Hilde Geurts

Hilde Geurts
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

165
Publications
76,818
Reads
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9,087
Citations
Citations since 2017
43 Research Items
4646 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
June 2007 - present
Dr. Leo Kannerhuis Centrum Voor Autisme
Position
  • Psychologist/Senior Researcher
November 2002 - present
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Full-text available
Background Camouflaging behavior is often defined as using strategies to hide autistic characteristics. In this study, we investigated how to measure camouflaging behavior by performing a conceptual replication of the original study of the Camouflaging Autistic Traits Questionnaire (CAT-Q) and testing whether the self-reported camouflaging behavior...
Article
Background To our knowledge, treatment of personality disorder (PD) comorbidity in autistic adults is understudied, and is still in its infancy. We investigated the effectiveness of Schema Therapy (ST) for autistic adults with personality disorder (PD). Method A multiple case series design with 12 adults (aged 19-62 years) was used with baseline,...
Article
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Cognitive performances of autistic people vary widely. Therefore, previous group-based comparisons on cognitive aging in autistic adults might have overlooked those autistic adults that are particularly vulnerable for cognitive decline. Multivariate normative comparisons (MNC) statistically assess individual cognitive differences on the entire cogn...
Article
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Objectives: To discover psychiatric subtypes, researchers are adopting a method called community detection. This method was not subjected to the same scrutiny in the psychiatric literature as traditional clustering methods. Furthermore, many community detection algorithms have been developed without psychiatric sample sizes and variable numbers in...
Article
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For autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults there are several diagnostic instruments available with a need for consideration of the psychometric properties. This study aimed to conduct a first psychometric evaluation of a new diagnostic ASD instrument, the NIDA (Dutch Interview for Diagnostic assessment of ASD in adults) in 90 adult males without...
Article
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The clinical validity of the distinction between ADHD and ASD is a longstanding discussion. Recent advances in the realm of data-driven analytic techniques now enable us to formally investigate theories aiming to explain the frequent co-occurrence of these neurodevelopmental conditions. In this study, we probe different theoretical positions by mea...
Article
Lay abstract: More and more members of the autistic community and the research field are moving away from the idea that there will be a single biological or cognitive explanation for autistic characteristics. However, little is known about the complex dynamic processes that could explain why early difficulties in the language and motor domain ofte...
Article
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Different atypical social interaction styles (SISs) were defined and tested in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether these styles can also be distinguished in adults with ASD has not yet been explored. In men with ASD, men with personality disorder (PD), and men from the general population (N = 90), aged 18–65 years,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To discover clinical subtypes in psychology, researchers are increasingly using a method called community detection. This method has not been subjected to the same level of scrutiny in the psychological literature as traditional clustering methods such as k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering, and latent profile analysis. Furtherm...
Article
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Lay abstract: Some theories suggested that social difficulties in autism arise from differences in the processing of faces. If face-processing difficulties are central to autism, then they should be as persistent as social difficulties across the lifespan. We tested this by asking autistic and neurotypical participants between 30 and 75 years to c...
Article
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Objectives: In this study, we aim to discover whether there are valid subgroups in aging that are defined by modifiable factors and are determinant of clinically relevant outcomes regarding healthy aging. Method: Data from interviews were collected in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam at two measurement occasions with a 3-year interval. Input...
Article
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Findings on age-related cognitive effects in autism in adulthood are inconsistent across studies. As these studies substantially differ in their methodology, replication studies are needed. In this replication study frequentist (i.e., null-hypothesis significance testing), and Bayesian statistics were used to investigate the hypothesis that in auti...
Article
The aim is to assess whether instruments developed to measure subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) and in neurology and aging can reliably be used in ADHD and other common psychiatric classifications. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE+EMBASE CLASSIC were searched for relevant work on SCCs in psychiatric classifications (ADHD, autism, mood diso...
Article
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Lay abstract: Autism spectrum conditions were once seen as a predominantly male condition, but this has caused research to have little focus on women. Therefore, little is known about menstruation and menopause in autism spectrum conditions. Some smaller studies indicate that autistic individuals might suffer from increased difficulties surroundin...
Article
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Background Problems with emotional processing are widely reported in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although methylphenidate (MPH) effectively alleviates inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in ADHD, its effects on emotional processing and internalizing symptoms have remained elusive. While we previously found t...
Article
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This study is the first to distinguish two possible predictive directions between trauma exposure and executive functioning in children in a community sample. The sample consists of 1006 children from two time points with a seven years’ time interval of a longitudinal Dutch birth cohort study, the ABCD-study (Van Eijsden et al., 2011). We analyzed...
Article
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Psychotic and autistic symptoms are related to social functioning in individuals with psychotic disorders (PD). The present study used a network approach to (1) evaluate the interactions between autistic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, and social functioning, and (2) investigate whether relations are similar in individuals with and without PD. We est...
Article
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Lay abstract: Autistic adults without a suspected intellectual disability reported several motor features such as having tremors, and stiffness in one's legs which are considered to be part of a complex of motor features called parkinsonism. This so-called parkinsonism was remarkably prevalent in middle-aged and older autistic adults in two indepe...
Article
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the first-choice pharmacological treatment for treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan. However, it is unclear whether MPH affects cognitive development, while recent (pre-) clinical studies suggest effects on the developing brain. The present randomized, placebo-controlled trial aim...
Article
Heterogeneity within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is recognized as a challenge to both biological and psychological research, as well as clinical practice. To reduce unexplained heterogeneity, subtyping techniques are often used to establish more homogeneous subtypes based on metrics of similarity and dissimilarity between people. We review the A...
Article
This current article describes the results and conclusions of the PhD-thesis (2014- 2018) of the first author. During these four years, the University of Amsterdam and the dr. Leo Kannerhuis (specialized center for people with autism) have collaborated in several studies to examine the relationship between psychophysiological measures, specifically...
Article
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Introduction Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) develop early in life and are thought to last a lifetime. However, ASC research has two major knowledge gaps that hinder progression in understanding the concept of ASC and in providing proper support for autistic adults: (1) the majority of knowledge about ASC mainly stems from childhood studies so lit...
Article
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The network approach to psychological phenomena advances our understanding of the interrelations between autism and well-being. We use the Perceived Causal Relations methodology in order to (i) identify perceived causal pathways in the well-being system, (ii) validate networks based on self-report data, and (iii) quantify and integrate clinical exp...
Article
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Lay abstract: Neuroimaging research has identified a network of brain regions that are more active when we daydream compared to when we are engaged in a task. This network has been named the default mode network. Furthermore, differences in the default mode network are the most consistent findings in neuroimaging research in autism. Recent studies...
Preprint
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Network approaches that investigate the interaction between symptoms and behaviours have opened new ways of understanding psychological phenomena in health and disorder in recent years. In parallel, network approaches that characterise the interaction between brain regions have become the dominant approach to understanding brain function in neuroim...
Chapter
Abstract Neurodevelopmental conditions and associated disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and learning disorders (LD) become apparent in childhood. These conditions often come with difficulties in cognitive functions, e.g., executive functions (EFs). Targeting EFs in an intervention...
Article
By comparing 51 autistic adults and 49 age-matched controls (aged 30–73 years) we tested if (1) the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is more sensitive in measuring cognitive impairments than the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and (2) if we can replicate the MoCA-findings of Powell et al. (2017) with the Dutch MoCA(-NL). Results showed tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental conditions. There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of their overlap. Behavioral symptoms and cognitive profiles indicate differences between the conditions, but genetic studies and neuroimaging investigations suggest at...
Article
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As executive functioning (EF) is especially sensitive to age-related cognitive decline, EF was evaluated by using a multi-method assessment. Fifty males (60–85 years) with a late adulthood autism spectrum condition (ASC) diagnosis and 51 non-ASC males (60–83 years) were compared on cognitive tests across EF domains (cognitive flexibility, planning,...
Article
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Background: The majority of research effort into autism has been dedicated to understanding mechanisms during early development. As a consequence, research on the broader life course of an autism spectrum condition (ASC) has largely been neglected and almost nothing is known about ASC beyond middle age. Differences in brain connectivity that arise...
Article
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Autism and depression often co-occur. Through network analysis, we seek to gain a better understanding of this co-occurrence by investigating whether (1) autism and depression share overlapping groups of symptoms and/or (2) are connected through a bridge of mastery or worry symptoms. This is addressed in two complimentary studies: (1) Study 1 focus...
Article
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Auditory sensitivities are common among people with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses (ASD). As underlying factors are unknown, we examined whether ASD adults (NASD = 33; NTypically Developing = 31; 25–45 years; IQ > 70): (1) habituated slower to auditory stimuli; (2) had lower auditory detection thresholds; and (3) whether these mechanisms relate...
Article
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Many individuals with autism report generally low quality of life (QoL). Identifying predictors for pathways underlying this outcome is an urgent priority. We aim to examine multivariate patterns that predict later subjective and objective QoL in autistic individuals. Autistic characteristics, comorbid complaints, aspects of daily functioning, and...
Article
The Autism Spectrum Quotient is a widely used instrument for the detection of autistic traits. However, the validity of comparisons of Autism Spectrum Quotient scores between groups may be threatened by differential item functioning. Differential item functioning entails a bias in items, where participants with equal values of the latent trait give...
Article
Sensory sensitivity is common in autistic people and since the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), hypo- and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli are part of one of the criteria domains for an autism spectrum disorder classification. For scientific research and the clinical practice, one needs reliable and valid ques...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) characteristics seem to abate over time, but whether this protracts until late adulthood is largely unknown. We cross-sectionally investigated self- and other-reported ASD characteristics of adults with (ASD: Nmax-self = 237, Nmax-other = 130) and without ASD (COM: Nmax-self = 198, Nmax-other = 148) aged 19–79 years....
Article
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An earlier meta-analysis and review indicated that trauma exposure may be related to lower levels of executive functioning in youth. Since different developmental trajectories were found for three core executive functions, the present study focused on working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility specifically. We conducted a multi-level met...
Article
Previously, a total of 121 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) performed an adaptive working memory (WM)-training, an adaptive flexibility-training, or a non-adaptive control (mock)-training. Despite overall improvement, there were minor differences between the adaptive and mock-training conditions. Moreover, dropout was relatively high...
Article
As a large heterogeneity is observed across studies on interference control in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research may benefit from the use of a cognitive framework that models specific processes underlying reactive and proactive control of interference. Reactive control refers to the expression and suppression of responses and proactive contr...
Article
Literature on the co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is strongly biased by a focus on childhood age. A review of the adolescent and adult literature was made on core and related symptoms of ADHD and ASD. In addition, an empirical approach was used including 17,173 ASD-ADHD sympto...
Article
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Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder, an important limitation of much autism spectrum disorder research is that outcome measures are statistically modeled as separate dependent variables. Often, their multivariate structure is either ignored or treated as a nuisance. This study aims to lift this limitation by applying network analysi...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is typified as a brain connectivity disorder in which white matter abnormalities are already present early on in life. However, it is unknown if and to which extent these abnormalities are hard-wired in (older) adults with ASD and how this interacts with age-related white matter changes as observed in typical aging. T...
Article
Importance: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. Objectives: To determine whether the effects of methylphenidate on the dopaminergi...
Article
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It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise...
Article
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Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19–79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparab...
Article
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adulthood is often treated with the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH). However, it is unknown whether cognitive effects of MPH depend on age in individuals with ADHD, while animal studies have suggested age-related effects. In this meta-analysis, we first determined the effects of...
Data
Original trial study protocol. (DOC)
Data
Translated trial study protocol. (DOCX)
Data
Translated Ethics Protocol. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Long-term effects of two CBTs for adolescents with ADHD are explored: One aimed at improving planning skills (Plan My Life; PML), the other a solution-focused therapy (SFT) without focusing on planning skills. In a RCT, adolescents with ADHD (n = 159) were assigned to PML or SFT and improved significantly between pre- and posttest with large effect...
Article
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Objective: This study explored qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions within data of a RCT with two cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for adolescents with ADHD: a planningfocused (PML) and a solution-focused CBT (SFT). Qualitative interactions imply that which treatment is best differs across subgroups of patients, and are therefore most r...
Article
Er is in de afgelopen decennia uitgebreid onderzoek gedaan naar cognitieve problemen bij kinderen, maar ook naar cognitieve problemen bij volwassenen met de gedragsdiagnose ADHD. Het idee is dat de geobserveerde symptomen te relateren zijn aan executieve functieproblemen, delay-aversion, tijdverwerking en arousal. Dit betekent niet dat er een typis...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas working memory (WM) performance in typical development increases across childhood and adolescence, and decreases during adulthood, WM development seems to be delayed in young individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). How WM changes when individuals with ASD grow old is largely unknown. We bridge this gap with a cross-sectional study...
Article
It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is related to subjective cognitive challenges. Neuropsy...
Article
Objective: To study the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) characteristics in older adults with and without depressive disorders and the social network and past negative life events in those with a high number of ASD characteristics and those without a large number of these characteristics. Methods: This large, multisite, naturalistic,...
Article
Full-text available
While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the A...
Article
Full-text available
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower Qo...
Article
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There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the shor...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents with ADHD have planning problems, often affecting school- and social functioning. Evidence-based treatments for adolescents with ADHD are scarce and treatment drop-out rates are substantial. The effectiveness of two new, individual, short-term cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) was investigated: One with an aim on improving planning s...
Article
Background People with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience executive function (EF) deficits. There is an urgent need for effective interventions, but in spite of the increasing research focus on computerized cognitive training, this has not been studied in ASD. Hence, we investigated two EF training conditions in children with ASD.Methods I...
Article
Full-text available
The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's perceptions as w...
Article
Full-text available
In most research it is common to report results on a group level. For example, various studies report that children and adults with autism show executive function deficits. However, studies often differ in the pattern of findings. We believe this might be partly due to the heterogeneity of the autism population. Put differently, some people with au...
Article
Full-text available