Hermann M. Fritz

Hermann M. Fritz
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT · School of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Professor

About

167
Publications
126,416
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Introduction
Professor Dr. Hermann Fritz is an expert on tsunamis and coastal hazards (submarine landslides and hurricane storm surges) and their mitigation. Tsunami Surveys: 2004 Indian Ocean (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives to Somalia), 2006 Java, 2007 Solomon Is., Peru, 2009 Samoa/Tonga, 2010 Solomon Is., Haiti, Chile, Mentawai Is., 2011 Japan, 2012 El Salvador, 2013 Solomon Is., 2014&2015 Chile; Hurricane Surveys: 2005 Katrina, 2007 Gonu (Oman), 2008 Nargis (Myanmar), 2013 Haiyan (Philippines), 2015 Pam (Vanuatu).
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2013 - July 2017
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2008 - July 2013
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
October 1997 - October 2002
ETH Zurich
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale physical model experiments of tsunamis generated by granular landslides and volcanic flank collapses are conducted to study the wave runup on both the hill slope laterally adjacent to the landslide and an opposing hill slope. A pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was deployed on planar and convex conical hill slopes to simulate deform...
Article
Full-text available
On March 11, 2011, a magnitude M(w) 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded from building rooftops at Kesennuma Bay along Japan's Sanriku coast. A terrestrial laser scanner was deployed at the locations of...
Article
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On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west–southwest of Haiti’s capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a comp...
Article
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Tropical cyclone Nargis (category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, SSHS) made landfall on 2 May 2008, causing the worst natural disaster in Myanmar’s recorded history. Official death toll estimates exceed 138,000 fatalities making it the eighth deadliest cyclone ever recorded worldwide. Since the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which caused up to 500,0...
Article
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Hurricane Katrina (23–30 August 2005) struck low-lying coastal plains particularly vulnerable to storm surge flooding. Maximum storm surges, overland flow depths, and inundation distances were measured along the Gulf Coast of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The vehicle based survey was complemented by inspections with the reconnaissanc...
Article
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On September 16, 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake struck the north-central Chile coast, triggering a tsunami observed along 500 km of coastline, between Huasco (28.5°S) and San Antonio (33.5°S). This tsunami provided a unique opportunity to examine the nature of tsunami deposits in a semi-arid, siliciclastic environment where stratigraphic and sedimentolo...
Article
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On December 22, 2018, the eruption and flank collapse of the Anak Krakatau volcano generated a tsunami in the Sunda Strait causing catastrophic damage to uninhabited coastlines proximal to the source. Along the heavily populated shores of Banten and Lampung provinces in Java and Sumatra, tsunami waves caused severe damage, extensive inundation and...
Article
Tsunamis are one of the most catastrophic natural hazards that can devastate coastal regions. Most common mechanisms that generate tsunamis are undersea earthquakes and submarine landslides. However, in enclosed basins, such as fjords, reservoirs, and lakes, subaerial landslides can also generate devastating tsunamis with similar or worse consequen...
Article
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After more than a decade of recurring tsunamis, identification of tsunami deposits, a part of hazard characterization, still remains a challenging task that is not fully understood. The lack of sufficient monitoring equipment and rare tsunami frequency are among the primary obstacles that limit our fundamental understanding of sediment transport me...
Article
Full-text available
After more than a decade of recurring tsunamis, identification of tsunami deposits, a part of hazard characterization, still remains a challenging task not fully understood. The lack of sufficient monitoring equipment and rare tsunami frequency are among the primary obstacles that limit our fundamental understanding of sediment transport mechanisms...
Article
Full-text available
Landslides of subaerial and submarine origin may generate tsunamis with locally extreme amplitudes and runup. While the landslides themselves are dangerous, the hazards are compounded by the generation of tsunamis along coastlines, in enclosed water bodies, and off continental shelves and islands. Tsunamis generated by three-dimensional deformable...
Article
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Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume III of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future”. Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 and Volume II as PAGEOPH, vol. 174, No. 8, 2017. Two papers in Volume III focus on specific details of the 2009 Samoa and the 1923 n...
Article
Full-text available
On 17 June 2017, a landslide-generated tsunami reached the village of Nuugaatsiaq, Greenland, leaving four persons missing and presumed dead. Here, we present a preliminary high-resolution analysis of the tsunamigenic landslide scar based on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of oblique aerial photographs taken during a post-failure reconnaissa...
Article
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Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future”. Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 20...
Article
The interpretation of sediments deposited by prehistoric tropical cyclones (TC's) is limited by a lack of modern analogues, particularly in the South Pacific. On 13 March 2015, TC Pam made landfall on Vanuatu, reaching Category 5 intensity with 10-minute sustained wind speeds as high as 270 km/h. Three months after landfall, we measured flow height...
Article
Tropical cyclone inundation is a major threat to the highly exposed islands of the South Pacific. This vulnerability was highlighted in March 2015 when Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam made landfall on Vanuatu as a Category 5 storm, impacting coastlines with storm surges that produced high water marks up to 7 m above mean sea level (MSL) and deposited ove...
Article
Full-text available
Marine inundation associated with the 5 to 8 m storm surge of Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 left overwash sediments inland on the coastal plains of the northwestern shores of Leyte Gulf, Philippines. The Haiyan overwash deposit provides a modern sedimentary record of storm surge deposition from a Category 5 landfalling typhoon. We studied overwash sedimen...
Book
Tsunami science has evolved significantly since the occurrence of two of the most destructive natural disasters in recent times: the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of 14 countries in the Indian Ocean and the 11 March 2011 Tohoku (Great East Japan) tsunami that killed almost 20,000 people and destr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Offshore category 4 Hurricane Joaquin resulted in record-shattering rains and flooding across South Carolina. Several areas of South Carolina saw precipitation accumulations exceeding the threshold for a 1-in- 1,000-year event from October 1 to 5, 2015. The subsequent floods caused inundations throughout the state with areas around Charleston and C...
Article
Twenty-five papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future”. Six papers examine various aspects of tsunami probability and uncertainty analysis related to hazard assessment. Three papers relate to deterministic hazard and risk assessment. Five more papers present new me...
Chapter
Full-text available
Twenty-five papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue ‘‘Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future’’. Six papers examine various aspects of tsunami probability and uncertainty analysis related to hazard assessment. Three papers relate to deterministic hazard and risk assessment. Five more papers present new...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events recorded, yet critically important field data related to the landslide motion and tsunami evolution remain lacking. Landslide-generated tsunami source and propagation scenarios are physically modelled in a three-dimensional tsunami wave b...
Article
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On 8 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan impacted the Philippines with estimated winds of approximately 314 km h-1 and an associated 5 to 7 m high storm surge that struck Tacloban City and the surrounding coast of the shallow, funnel-shaped San Pedro Bay. Typhoon Haiyan killed more than 6,000 people, superseding Tropical Storm Thelma of November 1991 as...
Article
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We report the result of a 2010 survey of the effects on the Iranian coastline of the tsunami which followed the earthquake of 27 November 1945 (M0 = 2.8 × 1028 dyn cm; Mw = 8.2), the only large event recorded along the Makran subduction zone since the onset of instrumental seismology. Based on the interview of elderly survivors of the event, we obt...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis and respective tsunamigenic earthquakes are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami”. The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, inclu...
Article
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Super Cyclone Gonu was the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea. Gonu attained Category 5 status with peak 1-min sustained winds of 263 km/h with gusts up to 315 km/h and a central pressure of 909 mbar on 4 June 2007 about 475 km east of Masirah Island off the coast of Oman. Cyclone gradually weakened due to cooler water temperat...
Article
Ocean currents represent an alternative source of clean energy given their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. The general ocean circulation is characterized by large rotating ocean gyres resulting in rapid ocean currents along the western boundaries because of the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western b...
Article
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Within weeks of the Solomon Islands earthquake of 1 April 2007, international tsunami survey teams discovered important biomarkers of crust rupture and tsunami heights along the islands’ coastlines. Deep-ocean tsunameters recorded the tsunami waves of this event, enabling a real-time inversion of the tsunami source and model evaluation of near-fiel...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue ‘‘Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.’’ Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing...
Article
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Ten years later, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce tsunami risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, risk assessment, and awareness [Satake, 2014].
Article
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On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—Post-tsunami field surveys in the Minami-Soma exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture were delayed for 15 months after the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The area was subject to access restrictions until June 2012 due to high radiation levels caused by the meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The distribution of the measured ts...
Article
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Watermarks found during the post-event surveys of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami confirmed extreme runup heights at several locations along the central to northern part of the Sanriku coast, Japan. We measured the maximum height of nearly 40 m above mean sea level at a narrow coastal valley of the Aneyoshi district. Wave records by offshore GPS-buoys sugg...
Article
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With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue ‘‘Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011–2012’’, we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 20...
Article
Full-text available
The Gulf Stream system features some of the fastest and most persistent currents in the Atlantic Ocean and has long been identified as a promising target for renewable ocean current energy. This study investigates the theoretical energy potential of ocean currents for the Gulf Stream system. A simplified analytical model is calibrated and utilized...
Article
Full-text available
On 11 March 2011, a moment magnitude M w = 9.0 earthquake occurred off the Japan Tohoku coast causing catastrophic damage and loss of human lives. In the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, we conducted the reconnaissance survey in the city of Rikuzentakata, Japan. In comparison with three previous historical tsunamis impacting the same region,...
Article
In the paper ‘‘Physical modeling of tsunamis generated by three-dimensional deformable granular landslides’’ by Mohammed and Fritz (Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, C11015, doi: 10.1029/ 2011JC007850, 2012), the exponent of the landslide Froude number appearing in equation (3f) was printed incorrectly ; i.e., the minus sign had been omitted. T...
Conference Paper
The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the Tohoku coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life to a tsunami aware population. The mid-afternoon tsunami arrival combined with survivors equipped with cameras on top of vertical evacuation buildings provided fragmented spatially and temporally resolved inundation recordings....
Article
The Vajont river is an affluent of the Piave River located in the Dolomite Alps of the Veneto Region, about 100km north of Venice. A 265.5 m high double curved arch dam was built across a V-shaped gorge creating a reservoir with a maximum storage capacity of 0.169 km3. A maximum water depth of 250 m was reached by early September 1963 during the th...
Article
Full-text available
Distributions of inundation and runup height for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami were measured in and outside Yamada Bay located at the center of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Numerical simulations were conducted to reproduce flow, inundation and runup height distributions. Surface elevation profiles recorded by the GPS wave...
Article
Full-text available
Tsunamis generated by deformable granular landslides are physically modeled in a three-dimensional tsunami wave basin based on the generalized Froude similarity. The dynamic landslide impact characteristics were controlled by means of a novel pneumatic landslide generator. The wave amplitudes, periods, and wavelengths are related to the landslide p...
Article
On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku Tsunami overtopped a weir and penetrated 49 km up the Kitakami River, the fourth largest river in Japan [1]. Similarly, the 2010 Chile tsunami propagated at least 15 km up the Maule River [2]. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, large tsunamis have occurred along the Cascadia subduction zone, most recently th...
Article
Full-text available
The M-w 7.8 October 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, earthquake was a "tsunami earthquake," a rare type of earthquake that generates a tsunami much larger than expected based on the seismic magnitude. It produced a locally devastating tsunami, with runup commonly in excess of 6 m. We examine this event using a combination of high-rate GPS data, from instr...
Article
Full-text available
A geodatabase of tidal constituents is developed to present the regional assessment of tidal stream power resource in the USA. Tidal currents are numerically modeled with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and calibrated with the available measurements of tidal current speeds and water level surfaces. The performance of the numerical model i...
Article
The March 11, 2011 Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake triggered a large tsunami that caused extensive damage in the NE coast of Japan. A field survey was performed in the tsunami-devastated areas, Sendai Airport, Yuriage, Natori, Sendai port, Taro, Miyako, Yamada, Kamaishi, Rikuzentakata, Ofunato and Kesennuma. The narrow and long bays of the inden...
Conference Paper
On March 11, 2011, a magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan (Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Joint Survey Group). This report focuses on the surveys at 9 tsunami eyewitness video recording locations in Yorii...
Article
Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events. Major tsunamis caused by landslides or volcanic island collapse were recorded at Krakatoa in 1883, Grand Banks, Newfoundland in 1929, Lituya Bay, Alaska in 1958, Papua New Guinea in 1998, and Java in 2006. Source and runup scenarios base...
Article
Full-text available
Propagation and inundation characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on the central Sanriku coast are investigated through field surveys and numerical simulations using offshore wave recordings as incident wave conditions. The numerical model successfully reproduces the extent of flood areas as well as the distribution of tsunami heights along the...
Article
Full-text available
On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku Tsunami overtopped a weir and penetrated 49 km up the Kitakami River, the fourth largest river in Japan [1]. Similarly, the 2010 Chile tsunami propagated at least 15 km up the Maule River [2]. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, large tsunamis have occurred along the Cascadia subduction zone, most recently th...
Article
The tidal stream power potential along the coast of the state of Georgia is evaluated based on numerical modeling and validated with the available data. The Georgia coast consists of a complex network of tidal rivers and inlets between barrier islands that funnel and locally amplify the strength of the ambient tidal currents in the region. The numb...