Herb Marsh

Herb Marsh
Australian Catholic University | ACU · Institute of Positive Psychology and Education

PhD DSC

About

648
Publications
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Publications

Publications (648)
Research Proposal
Higher Degree Research (HDR) at IPPE We welcome applications from both domestic candidates from Australia and New Zealand, and international candidates. The next round of applications for PhD and MPhil programs closes at 11.59pm 17 October 2022 AEDT. https: // www.acu.edu.au/research-and-enterprise/our-research-institutes/institute-for-positive-ps...
Article
Research on situated motivation and emotion in education has made substantial progress, as documented in the contributions to this special issue. We discuss how this field can make further headway. First, we address the ambiguous meaning of the term situation and propose a 2 × 2 model of situational variation across time and context. From this mode...
Article
Based on control-value theory, we expected reciprocal associations between school grades and students' achievement emotions. Existing research has employed between-person designs to examine links between grades and emotions, but has failed to analyze their within-person relations. Reanalyzing data used by Authors (2017) for between-person analysis,...
Article
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Social-emotional skills have been shown to be beneficial for many important life outcomes for students. However, previous studies on the topic have suffered from many issues (e.g., consideration of only a small subset of skills, single-informant, and single-cohort design). To address these limitations, this study used a multi-informant (self, teach...
Article
Children who are excluded from school may end up being excluded from other social institutions. Yet little research has considered whether low school belonging is a risk factor for not being in education, employment, or training after graduation. Using two longitudinal cohorts from Australia (N = 14,082; 51% Boys), we explored this relationship. Co...
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Much research shows academic self-concept and achievement are reciprocally related over time, based on traditional longitudinal data cross-lag-panel models (CLPM) supporting a reciprocal effects model (REM). However, recent research has challenged CLPM's appropriateness, arguing that CLPMs with random intercepts (RI-CLPMs) provide a more robust (wi...
Article
Perceived individualized teacher frame of reference (students’ perception that teacher feedback considers students’ effort and former achievements) assumingly positively affects academic self-concept, especially for low-performing students. Following Dimensional Comparison Theory, individualized teacher frame in one school subject might negatively...
Article
Within-student dynamics in perceptions of instructional quality have been neglected, although student states constitute a major share of these perceptions. The present study examined the structure and correlates of student state perceptions of the three basic dimensions, teacher support, cognitive activation, and classroom management. We conducted...
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Principal strain and burnout is a major issue in desperate need of further investigation and solutions. Deepening our understanding of emotional exhaustion, the central dimension of burnout, would greatly further this pursuit. Using a large, longitudinal, representative sample of Australian school principals, the present study decomposed emotional...
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The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), the negative effect of school-/class-average achievement on academic self-concept, is one of educational psychology’s most universal findings. However, critiques of this research have proposed moderators based on achievement motivation theories. Nevertheless, because these motivational theories are not suffi...
Article
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Academic self-concept and achievement have been found to be reciprocally related across time. However, existing research has focused on self-concept and achievement scores that have been averaged over long time-periods. For the first time, the present study examined intraindividual (within-person) relations between momentary (state) self-concept an...
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Murphy (2021) argues that the field of Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology needs to pay more attention to descriptive statistics (“Table 1”; e.g., M, SD, reliability, correlations) when reporting and interpreting results. We agree that authors need to present a clear and transparent description of their data and that descriptive statistics a...
Article
The immigrant paradox is the phenomenon where recent immigrants have better outcomes than individuals from native-born families. Although limited past research has shown the paradox to exist for math self-concept, neither its exact nature nor a theoretical explanation for its existence have been reported. Using Australian cohort data from the Progr...
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The proliferation of information and divergent viewpoints in the 21st century requires an educated citizenry with the ability to critically evaluate information and make informed decisions. To meet this demand, adaptive epistemic understandings and beliefs about the nature of knowledge are needed, such as believing that scientific knowledge is evol...
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Paradoxically, school leaders as a group report high levels of burnout but also high job satisfaction and passion for their work. School principals are passionate about their job, but this passion can be a double-edged sword leading to good (job satisfaction) and bad (burnout) outcomes. We extend the dualistic model of passion (DMP) in a study of c...
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The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect (BFLPE) suggests that school-average achievement has a negative effect on academic self-concept (ASC); some research has also verified a negative effect on students' academic achievement. Our study evaluates the compositional effects of school-average achievement on both outcomes, using a longitudinal sample of Engli...
Article
Equally able students have a lower academic self-concept in high-achieving classrooms, the big fish little pond effect (BFLPE). Grading on a curve—providing the best grades to the best students in the class and the worst grades to the worst students—has been speculated to contribute to the BFLPE. However, empirical evidence for this assumption is n...
Article
Helping students adjust to university life is a critical developmental issue. Using longitudinal data from 1652 German late adolescents, this research tested the effect of initial high-school parent, same-sex, and opposite sex self-concept and its change on university dropout intentions, study stress, and study satisfaction. High-school self-concep...
Article
Gender-equality paradoxes (GEPs) posit that gender gaps in math self-concepts (MSCs) are larger-not smaller-in countries with greater gender equality. These paradoxical results suggest that efforts to improve gender equality might be counterproductive. However, we show that this currently popular explanation of gender differences is an illusory, ep...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In a recent research study we were interested to see if academic buoyancy (i.e., resilience in the academic setting) led to less academic adversity over time-or whether experiencing academic adversity would increase students' academic buoyancy. This is a summary of findings and practical implications for educational and psychological practitioners.
Article
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Expectancy value theory is often evoked by educational psychologists to explain gender differences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) variables. Yet gender does not operate in isolation. Nor are gender effects likely to be context free. In the current meta-analysis, we explore gender differences in STEM-related expectancy f...
Article
The concept of self is central to personhood, but personality research has largely ignored the relevance of recent advances in self‐concept theory: multidimensionality of self‐concept (focusing instead on self‐esteem, an implicit unidimensional approach), domain specificity (generalizability of trait manifestations over different domains), and mult...
Chapter
This chapter introduces two extensions of the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model. First, the authors discuss dimensional comparison theory (DCT) positing that in addition to social and temporal comparisons, self-evaluations are based on dimensional comparisons (e.g., “How my accomplishments in one domain compare with my accomplishment...
Article
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There is no universally agreed definition of well-being as a subjective experience, but Huppert and So (2013) adopted and systematically applied the definition of well-being as positive mental health-the opposite of the common mental disorders described in standard mental health classifications (e.g., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis...
Article
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Job satisfaction is important for employee well-being and retention, which are both crucial for high strained occupations such as teachers and school principals. We investigated the structure and relationship of teachers’ job satisfaction (N = 142,280) and principals’ job satisfaction (N = 8,869). Results of structural equation modeling using multi...
Article
Many 1000s of studies have been conducted on the validity and diagnostic usefulness of students' evaluations of university teaching (SET), but there is a surprising lack of research on ratings by secondary students. Integrating these two disparate research areas, we evaluate the appropriateness of university SET instruments to secondary settings. S...
Preprint
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Governments rarely aim at altering the way children view themselves. Yet, governments, culture, and social norms shape the social settings children find themselves in (i.e., the amount of ability stratification in the education system). Reviewing sociological, economic, and psychological literature we construct a theory that states that any macro i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Governments rarely aim at altering the way children view themselves. Yet, governments, culture, and social norms shape the social settings children find themselves in (i.e., the amount of ability stratification in the education system). Reviewing sociological, economic, and psychological literature we construct a theory that states that any macro i...
Article
This study proposed an improved representation of the factor structure of the Gaspard et al. (2015) value beliefs about math scale relying on bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (B-ESEM). Using a convenience sample of 537 Italian students (327 males; M age = 18.2), our results supported the superiority of a B-ESEM solution including n...
Article
Both academic self-concept and interest are considered domain-specific constructs. Previous research has not yet explored how the composition of the courses affects the domain-specificity of these constructs. Using data from a large-scale study in Germany, we compared ninth-grade students who were taught science as an integrated subject with studen...
Article
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Parental role models and sociocultural beliefs (e.g., gender stereotype and equality) are critical in shaping gendered interest and coursework in science. However, few studies have explored the interaction of both micro (family) and macro (sociocultural milieu) factors in influencing adolescent girls’ interest in science. To this end, we analyzed d...
Article
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CFAs of multidimensional constructs often fail to meet standards of good measurement (e.g., goodness-of-fit, measurement invariance, well-differentiated factors). Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) represents a compromise between exploratory factor analysis’ (EFA) flexibility, and CFA/SEM's rigor and parsimony, but lacks parsimony (par...
Article
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We evaluated STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) coursework selection by women and men (representative longitudinal sample, 10,370 Australians) in senior high school and university, controlling achievement and expectancy-value variables. A near-zero total effect of gender on high school STEM enrollment reflected pathways favori...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Motivation and Learning - by K. Ann Renninger February 2019
Article
A theoretical model linking achievement and emotions is proposed. The model posits that individual achievement promotes positive achievement emotions and reduces negative achievement emotions. In contrast, group-level achievement is thought to reduce individuals' positive emotions and increase their negative emotions. The model was tested using one...
Article
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In this study, we contrast two competing approaches, not previously compared, that balance the rigor of CFA/SEM with the flexibility to fit realistically complex data. Exploratory SEM (ESEM) is claimed to provide an optimal compromise between EFA and CFA/SEM. Alternatively, a family of three Bayesian SEMs (BSEMs) replace fixed-zero estimates with i...
Article
We simultaneously resolve three paradoxes in academic self-concept research with a single unifying meta-theoretical model based on frame-of-reference effects across 68 countries, 18,292 schools, and 485,490 15-year-old students. Paradoxically, but consistent with predictions, effects on math self-concepts were negative for: • being from countries w...
Article
Based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions, this longitudinal study examined students’ control-value appraisals as antecedents of their enjoyment and boredom in mathematics. Self-report data for appraisals and emotions were collected from 579 students in their final year of primary schooling over three waves. Data were analyzed using...
Article
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Previous cross-cultural studies of social and dimensional comparison processes forming academic self-concepts (the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) and Internal-external frame-of-reference (I/E) models) have mostly been based on high-school students and two subject domains. Our study is the first to test the cross-cultural generalizability of bo...
Article
This study extends the classic constructive dialogue/debate between self-concept and self-efficacy researchers (Marsh, Roche, Pajares, & Miller, 1997) regarding the distinctions between these 2 constructs. The study is a substantive-methodological synergy, bringing together new substantive, theoretical, and statistical models and developing new tes...
Article
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School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering...
Article
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Research suggests that a country does not need inequity to have high performance. However, such research has potentially suffered from confounders present in between-country comparative research (e.g., latent cultural differences). Likewise, relatively little consideration has been given to whether the situation may be different for high- or low-pe...
Article
The Negative Year in School Effect (NYiSE) claims that grade-relative-to-age influences academic self-concept. Being young for your grade is associated with lower self-concept, whereas being old for your grade is associated with higher self-concept. We extend this research in several ways. First, we aim to improve causal claims for the NYiSE by uti...
Article
Comments on the article by Bernard Weiner (see record 2018-12388-002 ) on attribution theory. Weiner’s theory provides a cornerstone for the scientific explanation of emotion and motivated behavior. However, we need better methods to test its propositions, and we need to develop broader theoretical frameworks that consider causal attributions joint...
Article
Full-text available
School-average achievement is often reported to have positive effects on individual achievement (peer spillover effect). However, it is well established that school-average achievement has negative effects on academic self-concept (big-fish-little-pond effect [BFLPE]) and that academic self-concept and achievement are positively correlated and mutu...
Article
Our newly proposed integrated academic self-concept model integrates 3 major theories of academic self-concept formation and developmental perspectives into a unified conceptual and methodological framework. Relations among math self-concept (MSC), school grades, test scores, and school-level contextual effects over 6 years, from the end of primary...
Article
From the time of William James, psychologists have posited individually importance-weighted-average models (IWAMs) in which weighting specific attributes by individual measures of importance improves prediction of the global outcome measures. Because IWAMs cause much confusion, we briefly review a general taxonomic paradigm and structural equation...
Article
In this paper, we develop an information distortion model (IDM) of social class differences in self-beliefs and values. The IDM combines psychological biases on frame-of-reference effects with sociological foci on ability stratification. This combination is hypothesized to lead to working-class children having more positive math self-beliefs and va...
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Purpose This study illustrates complementary variable- and person-centered approaches allowing for a more complete investigation of the dimensionality of psychometric constructs. Psychometric measures often assess conceptually related facets of global overarching constructs based on the implicit or explicit assumption that these overarching constru...
Article
The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model posits paradoxical relations between achievement and self-concept in mathematics and verbal domains. There is strong support for the I/E model based on student self-ratings, however, reviews of self-concept research claim that the I/E model does not apply to ratings by parents and significant oth...
Article
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A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (Grades 5–9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 1...
Article
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Scalar invariance is an unachievable ideal that in practice can only be approximated; often using potentially questionable approaches such as partial invariance based on a stepwise selection of parameter estimates with large modification indices. Study 1 demonstrates an extension of the power and flexibility of the alignment approach for comparing...
Chapter
Every once in a while two mindsets with common interests, mutual respect, and dedication meet, engage in a partnership, and commit to something big. The reader might now be inclined to think of a romantic relationship, might imagine a wedding with cake, or even happy children, as a result of such an encounter. And indeed, in this chapter we are ref...
Article
The temporal ordering of depression, aggression, and victimization has important implications for theory, policy, and practice. For a representative sample of high school students (Grades 7–10; N = 3,793) who completed the same psychometrically strong, multiitem scales 6 times over a 2-year period, there were reciprocal effects between relational-a...
Article
This study examines reciprocal effects between self-concept and achievement by considering a long time span covering grades 5 through 9. Extending previous research on the reciprocal effects model (REM), this study tests (1) the assumption of developmental equilibrium as time-invariant cross-lagged paths from self-concept to achievement and from ac...
Article
We examined the possible effects of six dimensions of music self-concept on determination of self-esteem, through the application of models based on individual and normative-group importance. Previous studies have supported the individual model of importance in narrowly defined self-domains such as spiritual self-concept that might be unimportant f...
Article
This three-wave, longitudinal study explored the math self-concept of German preschool children (N = 420) with respect to its differentiation into competence and affect components, cross-sectional and longitudinal relations to early math achievement, and invariance across gender. Findings demonstrated that preschool children's math self-concept can...
Article
In many applications of multilevel modeling, group-level (L2) variables for assessing group-level effects are generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). However, the observed group mean might not be a reliable measure of the unobserved true group mean. In this article, we propose a Bayesian approach for estimating a multilevel late...
Article
The factor structure of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) (Peterson & Seligman, 2004) has not been well established as a result of methodological challenges primarily due to a global positivity factor, item cross-loading across character strengths, and questions concerning the unidimensionality of the scales assessing character s...
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Consistently with a priori predictions, school retention (repeating a year in school) had largely positive effects for a diverse range of 10 outcomes (e.g., math self-concept, self-efficacy, anxiety, relations with teachers, parents and peers, school grades, and standardized achievement test scores). The design, based on a large, representative sam...