Hikmat S. Hilal

Hikmat S. Hilal
An-Najah National University · Department of Chemistry

Ph.D., D.Sc.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus, An-Najah National Uni., Nablus, Palestine hshilal@najah.edu hikmathilal@yahoo.com

About

189
Publications
77,142
Reads
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2,113
Citations
Introduction
Full Professor, Chemistry, An-Najah N. University, Nablus, Palestine. My research spans: solar energy, semiconductors, nanotechnology, advanced materials, in addition to supported catalysis and organometallic chemistry. My research applications include (but not limited to) water purification & disinfection with solar light, photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry, petrochemicals, environment, group theory and bonding theory. CV http://staff.najah.edu/hikmat-s-hilal/edit/profile
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - July 2004
Institut de Chimie de la matière condensée de Bordeaux
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • completed a one year sabbatical stay supported by the Arab Fund. Worked on metal oxide nano-film materials.
March 1993 - August 1994
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Did research on modification of semiconductor surface. Visits supported by Islamic Development Bank, as part of Distinguished Scholarship program.
June 1989 - August 1990
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Visiting Associate Professor
Description
  • Did research on supported metalloporphyrin comolexes and their catalytic properties
Education
September 1978 - October 1980
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Chemistry
August 1977 - August 1978
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Petrochemicals and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Dye-sensitized-solar cells, DSSCs, are emerging as alternatives to traditional photovoltaic solar cells. Among them, p-type DSSCs attracted special attention due to their easy manufacturing methods, understandable operating mechanisms and friendliness to environment. In these solar cells, the fate of the excited electron is determined based on the...
Article
Drinking-water contamination with nitrate ions is inevitable and wide spreading, which demands feasible removal. Water de-nitration by potentiostatic electroreduction is described here. A novel electrocatalyst based on nano-copper particles, supported onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and spray-deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide-gla...
Article
Due to widespread water pollution with nitrate ion, methods to remove or lower the nitrate concentrations in water are needed. A novel route to reproducibly electro-deposit copper nano-films, with no need for additional treatments or additives, from acidic media onto fluorine-doped tin oxide/glass ([email protected]) is described. The films involve...
Article
Full-text available
CuInGaSe (CIGS) based solar cells are promising, but involve costly and hazardous and costly indium element. This work aims at solving these problems, without sacrificing the benefits of CIGS systems. The approach is to use thinner CIGS layers. However, very thin layers minimize absorption and lower cell performance. Adding a second CuZnSnSe (CZTSe...
Article
p>Proposed treatment processes of OMWW have not been efficient in decreasing its high toxicity or lowering its ecological impact. Bioremediation using microorganisms might be considered an environmentally friendly alternative. In this work, four fungal isolates were tested for their efficacy in lowering the toxicity of OMWW. Results of this work sh...
Article
Carbon nanodots with different optical properties and photoactivity degrees as photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue are successfully synthesized from olive solid wastes at different carbonization temperatures.
Article
Twelve various quinoxaline derivative dyes, so coded from Q1–1 to Q1–12, have been investigated as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The simulation study has been performed using the density functional theory and time dependent (TD–DFT) methods. All derivatives have the same backbone structures, with two oxygens in fixed positions,...
Article
Full-text available
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed for the treatment of various types of inflammatory conditions. Diclofenac is a very common NSAID that is utilized to relieve pain and reduce fever and, most importantly, inflammation. However, it suffers from low water solubility and a low dissolution profile. Therefore, we aim to...
Article
Four polyene-diphenylaniline dyes (D5, D7, D9 and D11) are simulated here, for the first time, as sensitizers for nano-ZnTiO3-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). First-principles calculations method has been used to describe dye-semiconductor surface interactions. Bonding between the ZnTiO3 nanoparticle, considered as (ZnTiO3)8 cluster, is st...
Article
Olive oil milling, widely practiced in Mediterranean countries, including Palestine, yields the so-called olive mill waste water (OMWW) or Zebar (Zibar). The waste contains minerals and organic materials (including phenols and polyphenols) which undergo continuous oxidation and cause environmental hazards if not well managed. This work basically ai...
Article
Olive oil milling, widely practiced in Mediterranean countries, including Palestine, yields the so-called olive mill waste water (OMWW) or Zebar (Zibar). The waste contains minerals and organic materials (including phenols and polyphenols) which undergo continuous oxidation and cause environmental hazards if not well managed. This work basically ai...
Article
Full-text available
HIT silicon hetero-junction TCO/n-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/p-c-Si/p+-a-Si:H/BSF solar cells attract special interest due to their suitability and high efficiencies, in this study, we present a numerical simulation of the influence of emitter layer on the performance of silicon proposed heterojunction solar cells . The basic parameters of heterojunction sola...
Article
Bacterial deactivation by cell-wall rupturing is widely described. Complete mineralization of both aqueous gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, leaving no organic species, is described here for the first time. Solar-simulated radiation (with � 5% UV), with ZnO nanoparticle photocatalyst, is used. In addition...
Article
The effects of the Sn doping density and multilayer deposition on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO films prepared by a spin coating/sol–gel method have been investigated. The film characteristics were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, electronic absorption (ultraviolet–visible) spectroscopy, atomic force micro...
Article
ZnCl2 activated carbon (ZnCl2-AC, with specific surface area ~1480 m²/g) effectively adsorbs nitrate from water with uptake capacity (~5.5 mg/g) four-fold that for other commercial activated carbons (CACs). Kinetics show a small activation energy value (~7 kJ/mol) consistent with a diffusion-controlled process. This is further confirmed by intra-pa...
Article
Full-text available
Anatase TiO2 surfaces have been treated with 2, 4, 6-triphenylpyrylium hydrogen sulfate (TPPHS) or tripyridylporhpyrinatomanganese(II) (MnP) dyes to yield the modified TiO2/ dye surfaces. The modified TiO2/dye surface was then supported onto activated carbon (AC) surfaces to yield a new class of catalytic system AC/TiO2/dye. The catalytic activitie...
Article
Full-text available
Anatase TiO2 surfaces have been treated with 2, 4, 6-triphenylpyrylium hydrogen sulfate (TPPHS) or tripyridylporhpyrinatomanganese(II) (MnP) dyes to yield the modified TiO2/ dye surfaces. The modified TiO2/dye surface was then supported onto activated carbon (AC) surfaces to yield a new class of catalytic system AC/TiO2/dye. The catalytic activitie...
Article
ZnO nanoparticles, stacked on the bottom of a glass dish, were used as a catalyst for the photodegradation of aqueous 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) contaminant. Solutions of 2-CP at different concentrations and pH values were passed over the ZnO film under simulated solar light. The effect of the light intensity on the contaminant photodegradation rate was...
Article
Advanced oxidation process of the water organic contaminants is among the promising technologies for water purification. In this work, ZnO nanoparticles have been supported on natural clay particles. The prepared composite ZnO/Clay has been characterized by solid state electronic absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microsc...
Article
This study aims to comparatively assess TiO2 and ZnO catalysts in photodegradation of aqueous acetaminophen solution. Commercial TiO2 (anatase and rutile phases), synthetic TiO2 (rutile) commercial ZnO (wurtzite), and synthetic ZnO (wurtzite) are all described; the synthetic ZnO and TiO2 were synthesized by thermal precipitation method. XRD, SEM, U...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, we present numerical simulation of the influence of emitter layer on the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells.HIT silicon hetero-junction TCO/n-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/p-c-Si/p+-a-Si:H/BSF solar cells attract special interest due to their suitability and high efficiencies
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The PS attracts researchers in diverse fields of electronic materials applications and it has increased dramatically over the years with numerous theoretical and experimental techniques emerging and redefining the process of fabrication, analysis and cost control methodologies of formation and preparation of the porous silicon.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
we present in this work a numerical simulation of the influence of emitter layer on the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells. Thickness and doping density of the emitter layer, are optimized here. With optimal parameters, high simulated TCO/n-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/p- c-Si/p+a-Si:H BSF,solar cell characteristics can be achieved in terms of co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hen eggs contaminated with lead can be harmful to the health of children and adults. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate if sub-chronic treatment with ascorbic acid can reduce lead levels in the different parts of hen eggs after intentionally exposing the laying hens to a concentrated source of lead. Methods: Clinica...
Article
Photovoltaics (PVs) show high conversion efficiency in renewable energy. However, PV systems demand advanced preparations and relatively large amounts of staring materials. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems, with monolithic semiconductor (SC) electrode/Redox couple interface, emerged, but still demand special preparation conditions and relatively...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Inclusion of ZnO‐based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film layer into amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a‐Si/c‐Si) solar cell enhances its photovoltaic conversion efficiency. These findings have been confirmed here, using Afors HIT software. The simulation study is performed onto a solar cell that was originally lab prepared so as to use i...
Article
Waste CdSe film electrodes can be recycled into useful films without sacrificing their photoelectrochemical performance. Cd2þ aqueous ions have been recovered from waste CdSe electrodes by soaking in minimal amount of HCl (10.0 M) at 80 �C for 60 min. The Se2 ions, converted into H2Se(g) by the acid, have been trapped in basic NaOH solution for fur...
Article
Full-text available
Heterojunction silicon solar cells, also known as heterojunctions with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) of the type TCO/n-a-Si:H/i-a-Si:H/p–c-Si/p⁺-a-Si:H/BSF solar cells (where TCO is transparent conducting oxide involving Al-doped ZnO; a-Si:H is hydrogenated amorphous silicon; c-Si:H is hydrogenated crystalline silicon; BSF is back surface field, n- an...
Article
Full-text available
This work describes a comparative study between Kalman filter, a complementary filter and a combination of both, for use in electrical vehicles. Combining the benefits offered by each filter to obtain an optimised filter combination is targeted. Three different combinations: The Kalman-complementary filter (KCF), complementary-Kalman filter (CKF) a...
Article
Natural waters are prone to pollution with organic contaminants, waste pharmaceuticals being an example. Pharmaceutical compounds are widely detected in different surface waters, such as lakes and rivers. Removal of such contaminants from water is therefore imperative. Different strategies are commonly followed such as adsorption, chlorination, ozo...
Article
BACKGROUND The effect of storage time on the fluorescence emission intensity and physico‐chemical properties of olive oil from the Palestinian cultivar Nabali Mohassan was studied. Olive oil samples stored up to 7 years were obtained from different olive orchards in Palestine, where prolonged storage is still in use. RESULTS Due to oxidation, all...
Article
Four different Triphenylamine-based dyes, named as TPA-1, TPA-2, TPA-3 and TPA-4 as shown below, with substituents containing different linkages, earlier described inTiO2dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs),are described. The dyes are examined as potential dyes for perovskite ZnTiO3 based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The simulated characteristi...
Article
Organometallic perovskite (OMHP) based solar cells, with higher than 24% of power conversion efficiency (PCE), attract special attention. High absorption coefficient is a property of such OMHPs. In this work the organometallic halide perovskite, methylamunium lead iodide (MAPbI3), is partially substituted with two Ag and Cd atoms. The effect of sub...
Article
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics of CdTe film electrodes, known to have low conversion efficiency when used in their pristine form, can be significantly enhanced by carefully controlling their annealing temperature and cooling rate. Pristine CdTe films were electrodeposited onto FTO/Glass substrates which were used as anodes. To reach fil...
Article
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion processes are recently emerging in solar energy technology. To avoid high cost and special preparation conditions, thin films of polycrystalline nano-size materials are being considered PEC-based solar energy conversions. Nano-scale metal-chalcogenide (MX where M = Cd, Cu, Zn or others; X = S, Se, or Te) based...
Article
TiO2 and ZnO binary oxide films are extensively investigated as photo-anodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), due to their large surface area, high electron mobility and chemical stability features. ZnTiO3 perovskite is investigated as a photoanode, with N3 ruthenium dye, to design a new DSSC. First principal calculations based on DFT methods...
Article
Organometallic halide perovskites (OMHPs) are absorbent materials, and can thus be employed in solar cells with power conversion efficiency (PEC) of 22% or higher. Using calculations, this work confirms earlier experimental findings and determines optimal properties to achieve maximum conversion efficiency for OMHPs. Values of energy band gap, dens...
Article
An extremely low-loss polarization-insensitive broadband absorber in the thermal infrared region, based on tungsten metamaterial, is proposed. The absorber exhibits almost perfect absorption of 99%, with a broad absorption bandwidth ranging from 56 THz to 117 THz. The broad absorption is attributed to the large effective impedance adaptation of the...
Article
Commercial and laboratory-prepared ZnO nanoparticles are assessed here as a photocatalyst in photodegradation of aqueous 2-chlorophenol under direct sunlight. Kaolinite is used as a support for ZnO to enable its recovery after reuse. The composite ZnO/kaolinite is prepared by growing ZnO nanoparticles directly on kaolinite surface and is characteri...
Article
Photo-catalytic degradation of waste pharmaceutics, with solar radiation, is described here as a feasible method to purify pre-contaminated soils. Phenazopyridine has been used as a model soil contaminant. Two different nano-size powders have been first examined as catalysts, namely commercial TiO2 (anatase) and commercial ZnO. As the ZnO showed hi...
Article
ZnO nanoparticles have been effectively used in water disinfection from two common types of gram-positive (Enterococcus faecium) and gram–negative (Proteus mirabilis) bacteria under simulated solar radiations by inactivation. Complete mineralization of organic contents that leach out of inactivated bacteria has also been achieved leaving no soluble...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusion of ZnO‐based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film layer into amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a‐Si/c‐Si) solar cell enhances its photovoltaic conversion efficiency. These findings have been confirmed here, using Afors HIT software. The simulation study is performed onto a solar cell that was originally lab prepared so as to use i...
Article
The concept of thermophotovoltaic system, based on a compact selective meta-material film structure acting as a selector thermal blackbody radiation emitter, is presented. The meta-material (MTM) film exhibits broad-band thermal radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal infrared emission, and can thus be efficiently coupled to a tande...
Article
Full-text available
ZnO nano particles deposited on silicon porous substrates (PS) were prepared by electro-deposition anodization on n type (100) silicon wafer. This ZnO/PS structure combines substrates having specific structural and optical properties (IR emission), with nano-composites of ZnO potentially interesting due to their functional properties (UV emission)...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmaceutical wastes are emerging as water contaminants. Like other organic contaminants, it is necessary to find safe and economic methods to remove them from the water. In this work, anthocyanin was used as a natural dye sensitizer for the wide band gap nanosize rutile TiO2 . The TiO2/Anthocyanin particles were supported on activated carbon part...
Presentation
Inclusion of ZnO‐based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film layer into amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a‐Si/c‐Si) solar cell enhances its photovoltaic conversion efficiency. These findings have been confirmed here, using Afors HIT software. The simulation study is performed onto a solar cell that was originally lab prepared so as to use i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metal selenide (MSe with M = Cu or Cd) poly-crystalline film electrodes with enhanced photo-electrochemical characteristics can be prepared by electrochemical deposition followed by chemical bath deposition onto glass/fluorine doped tinoxide substrates. The resulting film electrodes combine the advantages of both electrochemical deposition (film un...
Article
A model to optimize single-junction InGaP based solar cells for soundly high photovoltaic characteristics is proposed. The simulated photovoltaic (PV) characteristics include current density (J-V) plots, open circuit potential (VOC), short circuit photocurrent density (JSC), fill factor (FF), conversion efficiency (η) spectral response and photo ge...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ZnO films deposited on silicon porous substrates (PS) were prepared by electro-deposition anodization on n type (100) silicon wafer. This ZnO/PS structure combines substrates having specific structural and optical properties (IR emission), with nano-composites of ZnO potentially interesting due to their functional properties (UV emission) to be int...
Article
Physiochemical processes at the photo-electrode and the counter electrode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) involving having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of the TiO2 layer, within the working electrode, are simulated in this work. Attention is paid to find the effect of CNT layer thickness on photo-electrochemical (PEC) characteristics of th...
Article
Background Breastmilk is the recommended form of enteral nutrition for all infants. Infants nourishing on breastmilk contaminated with lead are at high risk of exposure to this neurotoxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to screen lead concentrations in samples of breastmilk obtained from women living in three main regions of the West Bank an...
Article
A new switchable absorber design using meta-materials for thermo photovoltaic applications is proposed here. Conventional absorbents are normally non-adjustable with narrow band-widths and polarization-dependence. The present study describes an alternative infrared absorber structure with tunable characteristics. The absorber is based on VO2 which...
Article
Full-text available
Anew absorber design using metamaterials for thermo photovoltaic applications is simulated here. Conventional absorbents normally have narrow band-widths and/or sensitive-polarization. Alternatively, the present study shows the possibility to find an infrared absorber structure with optimal characteristics involving a metal-dielectric. A combinatio...
Article
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-particles were chemically deposited onto montmorillonite (MONT) clay particles. The composite ZnO@MONT was then characterized and used as a catalyst for photo-degradation of aqueous tetracycline. Unlike earlier studies, solar simulated light can be effectively used in this work. The composite shows high efficiency as adsorbent...
Article
For the first time, pristine ZnO nano-particles can be used as effective catalyst for water disinfection by killing and complete mineralization of two gram negative bacteria with direct solar light. Just like in earlier studies, pristine nano-size ZnO particles have shown anti-bacterial activity against two types of gram negative bacteria, E. coli...
Article
Pregnant and nursing women are at higher risk of zinc deficiency which can have detrimental consequences on health. We assessed blood zinc levels in 72 nursing women from the West Bank of Palestine and investigated the association between sociodemographic variables and blood zinc levels. Blood samples were analyzed for their zinc contents using gra...
Article
This communication describes how annealing under nitrogen affects photo-electrochemical characteristics of films deposited from authentic Cu2SnSe3 sources by vacuum evaporation under argon gas (low flow rate 5 cm3/min) using substrate 300 °C. Annealing lowered the photoresponse of the deposited film, by affecting crystallite structure, morphology,...
Article
Background: Lead is a neurotoxic pollutant that is ubiquitously spread in our environment. Breast milk contaminated with lead poses a potential risk of exposing a recipient infant to lead. Objectives: The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the breast milk lead levels (BMLLs) in breastfeeding mothers in 3 major regions of the West Bank o...
Poster
Full-text available
Quality Assessment of Oil from Olive Trees Irrigated by Waste Water Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy W. A. Droubi1, S. Alshakshir1 and I. R. Abdelraziq2 1Chemistry Dept, 2Physics Dept., An-Najah National University ashqer@najah.edu Abstract This work focuses on the effect of irrigation of Palestinian olive oil on the emission and absorption waveleng...