Hershey H. Friedman

Hershey H. Friedman
City University of New York - Brooklyn College | CUNY · Department of Business Management

PhD

About

471
Publications
722,742
Reads
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3,431
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1986 - July 2015
City University of New York - Brooklyn College
Position
  • Professor of Business
Description
  • I am a Professor of Business in the Department of Business Management. I was hired in 1986 to build up the business program at Brooklyn College; we offer BBA, BS, and MS degrees in business.
September 1979 - August 1986
Fordham University
Position
  • Professor
February 1977 - June 1979
Long Island University
Position
  • Associate Professor of Quantitative Methods

Publications

Publications (471)
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the Book of Esther, deriving important insights about a variety of approaches to leadership that can be applied to today‘s crisis in leadership. Esther was a Queen of Persia approximately 2,500 years ago. In reviewing the leadership styles of three characters from this biblical story, the Book of Esther is seen to contain fascin...
Article
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The so-called new media technologies - often referred to as Web 2.0 - encompass a wide variety of web-related communication technologies, such as blogs, wikis, online social networking, virtual worlds and other social media forms. First, we present several views or perspectives that may be used to answer the question, what is new media? Then we exa...
Article
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The authors suggest that it is time to incorporate spiritual values into the business curriculum. About 80% of students are interested in spirituality. Spirituality is not religion so there are few problems with discussing this in a class. Spiritual values include making work meaningful, respect for the creativity of employees, and improving the wo...
Article
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This paper examines the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah to derive important lessons dealing with moral and spiritual leadership. Ezra and Nehemiah had different leadership styles but understood the importance of ethical leadership. Corporate and governmental organizations would benefit from incorporating spiritual, moral, and social justice into their c...
Preprint
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The ancient sages used Talmudic stories to teach us about ethics and morality. These stories may deal with God, Elijah the Prophet, Biblical figures such as Abraham and Moses, Satan, animals, and nature. This paper examines numerous Talmudic narratives involving God to see what lessons can be learned from them. The stories are organized using four...
Preprint
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Unfortunately, some yeshivas today are removing seforim even by prominent biblical commentators if they contain views not currently in vogue. Some publishers are censoring great works by scholars such as the Rashbam. This paper will examine the commentary of numerous biblical exegetes and demonstrate their explanations' uniqueness and creativity. A...
Article
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There is evidence that traditional courses in business ethics have not been successful in making students ethical. The conventional methods used to teach ethics include discussing case histories and studying the writings of great philosophers such as Kant. Using a text-based approach may not be ideal for reaching today's digitally-savvy students. T...
Article
Full-text available
Many scholars believe that conflicts of interest are an ethical issue and a critical impediment to effective management. An organization interested in functioning honestly and efficiently should first do everything possible to reduce or eliminate this problem. The current opioid crisis responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of American...
Preprint
Full-text available
The authors posit that one should not take a binary approach to business ethics because there are gradations. They propose that firms may be classified according to the following metric: Level I: The Totally Unethical Organization; Level II: The Legalistic Unethical Organization; Level III: The Superficially Ethical Organization; Level IV: The Ethi...
Preprint
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This paper analyzes the rankings of the United States in critical areas so that people can easily evaluate how well the country is doing. Areas discussed include Social Progress
Preprint
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The Talmud blamed the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple by the Romans on the fact that people insisted on following the strict letter of Torah law and not doing more than the law required. This paper will demonstrate the importance of stressing going beyond the requirements of the law-lifnim mishurat hadin-if an individual or organizat...
Preprint
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Using the Hebrew Bible, this paper demonstrates that giving charity, as crucial as it is, is not sufficient because it deprives the receiver of dignity. Society has a greater responsibility than simply providing the underprivileged with donations of money or food to survive. Morality dictates that society find ways to generate jobs and provide empl...
Article
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In the biblical Book of Ruth, Boaz instructs his workers not to molest Ruth. We draw insights on the problem of workplace sexual harassment in the family-firm setting from the Book of Ruth. We then integrate these insights with several discrete findings in the literatures on workplace sexual harassment and family firms: First, family firms are rela...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Rashbam is undoubtedly among the most innovative (and probably the most censored) of medieval Torah commentators and should be learned alongside others such as Rashi. His commentary is unique in that it focuses on the plain meaning of the text (peshat). Moreover, He often disagreed with the Rabbinic Sages and repeatedly rejected the Midrashic o...
Article
Full-text available
There is a leadership crisis in the United States and much of the world. Scholars have been examining spiritual texts from both the Eastern and Western traditions to find ways to incorporate transcendent values into management and leadership. This paper will examine the Hebrew Bible and examine what it has to say about leadership. Important biblica...
Article
Much of the Jewish legal tradition deals with business ethics. This paper focuses on an overlooked precept: ensuring price stability. There is a tendency to trivialize the law mandating that prices be kept low and affordable, but in the wake of the 2020 world pandemic, these laws are more important than ever. Indeed, very few people are aware that...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines what colleges and universities have to do if they wish to remain relevant. Many students graduating college today lack critical thinking skills. One reason for this is that academic faculty themselves lack some important skills, which include: 1) an appreciation of uncertainty; 2) respect for other disciplines; and 3) an under...
Preprint
Full-text available
We live in a VUCA world with an environment that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous. The coronavirus pandemic illuminates what happens to a firm or industry that lacks organizational agility and responds slowly to threats. Even before COVID-19, thanks to globalization, the internet, and exponential technological growth, no business was...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Talmud sees the pious fool as a destructive force and a menace to society, to the point one is supposed to avoid living in a neighborhood in which such a person resides. This paper provides several examples of pious fools in history as well as modern times and examines the reasons they are such a serious problem.
Article
Full-text available
A crucial pedagogical tool of the Talmud, one of the most influential books of Late Antiquity, is the use of divine reward and punishment as a way to promote ethical conduct. This paper examines ten behaviors whose reward, according to the sages, is wealth. These include being charitable, conducting business in an ethical manner, honoring the Sabba...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most Americans believe that higher education is heading in the wrong direction. In Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the eponymous heroine's tumble into a rabbit hole immerses her in a bizarre, surreal, disorienting universe. Has higher education fallen down the rabbit hole? This paper will examine the many ways that academe has bec...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is for people who want to teach themselves simple regression and how to use MS Excel to construct scatter plots and perform a regression analysis.
Technical Report
Full-text available
There is a new "lecture" up on our course website. It is a problem review session including several worked out problems in statistical inference. You can find this new lecture - in both MS Powerpoint and YouTube video formats –by going to this link: https://sites.google.com/site/proffriedmanstat/home/handouts#reviewsessions Topics covered: Confid...
Preprint
Full-text available
The medieval biblical commentary of Ibn Ezra has generated a wide array of studies within Jewish scholarship, but scant attention has focused on the originality of his insights and his satirical style. This paper attempts to redress this imbalance. The commentary on the Hebrew Bible of this influential exegete is unique in that it relies on knowled...
Article
The medieval biblical commentary of Ibn Ezra has generated a wide array of studies within Jewish scholarship, but scant attention has focused on the originality of his insights and his satirical style. This paper attempts to redress this imbalance. The commentary on the Hebrew Bible of this influential exegete is unique in that it relies on knowled...
Article
Full-text available
The Talmud sees the pious fool as a destructive force and a menace to society, to the point one is supposed to avoid living in a neighborhood where such a person resides. This paper provides several examples of pious fools in history and modern times and examines why they are such a severe problem.
Article
Full-text available
We live in a VUCA world with an environment that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous. The coronavirus pandemic illuminates what happens to a firm or industry that lacks organizational agility and responds slowly to threats. Even before COVID-19, thanks to globalization, the internet, and exponential technological growth, no business was...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Talmud is one of the most influential books of Late Antiquity. A crucial pedagogical tool of the Talmud is the use of divine reward and punishment. This paper reveals ten behaviors whose reward, according to the sages, is wealth. These include being charitable, conducting business in an ethical manner, honoring the Sabbath, respecting one's spo...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper examines the sayings, maxims, stories, and aphorisms of the Talmud and Midrash in order to better understand the philosophy of life of Judaism's ancient sages. More than 800 such recorded insights are examined and categorized. The sages of the Talmud were active from about 10 BCE until 500 CE, a period of more than 500 years, while most...
Book
This is an Open Educational Resource (OER) intended as a textbook replacement for faculty and/or students interested in the variety of topics related to Jewish humor. Readings are listed by topic on the Contents page of this site. Some readings are also appropriate for courses in Judaic Studies or general humor. Topics covered include theories of h...
Article
Full-text available
In the age of analytics and big data, it is becoming easier to dredge the data and find significant correlations. It is important for educators to enhance their lectures dealing with correlation. The authors feel that the best way to accomplish this is by using actual, real-world correlations uncovered by researchers. This paper provides examples o...
Article
Full-text available
Donald Trump has served as President of the United States for more than two years. His performance in office has provided many valuable lessons about leadership, especially about what not to do. This paper offers a partial list of leadership principles one can deduce from observing his leadership style. In addition, actual Trump quotations are prov...
Preprint
Full-text available
While humor can perpetuate and preserve stereotypes, it also can redress a wide variety of prejudices and preconceptions. This paper offers several examples of positive humor. Humor can serve as a teaching tool to reduce stress and make people receptive to serious subjects that range from statistical analysis to social justice. It can also tie peop...
Article
The past three decades have been witness to a nascent but compelling body of literature on lessons in leadership for business derived from biblical narratives. The aim of this paper is to advance that effort. Specifically, this study considers the leadership of Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah who built the Second Temple on the ruins of the First,...
Article
Full-text available
There have been complaints that higher education is drowning in bullshit. Much of this is due to the various a-holes one encounters in academe. No other word can adequately describe the extremely nasty, abrasive individuals one is likely to encounter in academe who consider themselves superior to others and feel that the rules of civility do not ap...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ancient sages of the Talmud used stories as a method to teach people how to behave ethically. Stories, more so than cases, have the ability to rouse emotions and teach important ethical lessons. This paper examines Talmudic stories to determine which behaviors result in Divine punishment and a shortened lifespan. Five behaviors are found to res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some humor, while making us laugh, contains shadows of hostility toward those who cause strife-the racists, the bigots, the unaware and uneducated. Believe it or not, humor does have the ability to educate, to counter stereotypes and, if all else fails, to get even. Although humor can perpetuate and preserve stereotypes, it can also redress a wide...
Chapter
Full-text available
Purpose Board diversity has been an important topic in corporate governance. Extant literature examines the overall diversity in the boardroom and its impact. However, since important decisions are usually taken by the committees, it is important to also examine diversity in committees. We use the Coca-Cola Company as the case study and examine its...
Article
Full-text available
Abraham’s ‘‘leadership by example’’ provides a template for business leaders to implement a tone at the top based on a balance of tzedek (righteousness) and mishpat (legal judgement). The former expresses the generosity of spirit required of leaders, while the latter expresses the sound judgement in conformity with both ethics and enacted law. We r...
Preprint
Full-text available
The question as to whether accounting ethics should be rule-driven or value-driven has generated some controversy. We hold the view that ethics should be value-driven. The rabbis of the Talmud similarly recognized the danger of making religious ethics rule-based and therefore came up with several legal devices to improve the law and make it more et...
Preprint
Full-text available
No word can adequately describe the extremely nasty, abrasive individuals one is likely to encounter in academe who consider themselves superior to others and feel that the rules of civility do not apply to them. These arrogant, self-important tormentors tend to emphasize other's shortcomings and faults. The best term to describe them is "a-hole."...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Talmud stresses the overarching principle "Her [the Torah's] ways are the ways of pleasantness and all of her paths are peace," a verse in Proverbs, to ensure that the laws of Scripture are value-driven rather than mainly rule-driven. Jewish sages understood that creating a peaceful, harmonious, and pleasant society was the focus of the Torah....
Preprint
Full-text available
While one is in the process of negotiating for a particular property, another person frequently enters the process with a more attractive bid, snatching the property away from the first party. In the Talmud, this is known as "ani ha'mehapech b'chararah" (literally, "If a poor person is engaging in the acquisition of a cake"), and in the view of Jew...
Preprint
Full-text available
A schism that dates back to the 18th century divides what is commonly known as ultra-Orthodox Judaism-the Chasidim and the Misnagdim. Chasidic Jews (the term means "the pious one") base their practices on the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, a mystic who lived in Eastern Europe in the early 1700s, serve God with joy. They believe that even the simpl...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Want to learn how to use MS Excel to solve simple statistics problems? This will be of great value if you take an Intro to Stats course. Those of you who simply want to become more proficient in MS Excel will also benefit. We've got what you need! Here are some video lectures to study.
Preprint
Full-text available
Donald Trump has served as President of the United States for more than two years. His performance in office has provided many valuable lessons about leadership. This paper offers a partial list of leadership principles one can deduce from observing his leadership style. In addition, actual Trump quotations are provided.
Preprint
Full-text available
The past two decades have been witness to a nascent but compelling body of literature on lessons in leadership for business derived from biblical narratives. Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, rebuilt the Second Temple. When he arrived in Judah from Babylonia, the walls of Jerusalem were breached and the entire country was filled with people hostile to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Is humor an affront to God or a divine gift to humanity? Two Talmudic sages were known as jesters: Bar Kappara and Rabbi Yirmiyah. They both tried to get their teachers-who felt that one should be morose until Messianic times-to laugh. This debate over whether one should serve God with joy or be morose is still going on. The chassidic view, based o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to demonstrate the many insights into successful and unsuccessful leadership that may be derived from the life of King Solomon, who, according to Scripture, was the wisest man who ever lived. Solomon may have been very wise, but made some very serious blunders that ultimately led to the breakup of his empire after the ascendency...
Article
In this research study, students at a large urban university completed our questionnaire regarding leadership. The student’s opinions regarding leadership qualities are consistent with our literature review. Marketing leaders need to be creative, global thinkers, with integrity who can create innovative learning organizations, encourage diversity,...
Article
Full-text available
Some humor, while making us laugh, contains shadows of hostility toward those who cause strife – the racists, the bigots, the unaware and uneducated. Believe it or not, humor does have the ability to educate, to counter stereotypes and, if all else fails, to get even. Although humor can perpetuate and preserve stereotypes, it can also redress a wid...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper uses a powerful story from the Zohar, a foundational text of Jewish mysticism, to demonstrate the importance of forgiveness.
Preprint
Full-text available
The ancient sages of the Talmud used stories as a method to teach people how to behave ethically. Elijah stories remain extremely popular today and he becomes an important figure in Jewish folklore and Chassidic tales. Elijah is supposed to show up at every Jewish circumcision and at the Passover Seder. This paper will examine the Elijah stories th...
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge economy and the digital age have changed the nature of work and management. More people than ever before need to master critical and ethical thinking skills. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how scenarios may be used as a vehicle for enhancing students' critical and ethical thinking skills and to take a critical thinking ap...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the relationship between culture, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), wealth and happiness and how cultural values and beliefs influence the experiences and perceptions of happiness and well-being. The pursuit of happiness is a universal human trait that crosses nations. The main goal of this article is to explore various aspects of h...
Article
Full-text available
The Second Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in the year 70 C.E. and a large part of the Jewish population was either killed, sent into exile, or sold into slavery. The sages of the Talmud and Midrash attempted to answer the question as to why Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed. This paper will examine some of the reasons and see...
Article
Full-text available
The question as to whether ethics should be rule-driven or value-driven has been addressed by several professional organizations. There is a belief by some organizations that overemphasizing rules can actually result in unethical behavior. People will do everything to game the rules and not be concerned with ethics. The sages of the Talmud recogniz...
Article
Full-text available
Jewish humor is generally considered to be self-deprecating rather than mocking. This paper studies one Jewish humor trope in which disparagement is used-that of the pious fool. The Talmud presents the chasid shoteh (pious fool) as one who could destroy the world; his piety is a danger to society. Indeed, the Talmud warns us not to live in the vici...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines mistakes in leadership that were made by Moses, arguably one of the most outstanding leaders of all time. The Bible considers him to be the greatest prophet and a man of boundless humility; secular and contemporary moral leaders seek to be compared to the iconic lawgiver. However, Moses was, to some degree, a failed leader. Mose...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Want to prep for the Intro to Stats course? We've got what you need! Here are some lectures to study before you start the course itself. Here you can review and familiarize yourself with the following topics:  Summation notation  Weighted average  Expected Value  Fractions, proportions, percentages  Factorials  Solving for X  Analyzing a st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Talmudic stories are a method used by the ancient sages to teach us about ethics and morality. The stories in this paper deal with baalei teshuva, penitents, who returned to God. It is clear from these stories that it is vital for people to help others repent. One great sage even offered his daughter in marriage to someone if he would give up his l...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper examines several different Talmudic principles that confirm the seriousness of the spoken word. The sages of the Talmud felt that saying something nasty that might happen in the future could actually cause it to happen. Thus, those following the advice of the Talmud, will avoid saying something unpleasant that might happen in the future....
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines an ancient commentary on part of the Hebrew scriptures, attached to the biblical text and shows that there are many important messages about leadership embedded in it. This paper intends to answer a few questions: ―Is Judaism connected to modern management?‖, ―What lesson does the storyteller impart to his audience?‖, ―What does...
Article
Full-text available
One educator claims that the education system is useless for most students since it does not provide skills or make learning enjoyable. This may be one reason a researcher asserts that half of the 4,000 colleges and universities in the United States will be bankrupt within the next few decades. Colleges have been focusing on meaningless metrics rat...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key principle of financial reporting is that substance matters, not form. This is how auditors ensure that a firm will be viable in the future. The authors provide a checklist of goals that an organization should examine in order to determine whether it is investing in the long-run rather than being concerned with short-term goals that only provi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ancient sages of the Talmud used stories as a method to teach people how to behave ethically. Talmudic stories are especially fascinating since they may involve God, Satan, Elijah, or other biblical personalities. Stories, more than cases, have the ability to arouse passion and teach important ethical lessons. This paper examines numerous Talmu...
Preprint
Full-text available
One researcher asserts that half of the 4,000 colleges and universities in the United States will be bankrupt within the next few decades. Change is coming whether colleges and universities like it or not. Think of what is happening to the newspapers and retailers. Unfortunately, most institutions of higher learning have a mindset that might have m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Talmudic stories are a method used by the ancient sages to teach us about ethics and morality. This paper examines the life of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon b. Yochai. The most important and famous work of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), the Zohar, is attributed to Rabbi Shimon (with some assistance from his son) when living in a cave for 13 years...
Working Paper
Full-text available
One college president remarked:"Colleges are very good at adding. They're not good at subtracting."This is not only true when it comes to creating academic departments but is also true with respect to hiring administrators. This paper demonstratesthat reducing the number of departments via mergers maybenefit a college or university in many ways. It...
Article
Full-text available
Meaningful work that gives one a sense of purpose is of great importance to young people who are entering the workforce, especially women. They are even willing to earn less money, provided that they work at a meaningful job. Only 17.9% of computer science graduates are female. More women might enter this field if they are made aware of the meaning...
Article
Full-text available
One researcher asserts that half of the 4,000 colleges and universities in the United States will be bankrupt within the next few decades. Change is coming whether colleges and universities like it or not. Think of what is happening to the newspapers and retailers. Unfortunately, most institutions of higher learning have a mindset that might have m...
Article
Full-text available
The ancient sages of the Talmud used stories as a method to teach people how to behave ethically. Talmudic stories are especially fascinating since they may involve God, Satan, Elijah, or other biblical personalities. Stories, more than cases, have the ability to arouse passion and teach important ethical lessons. This paper examines numerous Talmu...
Article
Full-text available
Talmudic stories are a method used by the ancient sages to teach us about ethics and morality. This paper examines the life of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon b. Yochai. The most important and famous work of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism), the Zohar, is attributed to Rabbi Shimon (with some assistance from his son) when living in a cave for 13 years...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Talmud asserts that one who prohibits that which is permitted, will eventually permit that which is prohibited. Clearly, a chumra (religious stringency exceeding the normal requirements of the law) can have negative consequences and one should therefore be very careful before imposing it on the community. This paper provides numerous sources an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
America is in crisis and appears to have lost its moral compass. People have little confidence in its institutions ranging from Congress to the Presidency. This paper examines the Book of Ruth and shows that there are many powerful lessons for our society contained in it. One key lesson is the importance of selfless, altruistic kindness, especially...

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I read somewhere that it has been estimated that 30% of managers are not needed. I do not remember the source.

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