Hiroaki Kumano

Hiroaki Kumano
Waseda University | Sōdai · Faculty of Human Sciences

Doctor of Medicine / Doctor of Philosophy

About

327
Publications
35,219
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Introduction
Hiroaki KUMANO is a professor of clinical psychology at Waseda University and runs the laboratory of Behavioral Medicine. He is a psychosomatic physician as well as a clinical psychologist and sees many patients with anxiety disorders especially panic disorder and social anxiety disorder, depression, eating disorders, and psychosomatic diseases. Their current research interests are clinical behavioral analysis, mindfulness, attention, and brain imaging. Methods and techniques they use are psychometric measures such as ecological momentary assessment, interviews, and questionnaires, and neurocognitive measures including EEG, NIRS, and eye-tracking.
Additional affiliations
April 2009 - August 2019
Waseda University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (327)
Article
Full-text available
Background Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being implemented worldwide for problems with depression and anxiety, and they have shown evidence of efficacy. However, few studies have examined the effects of a mindfulness-based group therapy based on standard programs for depression and anxiety until follow-up in Japan. This study add...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the neurocognitive effects of the Attention Training Technique (ATT) on brain activity in healthy participants. The participants included 20 university students who were asked to practice ATT as a homework assignment for 20 days. The intracerebral source localization of their electroencephalogram during rest and the...
Article
Full-text available
Self-focused attention (SFA) and other-focused attention (OFA) are central maintenance factors of social anxiety. Tomita et al., Cognitive Therapy and Research 44:511–525, 2020 investigated brain activities when manipulating SFA and OFA during speech tasks, after controlling for social anxiety, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and eye-tracki...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Mindfulness meditation might improve the ability of disengagement from mind-wandering (MW), that is, the ability to shift attention from MW. Disengagement from MW could mediate the relationship between mindfulness and reduced depression. However, no studies have confirmed this relationship because of limitations in measurement methodolog...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exacerbate the effect of cognitive-behavioral impairments on emotional burden. Although adults with ADHD frequently experience procrastination and internalizing symptoms such as depression and anxiety, few studies have examined whether the association between p...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory-short form assesses mindfulness, and enhanced mindfulness is beneficial for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aims to develop a Japanese version of the measure (J-FMI) and examine its reliability and validity in a clinical population. Methods Patients (N = 340) with mainly de...
Article
Self-compassion is regarded as a mediating or moderating variable in mindfulness-based interventions (MBI). However, few studies have investigated the role of self-compassion on MBI. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine whether (1) MBI decreases depression and trait anxiety, while increasing trait mindfulness, trait self...
Article
Introduction While anticipatory anxiety is a psychological factor of erectile dysfunction (ED), the problem of experiential avoidance, which is an attempt to avoid heightened anxiety and tension associated with anticipatory anxiety, has recently been highlighted (Stephenson, 2019). Experiential avoidance becomes a problem when one worsens his or he...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) is one of the effective psychotherapies for over-adaptation. MCT focuses on metacognitive beliefs which are beliefs about cognitive processes and instrumental beliefs which are beliefs about coping behaviors. Metacognitive and instrumental beliefs are considered to maintain the mental illness. Takeda et al. (2018) indica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mind Wandering (MW) is described as task unrelated thought which occurs when one's attention is diverted from the task or external environment one is currently engaged to unrelated internal representations. It has been noted that unintentional MW may be more likely to interfere with task performance. We believe that differences in the direction of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) is sometimes used to treat Eating disorder (ED) these days. Previous studies have examined the relationship between ED and ACT's behavioral processes such as experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion. However, most of the previous studies were examined by characteristic measurement using a single questionnaire s...
Preprint
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Mind wandering (MW) is a phenomenon in which a person is distracted from the external environment and ongoing tasks. Among these, unintentional MWs are known to be associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although some aspects of MWs are expected to have a negative influence on ADHD, the relationship between MW and contents...
Preprint
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one of the treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Studies have used questionnaires to reveal the relationship between OCD symptoms and variables in ACT at the trait level. However, few studies examine the impact of experiential avoidance and defusion on OCD symptoms in daily life. Thus, this s...
Preprint
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A previous study that manipulated metacognitive beliefs of the patients with generalized anxiety disorder resulted in the transformation of the Big Five attributes. However、 enhancing the attention control function is also expected to transform the Big Five traits. This study also examined the effects of enhancing attention control because synergis...
Preprint
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Social camouflaging behaviors consist of compensation, masking, and assimilation. Social camouflaging behaviors are associated with low self-esteem and poor mental health. However, studies suggest that social camouflaging behaviors also have positive functions. This study examined the relationship between mental health deterioration and low self-es...
Preprint
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Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is considered a risk factor for depression. Previous studies have established the relationship between passive attention control and OGM. However, there are only a few studies examining the relationship between OGM and voluntary attention control. Thus, the current study aims to examine the relationship bet...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-focused attention is a maintenance factor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Focusing on self taking an observer’s perspective is associated with increased anxiety. The triggers of self-focused attention from an observer perspective remain unclear. Studies have shown that metacognitive therapy (MCT), which targets a perseverative thinking style...
Article
Full-text available
Background A brief measure of dispositional mindfulness is important for applied research on mindfulness. Although short forms of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), which measures the five aspects of mindfulness (i.e., observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), have been developed worldwide, the va...
Article
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Background: The Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) model of human functioning uses the behavioral processes of acceptance, mindfulness, and values, which together compose psychological flexibility, the ability to contact the present moment more fully as a conscious human being and to either change or persist when doing so serves valued ends....
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relationship between rumination in ambiguous rejection situations and the perception and anticipation of rejection. Thirty university students with high rejection sensitivity were presented with ambiguous rejection situations and were asked to maintain or reduce their rumination. Hierarchical mult...
Preprint
Background : The Cognitive Attentional Syndrome Scale 1 Revised (CAS-1R) is a 10-item self-report measure designed to assess dysfunctional metacognition, which is a transdiagnostic predictor of psychological disorders. Dysfunctional metacognition can be broadly classified into “cognitive attentional syndrome” and “metacognitive beliefs.” In the pre...
Article
Full-text available
Self-focused attention plays an essential role in social anxiety disorder, which is reported to be accompanied by overactivation of the right frontal pole. In this study, we explore the possibility that suppressing over-activation of the right frontal pole would lead to the mitigation of self-focused attention. We used transcranial static magnetic...
Article
Full-text available
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is considered a risk factor for depression. Previous studies have established the relationship between passive attention control and OGM. However, there are only a few studies examining the relationship between OGM and voluntary attention control. Thus, the current study aims to examine the relationship bet...
Article
Full-text available
Regulative Music Therapy (RMT) is one of the passive music therapy, where we practice focusing on three areas: the music, the body, the thoughts, feelings, and moods while listening to prescribed classical music. The effect of RMT was shown in which improvement in anxiety and mood was reported. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the essence...
Article
Full-text available
This study created an attention training technique (ATT) with sound stimuli that induced self-focused attention (SFA) and compared the effects with a standard ATT. We recruited and assigned a total of 30 undergraduate students with social anxiety tendencies to the SFA-ATT and standard ATT groups. Each ATT was performed for two weeks and the changes...
Article
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The proceeding of the lecture given at the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association in 2018 on Nozomi TOMITA's doctoral dissertation "A unified understanding of self-focused attention and attention bias in social anxiety" (in Japanese), and the table of contents of six published papers corresponding to 6 studies of her dissertati...
Article
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Metacognitive therapy aims at a state of detached mindfulness (DM), in which unpleasant thoughts and feelings are left unaddressed. To achieve DM, it is important to improve attention ability. In addition, it has been suggested that it is necessary to address beliefs about maladaptive coping behaviors to promote DM in clinical settings. However, th...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep problems are common in the daily life of university students. A variety of sleep problems have been shown to be interrelated with daytime mood and mental health problems. However, few studies have examined which sleep problems influence mood states and which mood states influence sleep problems in the daily life of university students. Theref...
Article
Full-text available
While personality or the integration of psychological characteristics is hard to change,psychotherapies, such as Metacognitive Therapy(MCT) ,can reduce trait anxiety. Therefore,it is possible that the intervention techniques of MCT would work on the personality aspects,and it is necessary to conduct research to examine changes in personality traits...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The results of this study suggest that self-focused attention is a more dominant maintaining factor than attention bias, which may support the theory of Clark & Wells (1995). Brain functional abnormality in social anxiety individuals evident in social situations may correspond to dysfunctional hyperactivities induced by maladaptive psychological st...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the process of introducing online cognitive and behavioral therapies at a primary care psychosomatic clinic during the novel coronavirus pandemic. The preparation period was relatively short, due to some helpful references and the use of "Zoom," the off-the-shelf web conference service. In total, 92 sessions were implemented over six mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attentional avoidance is a factor that inhibits extinction learning, and covert avoidance may be independent of behavior. However, covert attentional avoidance has never been examined as a factor that inhibits extinction learning. Although threat-monitoring is considered to facilitate fear conditioning, this has not been examined. In this study, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are two types of attention: involuntary attention, which is an automatic response to unexpected stimuli, and voluntary attention, which is a conscious attention. Mindfulness training, which involves conscious control of attention, has been shown to affect spontaneous attention, and it is thought that repeated active attention may result in au...
Article
This preliminary investigation aims to develop a new measure for momentary experiential avoidance in daily life using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and a small sample. To measure momentary experiential avoidance, this study devised a new method that involves capturing reductions in unwanted experiences after a behavior has occurred based on...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metacognitive therapy aims at a state of detached mindfulness (DM), in which unpleasant thoughts and feelings are left unaddressed. In order to achieve DM, it is important to improve attention ability. In addition, it has been suggested that it is necessary to address beliefs about maladaptive coping behaviors to promote DM in clinical settings. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Voluntary attention control comprises three components: selective attention, switching attention, and divided attention. These components can be assessed with a questionnaire-Voluntary Attention Control Scale(VACS)-and a behavioral task-Dichotic Listening Task(DLT) .Previous studies suggested that VACS is related to depression and anxiety and that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sleep problems and negative moods during the day are interrelated, and sleep disorders and psychiatric disorders often co-occur. However, it is unclear how sleep states and multiple moods influence each other in healthy people's daily life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between total sleep time (TST), sleep ef...
Preprint
Full-text available
We presented the process of introducing online cognitive and behavioral therapies at a primary care psychosomatic clinic under the pandemic of the new coronavirus. The preparation period was pretty short, which was due to some helpful references and the use of the off-the-shelf web conference service "Zoom." Ninety-two sessions were implemented in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-compassion is considered to be an important mediating and moderating variable in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). However, little research has been conducted focusing on the role of self-compassion in MBIs. Therefore, the present study examined whether (1) depression and trait-anxiety will decrease and self-compassionate behaviors (SCBs...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-focused attention plays an essential role in social anxiety disorder, which is reported to be accompanied by over-activation of the right frontal pole. In this study, we explore the possibility that suppressing over-activation of the right frontal pole would lead to the mitigation of self-focused attention. We used transcranial static magnetic...
Article
Full-text available
In metacognitive therapy, harmful cognitive activities are considered to lead to mental disorders. In addition, metacognitive beliefs, which are how we understand cognitive activities, are said to control those cognitive activities. However, there is no measure that comprehensively captures maladaptive coping behaviors included in harmful cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that the higher the expectation of rejection, the more strongly one is likely to perceive any given interpersonal interaction as rejection (Suyama, 2016). We consider the possibility that rumination is associated with the expectation of and perceptions related to rejection; however, this potential connection has not been direc...
Article
Full-text available
The cognitive-behavioral model of social anxiety disorder (SAD) indicates that attentional biases toward certain types of external information are a maintaining factor for SAD. According to metacognitive therapy, attentional biases occur under the influence of metacognitive beliefs about focused attention. However, there is no empirical study that...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep architecture of patients with mental disorders such as depression has short slow-wave sleep time (SWST) in the first half of sleep. However, studies have not yet investigated the causal relationship of reduced SWST and negative daytime moods. Additionally, most extant studies on the relationship between sleep architecture and daytime moods ha...
Article
Full-text available
This study elucidates the effect of metacognitive therapy on depression and executive functions. In Study 1, we revealed the executive functions associated with worry, rumination, and depression even when metacognitive beliefs were controlled by surveying 157 college students. In Study 2, an experimental task was employed to measure the executive f...
Article
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Skill training and trauma-focused intervention should be conducted in parallel to promote the employment of clients with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and alleviate non-lethal trauma related to employment. The study reports a case of a client with ASD who succeeded in trauma processing and work adaptation after skill training and imagery rescrip...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder is characterized by fear of negative evaluation (FNE), fear of positive evaluation (FPE), and attentional avoidance. It has been suggested that self-focused attention process as taking “observer perspective,” wherein individuals perceive themselves from another person’s viewpoint, involves attentional avoidance. A perspectiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD), which persists on adults suffering from inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, has high rates of comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. In addition to the cardinal symptoms, accompanying symptoms such as procrastination and low motivation are present, and these symptoms cause various problems i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Voluntary attention control comprises three components: selective attention, switching attention, and divided attention. These components can be assessed with a questionnaire—Voluntary Attention Control Scale (VACS)—and a behavioral task—Dichotic Listening Task (DLT). Previous studies suggested that VACS is related to depression and anxiety and tha...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the reliability and validity of the Change Agenda Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (CA-IRAP). Change agendas that lead people to think that “reducing or removing undesirable thoughts and feelings will solve problems and lead to a more successful life” are considered unworkable in acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mindfulness meditation might improve the flexibility of mind-wandering, that is, the ability to shift attention from mind-wandering. Flexibility of mind-wandering could mediate the relationship between mindfulness and improvement in depression. However, there have been no studies of this relationship because of limitations in measurement methodolog...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety propose that self-focused attention (SFA) and other-focused attention (OFA) are central to social fear, but few studies have simultaneously investigated both in social situations. We investigated brain activity changes following manipulation of SFA and OFA during speech tasks using near-infrared spectro...
Preprint
This study examined the effects of the time of conducting a combined physical and cognitive exercise program on cognitive functions and the mood of older adults. We randomly assigned 17 participants (8 men, 9 women, age 73,24±3,75) to the morning group (AM Group), 18 (8 men, 10 women, age 73,11±4,84) to the afternoon group (PM Group), and they comp...
Article
Full-text available
Certified public psychologists focus on assessments based on objective data and psychological interventions that have been proven effective based on evidence and expertise in psychology. Therefore, certified public psychologists working in the health care field need to have minimal knowledge of the latest evidence of the treatment of each disease....
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study was to develop a method of measuring self-compassionate behaviors (SCBs) in daily life based on the framework of functional analysis in clinical behavior analysis. The current study used the Ecological Momentary Assessment, which is a method of recording events and behaviors in daily life. Multi-level simple regress...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated that when faced with stimuli in the form of internal or external threats, people with social anxiety exhibit attentional bias as a result of their metacognitive strategies. This study developed the Metacognition of Focused Attention in Subjects with High Social Anxiety Questionnaire (MFAQ) and investigated its rel...
Article
Full-text available
本稿では,心身相関の基盤となる脳の働きについて,心身相関を研究する手段として多用されてきたストレス研究における知見を踏まえて解説を行った。 心身相関では,感覚器でストレッサーが知覚されると,大脳皮質と大脳辺縁系において認知的反応と情動的反応とがやりとりをしながら負担の程度を認識し,その信号が視床下部に伝達されていくことで末梢臓器・行動面・心理面のストレス反応が表出するという脳の経路が基盤として働いている。 心身症とうつ病や不安症はともに心身相関の観点から病態を理解できるが,脳内における病態の責任部位が異なっている。心身症を理解する上で強調される脳部位は,生体機能調節系の中枢である視床下部・下垂体である一方で,うつ病や不安症を理解する上で強調される脳部位は,大脳皮質・大脳辺縁系である。 心身症...
Article
The mechanisms of efficacy in mindfulness-based interventions for depression and anxiety are not fully understood. To clarify these mechanisms, we tested the hypotheses that mind-wandering, daydreaming, cognitive fusion, and experiential avoidance will decrease through mindfulness group therapy, and this decrease will correlate with improvements in...
Article
Full-text available
This is the record of the dialogue between an outstanding Zen master and a practitioner and researcher of mindfulness held on February 2nd, 2019, at Hanazono University, Kyoto (in Japanese).
Preprint
Regulative Music Therapy(RMT)is one of the passive music therapy, where we practice focusing on three areas: the music, the body, the thoughts, feelings, and moods while listening to prescribed classical music. The effect of RMT was shown in which improvement in anxiety and mood was reported. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the essence of...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been suggested that the higher the expectation of rejection, the more strongly one is likely to perceive any given interpersonal interaction as rejection (Suyama, 2016). We consider the possibility that rumination is associated with the expectation of and perceptions related to rejection; however, this potential connection has not been direc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although, Personality, the integration of characteristics, is notoriously alternation, Trait-anxiety has been shown to be reduced with metacognitive therapy (MCT). However, no link between psychotherapy and personality has been shown. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between each of the Big Five dimensions measuring personality and M...
Preprint
Full-text available
The formation and sustainment of rumination tendencies have been shown to be strongly related to self-attention, self-consciousness, and positive metacognitive beliefs as a preliminary stage to rumination. However, the relationship between past experience and the formation of self-consciousness, and the relationship between the semantics of self-de...
Preprint
Full-text available
In metacognitive therapy (MCT), Detached Mindfulness (DM) is proposed as a state of awareness of internal events, without attempting to control them. DM is considered to be a factor to improve the mental disorders and their symptoms. DM is composed of six characteristics, and they are controlled by metacognitive knowledge. Although, previous studie...