Hiroshi Kawauchi

Hiroshi Kawauchi
Kitasato University · Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences

Ph.D.

About

330
Publications
15,933
Reads
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13,630
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 1974 - April 2007
Kitasato University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
May 1971 - May 1974
University of California, San Francisco
Position
  • Post doctral fellow

Publications

Publications (330)
Article
This chapter describes the neuroendocrine control of synthesis and secretion of two homologous pituitary hormones—prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL), in teleost fish. PRL and SL are produced in the rostral pars distalis and the pars intermedia of Osteichthyes, respectively. The synthesis and secretion of PRL and SL are regulated by two antagonis...
Article
Three peptides containing the melanotropin-core amino-acid sequence, YXMXHFRWG, were isolated from the pituitary glands of a modern representative of the most primitive vertebrates, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. MSH-A, a nonadecapeptide (NPELYQMNHFRWGQPPTHF), is free at both ends. MSH-B, an eicosapeptide (VQESADGYRMQHFRWGQPLP), is free at th...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the ability of salmon growth hormone (sGH) in sodium alginate (SA) gel to accelerate the somatic growth of juvenile abalone, Haliotisdiscushannai, by feeding. After the feeding of sGH at 50μg or 100μg in 350mg SA gel, immunoreactivity to sGH in body fluid was maximal after 12h, and was still detectable at 24h. No immunoreactivity was ob...
Article
The duality of teleost pituitary gonadotropins was established in an advanced marine fish, the tuna (Thunnus obesus). Two different molecular forms of gonadotropins, designated tGTH I and tGTH II, were isolated from an alcoholic extract of pituitary glands following ion-exchange chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. Both tGTH I and tGTH II stimul...
Article
Two CNBr fragments of sea whale prolactin containing 69 and 41 amino acid residues, respectively, were hydrolyzed by trypsin, and the hydrolytic products were separated by the paper peptide mapping technique. The amino acid sequence of 17 homogeneous peptides was studied by the Edman method as well as by hydrolysis with carboxypeptidases A and B. B...
Article
The complete amino acid sequence of growth hormone from fin whale pituitary has been determined. It consists of 190 amino acid residues with two disulfide bridges formed by residues 52–163 and 180–188. The sequence identity with sei whale, bovine, ovine and human growth hormone is 90%, 91%, 90% and 68%, respectively.
Article
The ability of salmon growth hormone (sGH) to accelerate the somatic growth of juvenile abalone Haliotis discus hannai by immersion was examined. After immersion for one hour into a sGH-rich solution at a concentration of 30 mg/L, the sGH immunoreactivity in the body fluid of abalone was maximal after one day, and levels were still detectable at tw...
Article
Full-text available
Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) growth hormone (GH) was identified by cDNA cloning and protein purification from the pituitary gland. Dogfish GH cDNA encoded a prehormone of 210 amino acids (aa). Sequence analysis of purified GH revealed that the prehormone is composed of a signal peptide of 27 aa and a mature protein of 183 aa. Dogfish GH showed 94% s...
Article
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays a role in mediating growth hormone and gonadotropin release in the teleost pituitary. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical relationship between PACAP nerve fibers and prolactin (PRL)- and somatolactin (SL)-producing cells in the goldfish pituitary. Nerve fibers wi...
Article
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), melanotropins (MSHs), growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropin (GTH) have been identified or cloned from the pituitary gland of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). The present study was designed to gain insights into the functional significance of these hormones through a description of changes in the occurrence and distribut...
Article
To better understand the role of IGFs in Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, we cloned insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) cDNAs and examined their mRNA expression in several tissues. Two eel IGF-II cDNAs, eIGF-II-1 and eIGF-II-2, were cloned from the liver. A signal peptide and a mature peptide of both preproIGF-IIs were composed of 47 amino acids...
Article
The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of melanocyte-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and their receptors. The MC system has a role in both pigmentation and the regulation of energy homeostasis, in which MC4R, one of the five MC receptors, has a key role. Interestingly, the barfin flounder (Pleuronectiformes) reared with a black b...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropeptides with the Arg-Phe-amide motif at their C termini (RFamide peptides) were identified in the brains of several vertebrates, and shown to have important physiological roles in neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions. The present study identified RFamide peptides, which are teleost prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) ho...
Data
Full-text available
Phylogenetic analysis of full-length amino acid sequences of lamprey MC receptors together with most closely related human α-group rhodopsin GPCRs. The consensus tree was generated by Neighbor-Joining analysis (Phylip 3.6a3). The numbers above the nodes indicate bootstrap replicates. The abbreviations used: Hsa, human and Lfl, lamprey. The sequence...
Data
Full-text available
The percentage identity of the full-length amino acid sequences for the melanocortin receptor subtypes from different species. The abbreviations used: Hsa, human; Mmu, mouse; Gga, chicken; Tru, Fugu; Dre, zebrafish Omy, trout; Cau, goldfish; Sac, dogfish; Lfl, lamprey and Mgl, hagfish. The accession numbers are listed in "Methods". The MglMCc seque...
Data
Expression of lamprey β-actin mRNA, determined by RT-PCR. Expression is presented on ethidium bromide stained agarose gel. The tissues and controls are denoted at the top of the figure. The PCR was performed two times with qualitatively similar results.
Article
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and beta-endorphin, and is suggested to have evolved by the insertion and deletion of ancestral MSH segments. Here, the primary structure of POMC was determined with cDNA cloning of brown tree snakes of Squamata and American alligators of Crocodylia to show an overv...
Article
Full-text available
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) influences feeding behavior in the goldfish and exerts an anorexigenic action in goldfish brain, unlike its orexigenic action in mammals. Despite a growing body of knowledge concerning MCH function in mammals, the role of MCH in appetite has not yet been well studied in...
Article
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide generated in neurons originating in the hypothalamus, from which axons project to the entire brain and neurohypophysis in fish. MCH has both central and peripheral roles such as food intake and body color change. Here we cloned two MCH receptors (MCH-R) from the barfin flounder, Verasper moseri,...
Article
Full-text available
The melanocortin (MC) receptors have a key role in regulating body weight and pigmentation. They belong to the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The purpose of this study was to identify ancestral MC receptors in agnathan, river lamprey. We report cloning of two MC receptors from river lamprey. The lamprey receptors, designat...
Article
Amino acid sequences for identified prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptides (PrRPs) were conserved in mammals (>90%) or teleost fishes (100%), but there were considerable differences between these classes in the sequence (<65%) as well as in the role of PrRP. In species other than fishes and mammals, we have identified frog PrRP. The cDNA encoding Xenop...
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to understand growth regulation in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, we cloned insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) cDNAs and examined their mRNA expression in several tissues. Two eel IGF-I (eIGF-I) cDNAs encoding preprohormones, eIGF-I-Ea1and eIGF-I-Ea2, were cloned from the liver by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The preproIGF...
Article
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) was originally discovered in fish, in which it causes aggregation or concentration of melanin granules in melanophores, thus regulating body color. MCH is a cyclic neuropeptide synthesized as a preprohormone in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. Mammalian MCH plays an important role as a neurotransmitter or neu...
Article
Full-text available
A full-length transcript encoding a functional lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I (lGpH-R I, GenBank AY750688) was cloned from the testes of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, using the GpH-R protein fingerprint GLYCHORMONER from the PRINTS database. The present study is the first to identify a GpH-R transcript in an agnathan, which is one o...
Article
We have identified the first and perhaps only gonadotropin beta-like protein by cDNA cloning in sea lamprey, a member of the oldest lineage of vertebrates, the agnathans. Two pituitary gonadotropins (GTHs: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)) have been identified in representative species of all classes of vertebrates ex...
Article
There are two adult life history types among lamprey species, nonparasitic and parasitic, with the former commencing the final interval of sexual maturation immediately after metamorphosis. There are no extensive studies that directly compare hormone profiles during the life cycles of nonparasitic and parasitic lamprey species, yet such data may ex...
Article
Full-text available
The adenohypophysial hormones have been believed to have evolved from several ancestral genes by duplication followed by evolutionary divergence. To understand the origin and evolution of the endocrine systems in vertebrates, we have characterized adenohypophysial hormones in an agnathan, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. In gnathostomes, adrenoc...
Article
Growth hormone (GH) belongs to a family of pituitary hormones together with prolactin and somatolactin. In our previous study, GH and its cDNA were identified in the pituitary gland of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, an extant representative of the most ancient class of vertebrates, and isolated GH stimulated expression of insulin-like growth...
Article
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a common precursor of melanocortin (MC), the collective term for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH), and of beta-endorphin (beta-END). Over the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the POMC gene from a board taxonomic group of vertebrates and inve...
Article
In gnathostomes, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanophore-stimulating hormones (MSHs), and beta-endorphin (beta-END) are derived from a common precursor, proopiomelanocortin. In sea lamprey, ACTH and two forms of MSHs are contained in independent precursors, proopiocortin (POC), and proopiomelanotropin (POM), respectively, together with a di...
Article
The lampreys (family Petromyzontidae) are divided into three subfamilies, the Petromyzontinae in the Northern Hemisphere and the Geotriinae and Mordaciinae in the Southern Hemisphere. We previously found two proopiomelanocortin subtypes, proopiocortin (POC) and proopiomelanotropin (POM) in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Petromyzontinae). POC enco...
Article
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamo-pituitary peptide, which was first identified in the salmon pituitary as a hormone affecting body color. Recently, MCH has been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in mammals. Despite a growing body of knowledge concerning MCH in mammals, however, there is litt...
Article
To date proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor protein for melanotropin (MSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), lipotropins (LPH), and beta-endorphin (beta-END) in the pituitary gland, has been studied extensively over a wide spectrum of vertebrate classes. A paucity of information exists, however, with regard to POMC in the avian class, where to dat...
Article
Among the RFamide peptide groups, PQRFamide peptides, such as neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF (NPAF), share a common C-terminal Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH(2) motif. LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) peptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), frog growth hormone-releasing peptide (fGRP), goldfish LPXRFamide peptide and mammalian RFamide-rela...
Article
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a common precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH), and endorphin (END). In pituitary gland, POMC receives posttranslational processing by which different peptides are generated in the pars distalis (PD) and pars intermedia (PI). Recently, we cloned three subtypes of the POM...
Article
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) are produced in the pars distalis and pars intermedia, respectively, throughout vertebrates. These hormones together with beta-endorphin are encoded on a single gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in gnathostomes, but in the sea lamprey, an agnathan, ACTH and MSH are encoded o...
Article
Full-text available
Gnathostomes express a common proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene in the pars distalis (PD) and the pars intermedia (PI) of the pituitary gland. In contrast, the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus expresses one distinct gene in each lobe; proopiocortin (POC) encoding adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin (END) is expressed in the PD and pro...
Article
The hagfish is considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct. It remains an enigma whether adenohypophysial hormones similar to those of more advanced vertebrates are present in the hagfish pituitary gland or not. The present study aimed to detect immunoreactive adenohypophysial hormones in the hagfish pituitary gland, using ant...
Article
A pleuronectiform fish, the barfin flounder Verasper moseri, reared in a white tank had a smaller ratio of pigmented area of the skin on non-eyed side, grew faster, and had greater melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-immunoreactive cell bodies and MCH gene expression in the brain than in the black tank, indicating that synthesis and release of MCH...
Article
Full-text available
Prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a strong candidate stimulator of pituitary PRL transcription and secretion in teleosts. However, the role in control of extrapituitary PRL expression is unclear even in mammals. To study the possible presence of PrRP-PRL axes not only in the brain-pituitary but also in peripheral organs, the expression pa...
Article
Melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to be associated with food intake in addition to body color change in teleosts. MSH is encoded by a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene together with endorphin (END). To assess the significance of MSH to biological activities, we determined the structure and evaluated the expression of POMC mRNA in b...
Article
Full-text available
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pituitary hormone derived by post-translational processing from proopiomelanocortin and is involved in background adaptation in teleost fish. It has also been reported to suppress food intake in mammals. Here, we examined the immunocytochemical localization of alpha-MSH in the brain and pituitar...
Article
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) could play a role in stimulating pituitary hormone release in fish brain. In this study, we used immunochemical techniques to examine the histological and quantitative distribution of PACAP in the central nervous system (CNS) of a teleost, the stargazer, Uranoscopus japonic...
Article
Full-text available
A neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has possible potency as a hypothalamic factor mediating the release of pituitary hormones, especially growth hormone (GH), in the fish pituitary. We used double-immunostaining to examine the relationship between PACAP nerve fibers and adenohypophysial hormone-producing cells...
Article
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide synthesized as a preprohormone in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. This neuropeptide binds to G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor(s) to mediate its function. MCH was named after its function in teleosts, in which it causes aggregation or concentration of melanin granules in...
Article
We investigated the involvement of MCH in food intake in barfin flounder. The structure of barfin flounder MCH was determined by cDNA cloning and mass spectrometry. In fasted fish, the MCH gene expression and the number of MCH neurons in the brain were greater than controls. In white-reared fish, the MCH gene expression and the number of MCH neuron...
Article
Full-text available
The lamprey, which are divided into three families, including the Petromyzonidae, Geotriidae, and Mordaciidae, have been shown to regulate the reproductive axis through a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. To date, two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been identified in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), lamprey G...
Article
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor for several pituitary hormones including adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and endorphin (END). Fish POMCs in four taxonomic classes, Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish), and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) have...
Article
We examined the ability of recombinant salmon growth hormone (rsGH) to accelerate somatic growth of juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, by immersion and intramuscular injection in comparison with the effects of the salmon prolactin (sPRL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). After immersion in protein solutions at a concentration of 30 mg/l for 30...
Article
Full-text available
We have identified ghrelin from the stomach of rainbow trout. Four isoforms of ghrelin peptide were isolated: the C-terminal amidated type of rainbow trout ghrelin (rt ghrelin) composed of 24 amino acids (GSSFLSPSQKPQVRQGKGKPPRV-amide) is a basic form; des-VRQ-rt ghrelin, which deleted three amino acids (V13R14Q15) from rt ghrelin; and further two...
Article
We report the development of a sensitive, and specific, competitive, antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) growth hormone (cfGH). The detection limit of the assay (90% binding) was 2.0ng/ml and the ED50 value (standard curve range 150-0.59ng/ml) was 67.3ng/ml. Recovery of cfGH...
Article
Full-text available
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), recently isolated from the brain of mammals and teleosts, is a strong candidate for being a stimulatory hormone of pituitary prolactin secretion. The present study examined whether or not PrRP is capable of inducing prolactin gene expression and elevating plasma prolactin levels in vivo in cannulated rainbow trou...
Article
The coelacanth fish, genus Latimeria, flourished during the Devonian Period and is considered among the closest living relatives of tetrapods. It may therefore provide important information on the evolution of fishes into tetrapods. However, little is known about the components of the endocrine system in this fish. Here we describe the structural c...
Article
Full-text available
The sandwich cell immunoblot assay confirmed that salmon LH-cells secreted the free form a-subunit along with the dimeric LH, but lower in amounts than the LH.