# Hong DuIndependent · Radiation Oncology

Hong Du

PhD in Physics

Welcome anyone in performing, collaborating & contributing to atomic & gravitational & quantum experiments & theories

## About

51

Publications

30,941

Reads

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690

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Fundamental theoretical physics principles - including grand unified physics, quantum physics, general and special relativity theories. Medical physics including radiation therapy and imaging. Applied physics.

Additional affiliations

July 2004 - July 2009

Education

August 1998 - May 2004

September 1994 - July 1998

September 1987 - July 1992

## Publications

Publications (51)

This paper elucidates the straightforward nature of proper space and proper time that offers enlightened perspectives to special relativity effects with no necessity to contract or dilate spacetime. Beginning with the observation that light always travels at the constant speed of light, the paper emphasizes the critical implication that light has z...

This paper gives mathematical details of a practical method to test grand unified physics and equivalence principle using a high precision analytical balance. The balance with 0.1 mg resolution and 120-gram range measuring 100g lithium metal and 100g copper at the south pole and then at the equator can reliably verify the predictions given by the g...

The fine structure constant is a dimensionless constant describing the strength of electric interaction between unit electric charges. Similarly, the large structure constant is a dimensionless constant describing the strength of gravitational interaction between unit gravitational charges consisting of a proton and an electron. The value of the la...

This short assay challenges the acclaimed Standard Model to theoretically evaluate the observations of the rest masses of free neutrons and deuteron , representing two basic tests for particle physics. Devoid of the Standard Model, neutrons can be straightforwardly modeled as pairs of protons and electrons bound by electric force, the calculated fr...

This paper uses electric potential energy and extended energy-momentum relation to straightforwardly calculate free neutron decay energy and achieves excellent agreement with experimental observations. Such method has overwhelming advantages over Standard Model in that it only involves well-understood physical parameters and concepts that are exper...

This paper gives unequivocal theoretical analyses to theoretically prove that Einstein's general relativity theory intrinsically contradicts special relativity, and the concepts of universal freefall and equivalence principle are physically flawed. General relativity and special relativity are related to separate aspects of the whole physics, and y...

This paper introduces a new corpuscular interpretation of the ubiquitous wavelike behaviors known as diffraction and interference exhibited by both massless and massive particles and thereby unifies the wave and particle behaviors under the unified theoretical frame work. It is an integral part of the grand unification theory that eventually descri...

This paper describes methods to use CCD/CMOS imaging devices and scintillating optical fibers sensitized with neutron capture combined with Bragg diffraction to measure the gravitational acceleration of free neutrons: the imaging devices offer spatial and temporal resolution, while Bragg diffraction resolve quantum wavelengths and corresponding vel...

This paper is dedicated to the resolution of the proton spin crisis, a theoretical conundrum where the 1/2 spins of protons failed to be experimentally verified by the spins of constituent quarks, implying that the theoretical origin of the 1/2 spins of protons is probably unrelated to the spins of quarks. From the perspective of the extended energ...

This article is dedicated to the resolution of the free neutron lifetime puzzle. It points out that the recent relativistic history might statistically affect the measured lifetime using the beam method shortly after the neutrons were created even the neutrons were cooled down at the time of measurement. Newly created relativistic neutrons can be g...

This article is dedicated to the development of a much cleaner new theory on time and space in the framework of the grand unification theory which leads to the resolution of the twin-paradox and the long-standing neutron lifetime puzzle. The theory begins with the elucidation of the orthogonal nature between time and space which can naturally give...

This paper is dedicated to demonstrating the intrinsic flaws in the equivalence principle, which is considered as the foundation of general relativity theory. Einstein's relativity theories hypothesized the warping of spacetime to support the equivalence principle and the consequent universal freefall acceleration but failed to comprehensively addr...

This is a shorter version of the experimental paper about the effect of mass deficit on gravitational acceleration. It does not emphasize the explanation of the grand unification theory that led to the experiment. But I did referred to Dr. Gyula Szasz's free-fall experiment citing his book and his video.
Enjoy the reading of this light-weight vers...

本文展示了同一单摆选择两种不同材料的地面重力实验结果。本文作者在2019年末奠定了延展能量动量关系，并逐步建立了物理大统一理论框架，最终促成实验验证该理论的必要性。初步的实验结果与大统一理论预期近乎一致，表明惯性质量和重力质量在理论上是不同的，二者的区别可以用核结合能引起的质量缺损进行估算。基于优越的理论基础，本实验取得了合理的结果，并依此分析了过往试验的可取与不足之处，特别是为存在于当今诸多万有引力常数测量中难以消除的分歧提供了可行的解释。本文倡导从大统一理论的角度重新审视拓展包括地面及空间的已有和未来的实验，以全新的理念加以批判或确认，从而为大统一理论框架的进一步发展提供可靠的基础。 无论最终结论是肯定的或是否定的，这些努力都具有重大的根本意义，因为它们可以证明或证伪大统一理论以及爱因斯...

This paper reports the results of a ground-based experiment on the gravitational property of a simple pendulum using two selected materials. The experiment is motivated by the grand unification of physical theories by way of the extended energy-momentum relation that was established in late 2019 by the author. The preliminary results seem to align...

This article begins with the concept of mass deficit caused by potential energy and discovered the extended energy-momentum relation that fundamentally unifies general relativity, special relativity and quantum physics under the one single equation. It postulates that lowered mass of electron, or mass deficit, due to gravity is the underlying physi...

This paper is dedicated to point out the fundamental flaws in Einstein's general relativity theories that hypothesized warped spacetime and light bending by gravity. It begins with the the conceptual introduction of the equivalence principle giving rise to the warped spacetime and resultant light bending by gravity, then goes into details about the...

The four-energy vector is naturally derived from the extended energy-momentum relation E^2=(mc^2+V)^2+(pc)^2. It is a true orthogonal four-dimensional energy vector, and has much cleaner physical implications than the conventional four-momentum. It shows that the relativistic total energy can be decomposed into four orthogonal and independent compo...

This paper is part of the large manuscript that unifies special relativity and general relativity and quantum physics through the single equation E^2=(mc^2+V)^2+(pc)^2 - the extended energy-momentum relation. It offers a brand new interpretation of the gravitational effects known as the time-dilation and redshift/blueshift. But the new interpretati...

The mass-potential symmetry derived from the extended energy-momentum relation implies matter-antimatter antigravity, a repulsive force between matter and antimatter. It naturally explains the accelerating expansion of the universe and the observation of seemingly more matter than antimatter. This article reveals the versatile roles of antigravity...

This short article shows that Lagrangian expression and energy expression are mathematically equivalent. Although the definition of Lagrangian is T-V while Energy is T+V, where T is kinetic energy and V is potential energy, but mathematically, they are approaching the same physics dynamics except from different approaches. Through mathematical mani...

The mass-potential symmetry based on the extended energy-momentum relation provides a mechanism for natural forces to change signs symmetrically between matter and antimatter. The symmetry implies antigravity between antimatter and antimatter. The symmetrical formation of the universe is described under the influence of antigravity combined with el...

The mass-potential symmetry based on the extended energy-momentum relation provides a mechanism for natural forces to change signs symmetrically between matter and antimatter. The symmetry implies antigravity between antimatter and antimatter. The symmetrical formation of the universe is described under the influence of antigravity combined with el...

In the process of unifying general relativity, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and nuclear forces, some interesting coincidental approximate relations were found as follows: √2 ≈ − − (1) 2 • √2 ≈ 2 • + − (2) ≈ ℏ /4 (3) where is the mass of electron which is approximately 0.511 MeV/ , is the mass of neutron which is approxima...

Conservation of energy is well understood as the sum of kinetic, potential and other forms of 5 energies. The quadratic form of relativistic energy-momentum relation implies the conservation of squared energies. This short paper introduces the conservation of squared total energy based on this relation with potential energy added to rest mass energ...

The new relativistic quantum wave equation based on energy-momentum relation is used to derive hydrogen atom energy levels. Solutions of the simple equation approach existing theories to a very high degree. Discussions of the physics concepts behind the equation offer mechanisms to unify natural forces in a single equation through energy and mass....

Conservation of energy is well understood as the sum of kinetic, potential and other forms of 5 energies. The quadratic form of relativistic energy-momentum relation implies the conservation of squared energies. This short paper introduces the conservation of squared total energy based on this relation with potential energy added to rest mass energ...

Electronic portal imaging devices based on megavoltage (MV), active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) are presently regarded as the gold standard in portal imaging for external beam radiation therapy. These devices, employing indirect detection of incident radiation by means of a metal plate plus phosphor screen combination, offer a quantum effic...

Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particu...

Purpose: Megavoltage (MV) active matrix, flat‐panel imagers (AMFPIs) have become the gold standard in radiotherapy portal imaging by virtue of their many advantages. Nevertheless, conventional MV AMFPIs are very inefficient, detecting only ∼2% of the incident radiation at 6 MV. However, recent theoretical and empirical studies have demonstrated tha...

Active matrix, flat-panel x-ray imagers based on a-Si:H thin-film transistors offer many advantages and are widely utilized in medical imaging applications. Unfortunately, the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of conventional flat-panel imagers incorporating scintillators or a-Se photoconductors is significantly limited by their relatively modest...

Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV CBCT) is a highly promising technique for providing volumetric patient position information in the radiation treatment room. Such information has the potential to greatly assist in registering the patient to the planned treatment position, helping to ensure accurate delivery of the high energy therapy b...

Purpose: The relatively high level of additive noise in active matrix flat‐panel imagers (AMFPIs) leads to significant loss of DQE under conditions of low exposures per frame and/or high spatial frequencies. One promising method for dealing with such performance loss involves in‐pixel signal amplification through incorporation of additional circuit...

Development of active matrix imagers fabricated on plastic substrates has become increasingly possible due to widespread efforts to develop the means to create inexpensive, very large area, flexible displays. In addition to benefits associated with cost, robustness, and weight, such novel x-ray imaging devices could provide significant performance...

Empirical and theoretical investigations of the performance of a small-area, high-spatial-resolution, active matrix flat-panel imager, operated under mammographic conditions, is reported. The imager is based on an indirect detection array incorporating a continuous photodiode design, as opposed to the discrete photodiode design employed in conventi...

Modern-day radiotherapy relies on highly sophisticated forms of image guidance in order to implement increasingly conformal treatment plans and achieve precise dose delivery. One of the most important goals of such image guidance is to delineate the clinical target volume from surrounding normal tissue during patient setup and dose delivery, thereb...

The effects of x-ray irradiation on the transfer and noise characteristics of excimer-laser-annealed polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been examined at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Parameters including mobility, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and leakage current, as well as flicker and thermal noise coefficie...

Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) is a promising candidate for providing image guidance in radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the practical clinical implementation of this technique is limited by the relatively low detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of conventional megavoltage AMFPIs. Th...

Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) based on indirect detection, active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPIs) have become the technology of choice for geometric verification of patient localization and dose delivery in external beam radiotherapy. However, current AMFPI EPIDs, which are based on powdered-phosphor screens, make use of only approxi...

The signal properties of polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2) film detectors, under irradiation conditions relevant to mammographic, radiographic, fluoroscopic and radiotherapy x-ray imaging, are reported. Each film detector consists of an approximately 230 to approximately 460 microm thick layer of HgI2 (fabricated through physical vapour deposi...

Purpose: To demonstrate the potential for low‐dose soft‐tissue visualization at megavoltage x‐ray energies using a novel, high‐QE segmented CsI(Tl) detector incorporated in an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI). Method and Materials: A prototype AMFPI EPID was developed, incorporating a 40 mm thick, non‐optimized, segmented detector comprised...

The numerous merits of x-ray imagers based on active matrix, flat-panel array technology have led to their introduction in a wide variety of x-ray imaging applications. However, under certain conditions, the performance of direct and indirect detection AMFPIs is significantly limited by the relatively modest ratio of singal to noise provided by con...

Current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) based on active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) technology use a metal plate+phosphor screen combination for x-ray conversion. As a result, these devices face a severe trade-off between x-ray quantum efficiency (QE) and spatial resolution, thus, significantly limiting their imaging performance. In...

The new Mie-scattering calculation is a robust and efficient algorithm used to compute light scattering from spheres. It calculates the ratio between Riccati-Bessel functions instead of the complicated logarithmic derivative. The Kapteyn inequality is used to estimate the number of significant digits of the calculated Riccati-Bessel functions and t...

The point-spread function (PSF) of a camera can seriously affect the accuracy of radiometric calibration and measurement. We found that the PSF can produce a 3.7% difference between the apparent measured radiance of two plaques of different sizes with the same illumination. This difference can be removed by deconvolution with the measured PSF. To d...

Accurate Mie calculation involves calculation of special functions with magnitudes spanning hundreds or more orders, care must be taken in order to avoid meaningless results given by readily commercially available calculation tools.
This paper shows a technique to handle numerical calculation of special functions with arbitrarily high precessions....

Aerosols play an important role in the Earth's radiative transfer and the remote sensing of the environment. One major difficulty in precisely quantifying the aerosol effects is the uncertainties in aerosol characterization. An aureole camera can provide important ground measurement for characterizing the aerosol size distribution and optical prope...

## Questions

Questions (4)