...
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Full-text available
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differ...
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Full-text available
Predictive models have succeeded in distinguishing between individuals with Alcohol use Disorder (AUD) and controls. However, predictive models identifying who is prone to develop AUD and the biomarkers indicating a predisposition to AUD are still unclear. Our sample (n = 656) included offspring and non-offspring of European American (EA) and Afric...
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Full-text available
The National Institute on Drug Abuse and Joint Institute for Biological Sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a meeting attended by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in substance use disorders (SUDs), computational biology, and FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data sharing. The meeting’s...
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IMPACT: Screening the effect of thousands of non-coding genetic variants will help identify variants important in the etiology of diseases OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs) can experimentally evaluate the impact of genetic variants on gene expression. In this study, our objective was to systematically evaluate the functio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Rodent paradigms and human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on drug use have the potential to provide biological insight into the pathophysiology of addiction. Methods Using GeneWeaver, we created rodent alcohol and nicotine gene-sets derived from 19 gene expression studies on alcohol and nicotine outcomes. We partitioned the SNP...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531–538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resil...
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Aim: Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). A genome-wide assoc...
Article
Aim: Substance use disorders (SUD) result in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Opioids, and to a lesser extent cocaine, contribute to a large percentage of this health burden. Despite their high heritability, few genetic risk loci have been identified for either opioid or cocaine dependence (OD or CD, respectively). A genome-wide assoc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur with one another and with other psychiatric disorders. They share common features including high impulsivity, negative affect, and lower executive function. We estimate the shared genetic architecture across distinct SUDs, its independence from genetic liability to substance use, and its...
Article
Full-text available
Background The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. Methods Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics...
Article
Background Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) and related phenotypes have identified multiple loci, but the functional variants underlying the loci have in most cases not been identified. Noncoding variants can influence phenotype by affecting gene expression; for example, variants in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UT...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between them. In parallel, mounting evidence from GWAS suggests that alcohol consumption is only weakly genetically correlated with SCZ, but this has not yet been syste...
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Full-text available
Background Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50–70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants ass...
Preprint
Full-text available
Significance Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understanding the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Methods Integration of “multi-omics” data is often necessary to nominate candidate causal variants and genes and prioritize them for follow up studies. Here, we used...
Preprint
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), a ten-item screener for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which have...
Article
Full-text available
Bipolar disorder is often comorbid with anxiety, which is itself associated with poorer clinical outcomes, including suicide. A better etiologic understanding of this comorbidity could inform diagnosis and treatment. The present study aims to test whether comorbid anxiety in bipolar disorder reflects shared genetic risk factors. We also sought to a...