Holger Schultheis

Holger Schultheis
Universität Bremen | Uni Bremen · Faculty 03: Mathematics/Computer Science

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94
Publications
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634
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Publications

Publications (94)
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparing sonification with visualization is like comparing apples and oranges. While visualizations are ubiquitous to the public and have established names, principles, application areas, and sophisticated designs, sonifications tend to be unique, self-made and completely new to users. In this study we developed a rudimentary visualization that is...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate how visuospatial abilities develop and influence intraoperative laparoscopic performance during surgical residency training programmes. Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a challenging technique to acquire and master. Visuospatial ability is an important attribute but most prior research have predominantly explored th...
Preprint
Full-text available
The sonification of data to communicate information to a user is a relatively new approach that established itself around the 1990s. To date many researchers design their individual sonification from scratch. There are no standards in sonification design and evaluation. But researchers and practitioners have formulated several requirements and esta...
Article
The ease with which humans usually perform everyday activities masks their inherit complexity. Tasks such as setting a table prior to a meal or preparing a hot beverage require the coordination of several cognitive abilities. At the same time, many everyday activities are simple enough to afford investigation in controlled lab settings. One main go...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key challenge for robotic systems is to figure out the behavior of another agent. The capability to draw correct inferences is crucial to derive human behavior from examples. Processing correct inferences is especially challenging when (confounding) factors are not controlled experimentally (observational evidence). For this reason, robots that r...
Article
Virtual reality simulation has had a significant impact on training of psychomotor surgical skills, yet there is still a lack of work on its use to teach surgical decision making. This is particularly noteworthy given the recognized importance of decision making in achieving positive surgical outcomes. With the objective of filling this gap, we hav...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Planning and organization of one's actions are crucial for successfully performing everyday activities such as setting the table. While existing research has addressed planning for well-defined tasks and control of already established sequences, little is known about how such sequences are planned in ill-defined tasks such as everyday activities. I...
Conference Paper
As sonification is supposed to communicate information to users, experimental evaluation of the subjective appropriateness and effectiveness of the sonification design is often desired and sometimes indispensable. Experiments in the laboratory are typically restricted to short-term usage by a small sample size under unnatural conditions. We introdu...
Preprint
Full-text available
As sonification is supposed to communicate information to users, experimental evaluation of the subjective appropriateness and effectiveness of the sonification design is often desired and sometimes indispensable. Experiments in the laboratory are typically restricted to short-term usage by a small sample size under unnatural conditions. We introdu...
Conference Paper
Sonification is the systematic transformation of data to sound. Sonification is a means to communicate information, to support navigation, or to explore data. In a multi-disciplinary research project we develop a psychoacoustically-motivated sonification that supports surgeons’ orientation in image-guided interventions. One drawback of image-guidan...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial adaptation is the process of adjusting one’s mental representations for a task, so that spatial details necessary for performing the task are captured in the representations, whereas irrelevant details are ignored. We believe this process plays a critical role both in spatial ability tests and in STEM domains because it produces problem-tai...
Article
Full-text available
A common assumption about spatial memory is that it is organized along one or more reference directions such that access to memory is easier along directions aligned with the reference direction(s). This assumption rests to no small part on frequently replicated alignment effects arising in judgment of relative direction. In this contribution, we r...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Sonification is the use of sound to communicate data to a listener. In sonification designs that lack psychoacoustic considerations, dimensions tends to be perceived as nonlinear, interfering, and as having a low resolution. As a solution to these issues, we developed a “psychoacoustic sonification,” in which single dimens...
Article
Full-text available
When operating a machine, the operator needs to know some spatial relations, like the relative location of the target or the nearest obstacle. Often, sensors are used to derive this spatial information, and visual displays are deployed as interfaces to communicate this information to the operator. In this paper, we present psychoacoustic sonificati...
Chapter
The ability to organize and control routine sequential action is of major importance for successfully mastering everyday life and activities. Although previous research has started to uncover mechanisms and principles underlying human control of such activities, the possible influence of spatial aspects has not received sufficient attention. In thi...
Article
Minimally-invasive surgery (MIS) offers many benefits to patients, but is considerably more difficult to learn and perform than is open surgery. One main reason for the observed difficulty is attributable to the visuo-spatial challenges that arise in MIS, taxing the surgeons’ cognitive skills. In this contribution, we present a new approach that co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Successfully performing everyday activities such as loading the dishwasher or setting the table relies on the involvement of many cognitive abilities. As such, everyday activities provide a unique window for investigating the involved cognitive abilities as well as their interaction, promising high ecological validity of the obtained findings. Agai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The action order of most everyday activities is only weakly constrained: When setting the table, for example, the order in which the items are placed on the table does not matter if all required items are on the table eventually. Little is known about how humans deal with weakly constrained sequences. Consistent with research on local optimality of...
Code
It is our pleasure to announce our sonification game for Android: http://curat.informatik.uni-bremen.de/en/download.html Your main objective is to have fun playing, improving your listening skills and winning the game. Our main objective is to get our sonification tested and find out more about long-term training effects, so we will collect your...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. Spatial cognition is an important ability for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (Vajsbaher, Schultheis & Francis, 2018), especially in enabling surgical navigation inside the body (Stüdeli, 2008). Arthroscopic surgery is a type of MIS, where small incisions are made, and an arthroscope (camera) is placed in one port to display the join...
Preprint
Full-text available
When operating a machine, the operator needs to know some spatial relations, like the relative location of the target or the nearest obstacle. Often, sensors are used to derive this spatial information, and visual displays are deployed as interfaces to communicate this information to the operator. In this paper, we present psychoacoustic sonificati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Three perceptually orthogonal auditory dimensions for multidimensional and multivariate data sonification are identified and experimentally validated. Background: Psychoacoustic investigations have shown that orthogonal acoustical parameters may interfere perceptually. The literature hardly offers any solutions to this problem, and previ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sonifikation ist die systematische Erzeugung von Klang aus Daten. Sie eignet sich zur Kommunikation von Informationen, zur Navigation und als exploratives Tool. Wir entwickeln eine psychoakustisch-motivierte Sonifikation, die Chirurgen bei der Orientierung in bislang bildgeführten Eingriffen unterstützt. Ein Problem bei der bildgeführten Chirurgie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sonification is the communication of variable data by means of sound. It can be used as an alternative or augmentation of visualization. In this paper we describe and evaluate a sonification approach that communicates the location of a target in three dimensional space. This is achieved by thorough consideration of auditory perception in our soni-f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Einleitung: Bis zum Jahr 2020 scheiden ungefähr 11000 ChirurgInnen in Deutschland aus dem Berufsleben ohne aureichendem Nachwuchs aus. Im Hinblick auf den Nachwuchsmangel ist daher ein umfassenderes Verständnis der Anliegen der derzeit praktizierenden und der im Training tätigen ViszeralchirurgInnen notwendig. Ziele: Es soll einerseits der aktuel...
Conference Paper
Memorizing and retrieving information about the spatial layout of one's surrounding is of crucial importance for humans. We propose a new theory of spatial memory of immediate environments and develop a corresponding computational realization. We detail how the theory explains key findings on human spatial memory (use) and show that the computation...
Poster
Full-text available
At this years CogSci (Cognitive Science Society) 2019 conference, we presented the interim findings of Phase 2 of the longitudinal study, which aims to explore visuospatial profiles of expert and resident laparoscopic surgeons, as compared to the control group participants. The data presented in this poster compared baseline cognitive test performa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Physical attributes of sound interact perceptually, which makes it challenging to present a large amount of information simultaneously via sonification, without confusing the user. This paper presents the theory and implementation of a psychoacoustic signal processing approach for three-dimensional sonification. The direction and distance along the...
Article
Language and vision interact in non-trivial ways. Linguistically, spatial utterances are often asymmetrical as they relate more stable objects (reference objects) to less stable objects (located objects). Researchers have claimed that such linguistic asymmetry should also be reflected in the allocation of visual attention when people process a depi...
Article
Full text abvailable: https://rdcu.be/bbZEp A psychoacoustic auditory display for navigation is presented. Interactive sonification guides users to an invisible target location in two-dimensional space. Orthogonal spatial dimensions are mapped to perceptual auditory qualities that are orthogonal as well. The psychoacoustic auditory display could s...
Article
This paper introduces an auditory display for short-range guidance tasks. It contains a psychoacoustically motivated sonification to map two orthogonal space dimensions to sound parameters that affect largely independent individual aspects of sound sensation. The sound parameters are frequency of chroma change and beating, and a controllable degree...
Article
Full-text available
Background Spatial cognition is known to play an important role in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), as it was found to enable faster surgical skill acquisition, reduce surgical time and errors made and significantly improve surgical performance. No prior research attempted to summarize the available literature, to indicate the level of importance...
Conference Paper
Introduction. Laparoscopy is considered the gold-standard surgical procedure for diagnosis and treatment of most abdominal and pelvic-related conditions. However, although such minimally invasive technique offers countless advantages to the patient, they come at a cost: surgeons must learn to overcome a unique set of visuo-spatial cognitive and dex...
Conference Paper
Most research investigating spatial cognition has focused on spatial information conveyed through vision. Accordingly, little is known about (a) how to precisely present spatial information auditorily and (b) how auditorily presented spatial information is represented and processed in the human mind. Addressing these issues not only helps shedding...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A psychoacoustic auditory display for navigation in two-dimensional space is presented. The auditory display is examined in an experiment with novice users. Trajectory analysis indicates that users were able to a) accurately find sonified targets b) analyze the sonification axis-by-axis c) integrate the sonified dimensions to approach the target on...
Article
Spatial descriptions such as “The spider is behind the bee” inform the listener about the location of the spider (the located object) in relation to an object whose location is known (i.e., the bee, also called the reference object). If the geometric properties of the reference object have been shown to affect how people use and understand spatial...
Conference Paper
Background: The past two-decade has seen dramatic and impressive technological and scientific advances in laparoscopic surgery, revolutionising the manner in which laparoscopic procedures are planned, performed and learned. The impact of such change is already evident, as today, laparoscopic surgery is considered the ’gold standard’ for many operat...
Conference Paper
An auditory display for short-range navigation in two-dimensional space is derived, implemented, and verified in an experiment. The auditory display design considers auditory qualities and auditory scene analysis principles. Orthogonal spatial dimensions are mapped to different auditory qualities in ranges at which they can be considered as orthogo...
Article
Mapping spatial expressions such as "behind the cup" to a spatial region requires two processes that have been largely explored independently: reference frame selection and spatial term assignment (Logan & Sadler, 1996). Reference frame selection carves a space into regions. Spatial term assignment evaluates these regions by determining the accepta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Situation awareness is known to be a critical skill in surgical decision making. While a few simulators have been developed to teach surgical decision making, none explicitly address teaching situation awareness skills. In this paper we present a knowledge representation framework that captures the key elements in reasoning about situation awarenes...
Conference Paper
Auditory displays have been suggested and partly established in the operating room, including audible alarms, anesthesia monitoring, and sounds for navigation. This work reviews them from a psychoacoustic perspective. Results show that only auditory displays that include some psychoacoustic considerations are successful. Guidelines for psychoacoust...
Article
A psychoacoustically motivated sonification design to guide clinicians in two-dimensional space is presented, e.g., to navigate a scalpel towards a target resection trajectory, ablation needle towards a pre-planned insertion point, or drill towards a target burrhole for craniotomy. Navigation is achieved by mapping spatial dimensions to audio synth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability to solve spatial tasks is crucial for everyday life and therefore of great importance for cognitive agents. In artificial intelligence (AI) we model this ability by representing spatial configurations and spatial tasks in the form of knowledge about space and time. Augmented by appropriate algorithms, such representations enable the gen...
Article
Full-text available
The Remote Associates Test (RAT) has been used to measure creativity, however few repositories or standardizations of test items exist, like the normative data on 144 items provided by Bowden and Jung-Beeman. comRAT is a computational solver which has been used to solve the compound RAT in linguistic and visual forms, showing correlation to human p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spatial cognition is known to play an important role in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), as it enables faster surgical skill acquisition, reduces surgical time and errors made and significantly improves surgical performance, which in return improves patient safety. Nevertheless, literature has yielded conflicting and inconsistent findings in regar...
Article
Full-text available
The Remote Associates Test is a well established measure, frequently used to assess individuals’ creative abilities, as a function of the ability to elicit remote associates. The nature of the involved associative processes is still poorly understood. This hampers a deeper understanding of the creative process, rendering it difficult to determine w...
Conference Paper
With the minute margins of error in endodontic surgery, training in manual dexterity and proper instrument handling are crucial components in the dental curriculum. Important parameters include tool path, tool angulation, and force applied. In this work, we focus on training of correct application of force. This is particularly challenging since th...
Book
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 13th Biennial Conference, KogWis 2016, held in Bremen, Germany, in September 2016, and the 10th International Conference, Spatial Cognition 2016, held in Philadelphia, PA, USA, in August 2016. The 11 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully selected and reviewed from...
Article
Previous studies have shown that multiple reference frames are available and compete for selection during the use of spatial terms such as "above." However, the mechanisms that underlie the selection process are poorly understood. In the current paper we present two experiments and a comparison of three computational models of selection to shed fur...
Conference Paper
Whether visual spatial attention can be split to several discontinuous locations concurrently is still an open and intensely debated question. We address this question in the domain of spatial language use by comparing two existing and three newly proposed computational models. All models are assessed regarding their ability to account for human ac...
Article
This article presents research into human mental spatial reasoning with orientation knowledge. In particular, we look at reasoning problems about cardinal directions that possess multiple valid solutions (i.e., are spatially underdetermined), at human preferences for some of these solutions, and at representational and procedural factors that lead...
Article
When computational cognitive models are compared regarding their ability to fit empirical data, it is important to consider the models’ complexity. The parametric bootstrap cross-fitting method (PBCM, Wagenmakers, Ratcliff, Gomez, & Iverson, 2004) is a promising approach to model comparison and selection that takes the compared models’ complexity i...
Article
Full-text available
A series of visual search experiments conducted by Abrams et al. (2008) indicates that disengagement of visual attention is slowed when the array of objects that are to be searched are close to the hands (hands on the monitor) than if they are not close to the hands (hands in the lap). These experiments establish the impact one's hands can have on...
Article
Although the bicoded map constitutes an interesting candidate representation, proposing it as the predominant representation for three-dimensional space is too restrictive. We present and argue for scalable spatial representation structures as a more comprehensive alternative account that includes the bicoded map as a special case.
Article
Full-text available
In four human learning experiments (Pavlovian skin conductance, causal learning, speeded classification task), we evaluated several associative learning theories that assume either an elemental (modified unique cue model and Harris' model) or a configural (Pearce's configural theory and an extension of it) form of stimulus processing. The experimen...
Data
Parameter selection for simulations of the elemental models (modified unique cue model and Harris’ model) and configural models (Pearce’s configural theory and extended configural theory) for the two discrimination problems A/B/C+, AB/BC/AC+ vs. ABC- and A+, BC+ vs. ABC-. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing - mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery - we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific...
Article
Mental spatial knowledge processing often uses spatio-analogical or quasipictorial representation structures such as spatial mental models or mental images. The cognitive architecture Casimir is designed to provide a framework for computationally modeling human spatial knowledge processing relying on these kinds of representation formats. In this a...
Article
The Transregional Collaborative Research Center SFB/TR 8 Spatial Cognition pursues interdisciplinary research on a broad range of topics related to the representation and processing mechanisms for intelligent spatial behavior in technical and in natural systems. This contribution gives an overview of the field of research worked on in the SFB/TR 8...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents results showing that eye movements reflect spatial relations in mental images but not in mental models during nearly similar reasoning tasks with directions. These results contribute to the distinction between mental models and mental images based on eye movements. This differentiation may be applied in the field of human-comput...
Article
Full-text available
To support their main claim, Mitchell et al. broach the issue of the relationship between the learning performance of human and nonhuman animals. We show that their argumentation is problematic both theoretically and empirically. In fact, results from learning studies with humans and honey-bees strongly suggest that human learning is not entirely p...
Article
Full-text available
ALTSim is a MATLAB-based simulator of several associative learning models, including Pearce's configural model, the extended configural model, the Rescorla-Wagner model, the unique cue hypothesis, the modified unique cue hypothesis, the replaced elements model, and Harris's elemental model. It allows for specifying all relevant parameters, as well...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive architectures constitute a generally preferable ap-proach to create computational accounts of human cognition. Yet, cognitive architectures are also hard to assess. Following up on and extending the work of Cooper (2007), we further assess the popular cognitive architecture ACT-R in this paper. It turns out that ACT-R fares worse than one...
Article
Full-text available
A recent proposal for an elemental account of associative learning phenomena is the replaced-elements model (REM) put forward by Wagner (2003). Although the ideas underlying this model are comparatively simple, implementation of the model is rather complex. In this article, we present Rapid-REM, a MATLAB simulator of Wagner's model. Rapid-REM featu...
Article
Full-text available
Harris (2006) recently proposed a new elemental model of the processes involved in associative learning. Although Harris explicated all relevant mathematical and conceptual details of the model in his article, implementing a computer simulation of his model requires considerable programming expertise and work. We therefore present the Harris model...
Article
Full-text available
In two causal learning experiments with human participants, the authors compared various associative theories that assumed either elemental (unique cue, modified unique cue, replaced elements model, and Harris' model) or configural processing of stimuli (Pearce's theory and a modification of it). The authors used modified patterning problems initia...
Article
The ability of ambient intelligence to serve a person could be considerably enhanced, if intelligent devices would take into account the person's current cognitive and affective state. One primary source for state information are physiological measures. However, obtaining state information requires concertedly employing a multitude of different tec...
Article
Full-text available
The apprehension of spatial terms like "above" or "left" is cru-cial for communicating about spatial configurations. One im-portant part of apprehension has been shown to be the selection of a reference frame (RF). Yet, how this selection is controlled has remained unclear so far. This paper presents a computa-tional analysis and model of the contr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is an ongoing and controversial debate in cognitive science which aspects of knowledge humans process visually and which ones they process spatially. Similarly, artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science research, in building computational cognitive systems, tended to use strictly spatial or strictly visual representations. The resulting...
Article
Full-text available
Diagrams and mental imagery play pivotal roles for many spatial reasoning tasks, and the close functional coupling of spatial reasoning with diagrams and imagery is often crucial for successful problem solving. Problem solving by way of model (e.g., diagram) construction is a frequent strategy. This contribution presents the computational model NEV...