Holger Tost

Holger Tost
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz | JGU · Institute for Atmospheric Physics

Professor

About

153
Publications
15,330
Reads
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6,778
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2010 - present
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
August 2008 - August 2009
The Cyprus Institute
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2003 - November 2010
Education
April 2003 - June 2006
University of Bonn
Field of study
  • Meteorology

Publications

Publications (153)
Preprint
Earth system models (ESMs) integrate previously separate models of the ocean, atmosphere and vegetation in one comprehensive modelling system enabling the investigation of interactions between different components of the Earth system. Global isoprene and monoterpene emissions from terrestrial vegetation, which represents the most important source o...
Preprint
Squall lines represent an organized form of atmospheric convection that link processes occurring at the small end of the mesoscale and processes ocurring at the large end of the mesoscale. This study analyses the initial condition sensitivity of idealized squall lines in an LES ensemble. The ensemble spread of the squall lines is evaluated using pa...
Preprint
We employ the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model (EMAC) with gas phase, heterogeneous chemistry, and detailed aerosol microphysics to simulate the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic cloud. We explicitly account for the interaction of simultaneously injected SO2, volcanic ash, and water vapor and conducted multiple ensemble simulations with differe...
Article
Full-text available
An updated and expanded representation of organics in the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) has been evaluated. First, the comprehensive Mainz Organic Mechanism (MOM) in the submodel MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was activated with explicit degradation of organ...
Preprint
Full-text available
An updated and expanded representation of organics in the chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) has been evaluated. First, the comprehensive Mainz Organic Mechanism (MOM) in the submodel MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was activated with explicit degradation of organ...
Article
Full-text available
From 27 July to 10 August 2017, the airborne StratoClim mission took place in Kathmandu, Nepal, where eight mission flights were conducted with the M-55 Geophysica up to altitudes of 20 km. New particle formation (NPF) was identified by the abundant presence of nucleation-mode aerosols, with particle diameters dp smaller than 15 nm, which were in-s...
Article
It has been long understood that land cover change from natural to impervious modifies the surface energy balance and hence the dynamical properties of the overlying atmosphere. The urban heat island is manifested in the formation of an urban boundary layer with distinct thermodynamic features that in turn govern transport processes of air pollutan...
Article
Full-text available
We present high spatial resolution (up to 2.2×2.2 km2) simulations focussed over south-west Germany using the online coupled regional atmospheric chemistry model system MECO(n) (MESSy-fied ECHAM and COSMO models nested n times). Numerical simulation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) surface volume mixing ratios (VMRs) are compared to in situ measurements f...
Article
Full-text available
Microphysical processes in cold clouds which act as sources or sinks of hydrometeors below 0 ∘C control the ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) and in turn the cloud radiative effects. Estimating the relative importance of the cold cloud microphysical process rates is of fundamental importance to underpin the development of cloud parameteriza...
Preprint
Full-text available
From 27 July to 10 August 2017 the airborne StratoClim mission took place in Kathmandu, Nepal where eight mission flights were conducted with the M-55 Geophysica up to altitudes of 20 km. New Particle Formation (NPF) was identified by the abundant presence of ultrafine aerosols, with particle diameters dp smaller than 15 nm, which were in-situ dete...
Chapter
As efforts to recognise the Anthropocene as a new epoch of geological time are mounting, the controversial debate about the time of its beginning continues. Here, we suggest the term Palaeoanthropocene for the period between the first, barely recognizable, anthropogenic environmental changes and the industrial revolution when anthropogenically indu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The sensitivity of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric convective outflows and related divergence fields is analysed using an ensemble of cloud resolving model (CM1) simulations in LES-mode including various physically manipulated simulations for three different convective systems initialized with an idealized trigger. The main goal of this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ozone profile measurements collected at L'Aquila (Italy, 42.4° N) during seventeen years of radio-sounding (2000–2016) are presented here, with an analysis of derived trends. Model results from the SPARC-CCMI exercise are used in parallel to highlight the physical and chemical mechanisms regulating mid-latitude ozone trends. The statistically signi...
Article
Full-text available
A new module has been implemented in the fifth generation of the ECMWF/Hamburg (ECHAM5)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model that simulates cloud-related processes on a much smaller grid. This so-called superparameterisation acts as a replacement for the convection parameterisation and large-scale cloud scheme. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Microphysical processes in cold clouds which act as sources or sinks of hydrometeors below 0 °C control the ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) and in turn the cloud radiative effects. Estimating the relative importance of the cold cloud microphysical process rates is of fundamental importance to underpin the development of cloud pa...
Article
Full-text available
Central to the development of Earth system models (ESMs) has been the coupling of previously separate model types, such as ocean, atmospheric, and vegetation models, to address interactive feedbacks between the system components. A modelling framework which combines a detailed representation of these components, including vegetation and other land...
Article
Full-text available
The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays critical roles within the troposphere, such as determining the lifetime of methane (CH4), yet is challenging to model due to its fast cycling and dependence on a multitude of sources and sinks. As a result, the reasons for variations in OH and the resulting methane lifetime (τCH4), both between models and in time, ar...
Article
Full-text available
Enhanced aerosol abundance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) associated with the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is referred to as the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). The chemical composition, microphysical properties, and climate effects of aerosols in the ATAL have been the subject of discussion over the past decade. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
Hydroxyl radical (OH) plays critical roles within the troposphere, such as determining the lifetime of methane (CH4), yet is challenging to model due to its fast cycling and dependence on a multitude of sources and sinks. As a result, the reasons for variations in OH and the resulting CH4 lifetime (τCH4), both between models and in time, are diffic...
Article
Full-text available
A new module has been implemented in the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) Model that simulates cloud related processes on a much smaller grid. This so called superparametrisation acts as a replacement for the convection parametrisation and large-scale cloud scheme. The concept of embedding an ensemble of cloud resolving models (CRMs) insid...
Article
Full-text available
The new submodel SVOC for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) was developed and applied within the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to simulate the atmospheric cycling and air–surface exchange processes of semivolatile organic pollutants. Our focus is on four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of largely varying properties...
Article
Full-text available
Enhanced aerosol abundance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) associated with the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is referred to as the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). The chemical composition, microphysical properties and climate effects of aerosols in the ATAL have been the subject of discussion over the past decade. In thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human activities lead to an increase of emissions of air pollutants influencing the chemical composition of urban air. Chemical reactions and aerosol formation processes in urban areas in turn are altered due to increased temperature, reduced humidity and modified urban-rural trace substance mixture. Urban-rural circulation patterns driven by the s...
Article
Full-text available
Climate sensitive urban planning involves the implementation of green infrastructure as one measure to mitigate excessive heat in urban areas. Depending on thermal conditions, certain trees tend to emit more biogenic volatile organic compounds, which act as precursors for ozone formation, thus hampering air quality. Combining a theoretical approach...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The excessive warming of impervious surfaces and additional release of anthropogenic heat promotes urban heat island (UHI) formation. Human activities lead to an increase of emissions of air pollutants which in turn influences the chemical composition of urban air. Anthropogenic aerosols either produced locally or transported from remote areas are...
Article
Full-text available
The new submodel SVOC for the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) was developed and applied within the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to simulate the atmospheric cycling and air-surface exchange processes of semivolatile organic pollutants. Our focus is on four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of largely varying properties...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the aerosol microphysics submodel MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, third generation) was introduced as a successor to MADE and MADE-in. It includes nine aerosol species and nine lognormal modes to represent aerosol particles of three different mixing states throughout the aerosol size spectr...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC to improve the representation of ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs). The parameterization of Barahona and Nenes (2009, hereafter BN09) allows for the treatment of ice nucleation taking into account the competition for water vapour...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the aerosol microphysics submodel MADE3 was introduced as a successor to MADE and MADE-in. It includes nine aerosol species and nine lognormal modes to represent aerosol particles of three different mixing states throughout the aeroso size spectrum. Here we describe the implementation of the most recent version of MADE3 into the atmospher...
Article
Full-text available
Earth System Models (ESMs) are invaluable tools that have emerged from decades of research modelling the earth system. Central to this development has been the coupling of previously separate model types, such as ocean, atmospheric and vegetation models, to provide interactive feedbacks between these earth system components. Here we present the ini...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented in the global chemistry-climate model EMAC to realistically represent ice crystal number concentrations. The parameterization of Barahona and Nenes (2009, hereafter BN09) allows the treatment of ice nucleation, taking into account the competition for water vapour between homogeneo...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model to simulate cloud properties with a prognostic cloud droplet nucleation scheme. We present modeled global distributions of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations and CCN activation rates, together with the effective hygroscopicity parameter κ, to describe the aerosol chemic...
Article
Full-text available
We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkade...
Article
Full-text available
Lightning represents one of the dominant emission sources for NOx in the troposphere. The direct release of oxidised nitrogen in the upper troposphere does not only affect ozone formation, but also chemical and microphysical properties of aerosol particles in this region. This study investigates the direct impact of LNOx emissions on upper-troposph...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, a simulation incorporating tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry using the newly developed MECO(n) model system is performed. MECO(n) is short for MESSy-fied ECHAM and COSMO models nested n times. It features an online coupling of the COSMO-CLM model, equipped with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) interface (called C...
Article
Full-text available
Lightning represents one of the dominant emission source for NOx in the troposphere. The direct release of oxidised nitrogen in the upper troposphere does not only affect ozone formation, but also chemical and microphysical properties of aerosol particles in this region. This study investigates the direct impact of LNOx emissions on upper troposphe...
Article
Full-text available
The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) provides an interface to couple submodels to a base model via a highly flexible data management facility (Jöckel et al., 2010). In the present paper we present the four new radiation related submodels RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT, and ORBIT. The submodel RAD (including the shortwave radiation scheme RAD_FUBRAD) si...
Article
Full-text available
Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry–Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts – Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950–2011), hindcast simulations with...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols have important impacts on air quality and climate, but the processes affecting their removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood and are poorly constrained by observations. This makes modelled aerosol lifetimes uncertain. In this study, we make use of an observational constraint on aerosol lifetimes provided by radionuclide measur...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time a simulation incorporating tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry using the newly developed MECO(n) model system is performed. MECO(n) is short for MESSyfied ECHAM and COSMO model nested n-times. It features an on-line coupling of the COSMO-CLM model, equipped with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) interface (called COS...
Article
Full-text available
The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) provides an interface to couple submodels to a basemodel via a highly flexible data management facility (Jöckel et al., 2010). In the present paper we present the four new radiation related submodels RAD, AEROPT, CLOUDOPT and ORBIT. The submodel RAD (with shortwave radiation scheme RAD_FUBRAD) simulates the...
Article
Full-text available
The Community Earth System Model (CESM1), maintained by the United States National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is connected with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy). For the MESSy user community, this offers many new possibilities. The option to use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) atmospheric dynamical cores, especially the st...
Article
Full-text available
With version 2.51 of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model three types of reference simulations as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) have been performed: hindcast simulations (1950–2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1978–2013), i.e., nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined h...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols have important impacts on air quality and climate, but the processes affecting their removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood and are poorly constrained by observations. This makes modelled aerosol lifetimes uncertain. In this study, we make use of an observational constraint on aerosol lifetimes provided by radionuclide measur...
Article
Full-text available
The convective transport module, CVTRANS, of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model has been revised to better represent the physical flows and incorporate recent findings on the properties of the convective plumes. The modifications involve (i) applying intermediate time stepping based on a settable criterion, (ii) using an analytic ex...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) trend between 2001 and 2010 is estimated globally and regionally from observations and results from simulations with the EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model. Although interannual variability is applied only to anthropogenic and biomass-burning emissions, the model is able to quantitatively repro...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) trend between 2001 and 2010 is estimated globally and regionally from observations and results from simulations with the EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model. Although interannual variability is applied only to anthropogenic and biomass-burning emissions, the model is able to quantitatively repro...
Article
Full-text available
The convective transport module, CVTRANS, of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model has been revised to better represent the physical flows and incorporate recent findings on the properties of the convective plumes. The modifications involve (i) applying intermediate time stepping based on a settable criterion, (ii) using an analytic ex...
Article
Full-text available
Multiyear simulations with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC with a microphysical modal aerosol module at high vertical resolution demonstrate that the sulfur gases COS and SO2, the latter from low-latitude and midlatitude volcanic eruptions, predominantly control the formation of stratospheric aerosol. Marine dimethyl sulfid...
Article
Full-text available
The modelling of aerosol radiative forcing is a major cause of uncertainty in the assessment of global and regional atmospheric energy budgets and climate change. One reason is the strong dependence of the aerosol optical properties on the mixing state of aerosol components, such as absorbing black carbon and, predominantly scattering sulfates. Usi...
Article
Full-text available
The aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) trend between 2001–2010 is estimated globally and regionally from observations and from model simulations. The model is able to reproduce quantitatively the AOD trends as observed by MODIS satellite sensor, while some discrepancies are found when compared to MISR and SeaWIFS observations. Thanks to an additional simu...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model to simulate cloud properties and estimate cloud radiative effects induced by aerosols. We have tested two prognostic cloud droplet nucleation parameterizations, i.e., the standard STN (osmotic coefficient model) and hybrid (HYB, replacing the osmotic coefficient by the κ hygroscopicity pa...