Henry Metzger

Henry Metzger
National Institutes of Health | NIH · National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)

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129
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8,419
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Citations since 2017
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371 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (129)
Chapter
Progress in our understanding of the structure and function of the receptor with high affinity for IgE (FcϵRI) is already being applied in attempts to mitigate allergic reactions, specifically by using specific anti-IgEs to prevent sensitization. Investigations of the complex network of intracellular signals generated by FcϵRI and related receptors...
Article
The cDNAs for each of the three types of polypeptide that form the high affinity IgE receptor have been cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence and other data suggests that the four-chained structure (αβγ2) contains seven transmembrane segments. The α chain resembles the immunoglobulin-binding chain found in other Fc rec...
Article
Using techniques and concepts developed in the theory of spin glasses we consider the optimization of the performance of simple attractor neural networks trained with noise and further analyse some of the consequences of such optimal training.
Article
Aggregation of the receptors with high-affinity for IgE (FcRI) stimulates a variety of cellular responses, but excessive aggregation inhibits such responses. Actin filaments have been implicated in the inhibitory phenomenon because disrupting the filaments enhances the cellular reactions stimulated by the aggregated receptors. To clarify further th...
Article
Progress in our understanding of the structure and function of the receptor with high affinity for IgE (FcepsilonRI) is already being applied in attempts to mitigate allergic reactions, specifically by using specific anti-IgEs to prevent sensitization. Investigations of the complex network of intracellular signals generated by FcepsilonRI and relat...
Article
Full-text available
Aggregation of Fc epsilon RI on mast cells and basophils leads to autophosphorylation and increased activity of the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Syk. We investigated the roles of the Src kinase Lyn, the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) on the beta and gamma subunits of Fc epsilon RI, and Syk itself in the activation of S...
Article
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. About 80 years ago, Carl Prausnitz injected into his abdominal skin a small amount of serum from his colleague, Heinz Küstner. When Prausnitz subsequently ate some cooked fish to which Küstner (but not Prausnitz) was allergic, hives developed at the sites of injection.¹ This experiment...
Article
In prior studies aggregation of the high affinity receptors for IgE, Fc epsilon RI, on a rat mast cell line, RBL-2H3, stimulated transcription of the gene for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and secretion of the protein. Unexpectedly, those delayed events appeared much less constrained by kinetic proofreading than had been documented for oth...
Article
Identification of the major components, how these interact with each other, and the modifications that follow in the sequence of events triggered by the receptor with high affinity for IgE, is progressing rapidly. A new challenge is to understand these interactions quantitatively. We present the fundamentals of the mechanistic model we are testing...
Article
As immunology developed into a discrete discipline, the principal experimental efforts were directed towards uncovering the molecular basis of the specificity exhibited by antibodies and the mechanism by which antigens induced their production. Less attention was given to how antibodies carry out some of their effector functions, although this subj...
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In the context of cell signaling, kinetic proofreading was introduced to explain how cells can discriminate among ligands based on a kinetic parameter, the ligand-receptor dissociation rate constant. In the kinetic proofreading model of cell signaling, responses occur only when a bound receptor undergoes a complete series of modifications. If the l...
Article
When multivalent ligands attach to IgEs bound to the receptors with high affinity for IgE on mast cells, the receptors aggregate, tyrosines on the receptors become phosphorylated, and a variety of cellular responses are stimulated. Prior studies, confirmed here, demonstrated that the efficiency with which later events are generated from earlier one...
Article
Receptors with high affinity for IgE, FcepsilonRI, which had been transfected into Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts exhibit an over 20-fold greater spontaneous phosphorylation at physiological temperatures than the same receptors on the widely studied rat mucosal mast cell line, RBL-2H3. This enhanced phosphorylation was not accounted for either b...
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Full-text available
Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts previously transfected with the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) were further transfected with the alpha subunit of the receptor for interleukin 2 (Tac) or with chimeric constructs in which the cytoplasmic domain of Tac was replaced with the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of either the beta subunit or th...
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When the high affinity receptor for IgE and related receptors become aggregated, they emigrate to specialized microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched in certain lipids and lipid-anchored proteins. Among the latter are the kinases that initiate signaling cascade(s) by phosphorylating the receptors. In studying the IgE receptor, we expl...
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Full-text available
We are analysing the initial molecular events stimulated by the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcɛRI. Earlier studies have shown that the first response when the receptor-bound IgE interacts with a multivalent antigen is a transphosphorylation of receptor tyrosines, induced by the approximation of two or more receptors by a constitutively associat...
Article
Full-text available
In response to antigenic stimuli, the multisubunit immune recognition receptors become aggregated and then phosphorylated on their cytoplasmic tyrosines. For the clonotypic receptors of B and T cells and for Fc receptors such as the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI), a Src family kinase initiates this phosphorylation. We ask whether aggr...
Article
The high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI), is one of a family of immunoreceptors whose antigen-induced clustering leads to a variety of cellular responses. The signaling pathways are enormously complex but by focusing on only the most initial steps, it is now possible to sketch plausible molecular models that relate the interaction of multivalent...
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Full-text available
To characterize gene expression in activated mast cells more comprehensively than heretofore, we surveyed the changes in genetic transcripts by the method of serial analysis of gene expression in the RBL-2H3 line of rat mast cells before and after they were stimulated through their receptors with high affinity for immunoglobulin E (FcepsilonRI). A...
Article
The ratio of late to early events stimulated by the mast cell receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) correlated with the affinity of a ligand for the receptor-bound IgE. Because excess receptors clustered by a weakly binding ligand could hoard a critical initiating kinase, they prevented the outnumbered clusters engendered by the high-affinity ligands...
Article
Studies from our laboratory and others suggest that mast ceil responses initiated by aggregation of FccRI result from the transphosphorylation of the receptor by constitutively bound I.yn kinase. We showed (J.Biol.Chem.272:24072(1997)) that this constitutive interaction involves the unique domain of Lyn kinase by transfecting constructs of Lyn into...
Article
When receptors must interact with an extrinsic kinase to initiate signaling, the kinase can play a regulatory role that is not available to intrinsic receptor kinases. Whether control is exercised at this level depends critically on the amount of kinase available to the receptors and on the potential for redistribution of the kinase during signalin...
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Full-text available
Aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI) leads to the phosphorylation of tyrosines on the beta and gamma chains of the receptor by the Src family kinase Lyn. We have studied the interaction between Lyn and the FcepsilonRI in vivo using a transfection-based approach. FcepsilonRI were stably transfected into Chinese hamster ova...
Article
Full-text available
An early event that follows aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is the phosphorylation of protein tyrosines, especially those on the β- and γ-subunits of the receptor. Disaggregation of the receptors leads to their rapid dephosphorylation, but even stably aggregated receptors undergo continual rounds of phosphorylation and dep...
Article
Full-text available
Activation of cells mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE leads to rapid phosphorylation of tyrosines (and later other residues) on the receptor's beta and gamma subunits, and there is circumstantial evidence that the tyrosines modified are in the so-called immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs). We identified and quantita...
Article
Full-text available
Using defined oligomers of IgE, our group previously studied the quantitative relationship between the aggregation of the high affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilonRI) and the earliest signals initiated by such aggregation: the phosphorylation of tyrosines on the receptor. Notably, at certain doses of the oligomers such phosphorylation reached a p...
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Full-text available
Previously, we demonstrated that aggregates of the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcϵRI), formed by the binding of chemically cross-linked oligomers of IgE, continue to signal early and late cellular responses long after the formation of new aggregates is blocked. In the present work, we explore quantitatively the relationship between aggregation...
Article
Aggregation of the high-affinity receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on mast cells activates nonreceptor kinases and other enzymes, thereby initiating a complex biochemical cascade. We have employed a chemical cross-linker in order to stabilize the association of Fc epsilon RI with other cellular proteins that are involved in the early events. We rea...
Article
When aggregated, the high-affinity receptors for IgE on mast cells (Fc epsilon RI) launch a series of phosphorylations, particularly of protein tyrosines. We have analyzed how aggregation initiates this cascade. We examined Fc epsilon RI from unstimulated cells and from cells exposed to a polyvalent hapten conjugate that aggregates the Fc epsilon R...
Article
Aggregation of the receptor with high affinity for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of mast cells and basophils stimulates phosphorylation of protein tyrosines, a process in which p53/56lyn kinase has been implicated. We measured the association between Fc epsilon RI and the kinase, using chemical crosslinking to stabilize their interaction. In t...
Article
Gene targeting experiments that "knock out" the expression of cellular Fc receptors for immune complexes have confirmed previous assumptions about the receptors' function but have also revealed some surprises.
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Full-text available
Many ligands stimulate cellular responses by aggregating the cell-surface receptors to which they are bound. We investigated several mechanistic questions related to aggregation of receptors by using the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on mast cells as a model system. We briefly exposed cells to covalently cross-linked oligomers of I...
Article
The critical role aggregation plays in antibody-mediated activation of cellular responses is now familiar to immunologists. The experimental evidence that led to that understanding has been recounted on several occasions1,2 and the interpretation of the data has stood up well to the newer findings particularly as they relate to cell receptors. It i...
Article
IgE receptors of mast cells, Fc epsilon RI, localize to coated pits and internalize after cross-linking. We investigated whether any one of the receptor's four distinctive cytoplasmic domains regulates these phenomena. COS cells, which lack Fc epsilon RI entirely, and P815 mouse mastocytoma cells that lack the alpha and beta subunits of the tetrame...
Article
The family of proteins collectively known as Fc receptors (FcR) plays a variety of roles both in the initiation of the immune response and in its consequences. During the past five years the structure of these proteins and the genes that code for them have been largely elucidated. The most unexpected finding has been their extensive diversity. Cons...
Article
The family of proteins collectively known as Fc receptors (FcR) plays a variety of roles both in the initiation of the immune response and in its consequences. During the past five years the structure of these proteins and the genes that code for them have been largely elucidated. The most unexpected finding has been their extensive diversity. Cons...
Article
Aggregating the receptor with high affinity for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) stimulates a variety of phenomena in mast cells. Previous efforts to reproduce some of these events in broken-cell preparations such as isolated membranes have had limited success, possibly because the phenomena being monitored were too distal from the initial events. One of the ea...
Chapter
Since the last International Congress of Immunology in 1989, there has been a gratifyingly productive burst of activity in the field of Fc receptors. Advances in two aspects that have particularly interested our own laboratory are the relationship of the structure of the receptors to their function, and on the molecular phenomena that account for t...
Article
The cellular responses initiated by cross-linking rodent Fc gamma RII-b1, Fc gamma RII-b2, Fc gamma RIII, and Fc epsilon RI in mast cells were compared. Individual murine Fc gamma R isoforms were transfected into rat basophilic leukemia cells and after cross-linking the FcR, changes in the phosphorylation of protein tyrosines, in the level of intra...
Article
When aggregated, cell surface proteins become resistant to solubilization by detergents, presumably because of aggregation-induced or -stabilized interactions between the membrane protein and the cytoskeleton or plasma membrane skeleton. We genetically engineered variants of the tetrameric high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) to identify...
Article
Full-text available
To define functionally critical regions of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI), we stably transfected P815 cells with mutated cDNAs coding for subunits with truncated cytoplasmic domains (CD). In addition, to examine further the role of the beta subunit, stable transfectants expressing chimeric Fc epsilon RI without beta subunits wer...
Article
Aggregation of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on mast cells by a polyvalent Ag leads to hydrolysis of phosphoinositides (PI) catalyzed by phospholipase C (PI-PLC). To understand this phenomenon in molecular terms, it is important to obtain active, cell-free preparations. In extensive preliminary studies, we could not demonstrate...
Article
This year there have been three major highlights in this field: genetic sequencing of the principal Fc receptors has been completed; new proteins associated with both Fc gamma receptors and B-cell membrane immunoglobulins have been identified; and there has been an initial analysis of structural-functional relationships in these receptors using gen...
Article
Earlier studies have shown that the mast cell receptor IgE (Fc epsilon RI) for is expressed on COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA for each of the three types of subunits that form the tetrameric, alpha beta gamma 2, receptor. Although such transfected COS cells fail to exhibit some of the early biochemical perturbations initiated by aggregation...
Article
Full-text available
The mast cell receptor with high affinity for IgE consists of four transmembrane polypeptides which are held together by detergent-sensitive interactions: an IgE-binding alpha chain, a single beta chain, and a disulfide-linked dimer of gamma chains. Now that the cDNAs that code for each of the subunits have been isolated, it should be possible to p...
Article
Full-text available
In order to delineate structural-functional relationships of the mast cell receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) by molecular-genetic analysis, a transfectable cell must be identified which resembles mast cells except for being deficient in receptors. We have found that the well known murine mastocytoma P815 is suitable. These cells express no Fc epsilo...
Article
Cytoplasts (plasma membrane sacs containing cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and few organelles) were prepared from rat basophilic leukemia cells by treatment with cytochalasin B and centrifugation at 33 degrees C through stepwise gradients of Ficoll. To compare the relative ability of cytoplasts and cells to generate second-messengers (inositol p...
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Full-text available
The receptor with high affinity for immunoglobulin E (IgE) on mast cells and basophils is critical in initiating allergic reactions. It is composed of an IgE-binding alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and two gamma subunits. The human alpha subunit was expressed on transfected cells in the presence of rat beta and gamma subunits or in the presence of t...
Article
The cDNAs for two of the subunits of the receptor with high affinity for IgE have been isolated and sequenced. That for the IgE-binding alpha subunit predicts a polypeptide with a single transmembrane segment. The predicted extracellular amino terminal portion, comprised of 180 residues, is homologous to the corresponding region of Fc gamma recepto...
Article
The high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E, Fc epsilon RI, is found exclusively on mast cells and basophils. When multivalent allergens bind to the receptor-bound IgE, the consequent aggregation of the receptors leads to the release of mediators responsible for allergic symptoms. In rodents Fc epsilon RI is a tetrameric complex of non-covalent...
Chapter
Over the last few years considerable progress has been made in the field of the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcεRI). The recent achievements were made possible by the rapid development of the techniques of molecular genetics. The cloning of complementary DNA for the rat a (Kinet et al 1987) (Shimizu et al 1988), the rat p (Kinet et...
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Full-text available
Among receptors that bind the Fc region of immunoglobulins ("Fc receptors"), only the one with high affinity for immunoglobulin E (IgE) is known to consist of more than a single polypeptide. In addition to the IgE-binding alpha chain, the receptor contains a single beta chain and two, disulfide-linked, gamma chains. From a cDNA library of a rat muc...
Article
The receptor with high affinity for IgE consists of a tetrameric complex of polypeptides, one of which (α), contains the binding site for IgE. The function of the other chains—a single and two disulfide-linked γ chains—is unknown. We report the cloning of a murine hybridoma that secretes an IgG1 antibody which specifically reacts with the subunit....
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly appreciated that the part of an antibody not involved in the binding of antigen--the Fc region--plays an important biological role. It activates a variety of receptors not only on so-called effector cells such as macrophages and granulocytes, but also on lymphocytes, and it can thereby modulate the immune response itself. Over th...
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Full-text available
Aggregation of the receptor with high affinity for immunoglobulin E (IgE) in rat basophilic leukemia cells leads to a calcium-dependent and a calcium-independent hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The increase in the levels of inositol phosphates induced in the absence of calcium is only 25% of that observed with 1 mM Ca2+. The inositol phosphates re...
Article
Rat mast cells and a neoplastic analogue such as rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells have receptors that have exceptionally high affinity for immunoglobulin E (IgE). When aggregated, these receptors induce cellular degranulation. The alpha chain of the receptor contains the binding site for IgE; the function(s) of the noncovalently associated beta...
Article
The alpha, beta, and gamma subunits of the receptor with high affinity for immunoglobulin E were isolated and their compositions assessed by direct amino acid analysis and by incorporation of radioactive precursors. The compositions show no unusual features other than a rather high content of tryptophan in the alpha chain as assessed from the incor...
Article
Purified receptor-immunoglobulin E (IgE) complexes incubated with [gamma-32P]-ATP incorporated phosphorus into tyrosines on the beta and gamma chains of the receptor. The activity had the typical characteristics of a tyrosine kinase. Immunoprecipitation of the complexes with anti-IgE left the activity in the supernatant, demonstrating that the rece...
Article
Results from high resolution inelastic electron scattering and nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments on 156Gd are combined to yield information on the distribution of orbital magnetic dipole strength. The magnetic dipole strength connected with the new M1 mode is closely centered in five Jπ = 1+ states around 3 MeV excitation energy.
Article
Mast cells and related cells have a surface glycoprotein that avidly binds monomeric immunoglobulin E (IgE). This protein is more complex than originally thought, its analysis having been complicated by its lability in mild detergents. The properties of this receptor, especially with respect to its interaction with lipids and detergents, is reviewe...
Article
We describe experiments which indicate that lipids interact with the receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) in several ways. Evidence for loosely bound lipid comes from observations on the special conditions that are required in order to oxidatively iodinate the alpha chain of the receptor in IgE-receptor complexes. Evidence for tightly, but still non...
Article
The surface receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) on rat basophilic leukemia cells and their normal counterparts has been postulated to consist of four polypeptide chains: a 45-kDa alpha-chain which binds IgE, a 33-kDa beta-component and two disulfide-linked, 9-10-kDa gamma-polypeptides. The instability of this complex in mild detergents makes it pos...
Article
The surface receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) on rat basophilic leukemia cells and their normal counterparts has been postulated to consist of four polypeptide chains: a 45-kDa α-chain which binds IgE, a 33-kDa β-component and two disulfide-linked, 9–10-kDa γ-polypeptides. The instability of this complex in mild detergents makes it possible that,...
Article
We previously showed that, in the absence of phospholipids, exposure of the tetrameric receptor for immunoglobulin E to mild detergents dissociates the intact beta chain and two gamma chains from the alpha chains. Having developed a practical method for assaying the dissociation, we have now explored a variety of different detergents, detergent con...
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Full-text available
Above its critical micelle concentration, Triton X-114 in solution forms two phases at room temperature: a lower phase containing supramicellar aggregates and an upper phase largely depleted of detergent. This property of the detergent is potentially useful for separating under mild conditions proteins that bind detergent from those that do not (Bo...
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Full-text available
Mast cells and related cells have on their surface receptors that bind immunoglobulin E (IgE) with high affinity and which, when aggregated, trigger exocytosis. We recently demonstrated that when these receptors are solubilized with mild detergents, their subunits dissociate unless an appropriate lipid:detergent ratio is maintained. The conditions...
Article
Our laboratory previously found that under conditions that stabilized the interaction between the alpha and beta subunits of the receptor for immunoglobulin E, two new components were recovered having apparent molecular weights of 45 000 and 20 000, respectively. In this paper, we characterize the 20-kDa material. We demonstrate that it consists of...
Article
The receptor on rat basophilic leukemia and related normal cells that binds monomeric immunoglobulin E (IgE) with high affinity contains four polypeptide chains: alpha (to which the IgE binds), beta, and a disulfide-linked dimer of gamma chains. In this study, we have analyzed a further component variably seen when the purified receptors are analyz...
Article
Aggregation of the receptor for immunoglobulin E on mast cells and related tumor cells initiates exocytosis. We examined tumor cells that had incorporated [3H]leucine and 32P to see if stimulating them produced modifications in the receptors themselves. No changes were observed in the yield of receptors or in the relative proportion and the molecul...
Article
A Beckman Airfuge has been employed for studying the interaction between lipids and the receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). For analytic experiments, samples were applied underneath a discontinuous sucrose gradient. After a 30-min centrifugation in a fixed-angle rotor, liposomes floated toward the top of the gradient whereas unincorporated recepto...
Article
Theory predicts that the kinetics of simple interactions between a ligand and a receptor bound on the surface of a cell will be affected by the occupancy of receptors on the same cell. In a diffusion-limited reaction the effect will be on the rate of dissociation but not on the rate of association until the cell is virtually saturated with ligand....
Article
The cell-surface component (alpha) which binds monomeric immunoglobulin E with high affinity is associated with a second polypeptide (beta) in the plasma membrane. The latter component tends to dissociate during purification of the alpha chain from detergent extracts of cells, even at neutral pHs and physiological ionic strengths. We now report tha...
Article
The mol. wts of the α-chain of the receptor for immunoglobulin E and several of its enzyme-cleaved fragments have been evaluated by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B in 6 M guanidine HCl. The mol. wt of α-chains treated with endoglycosidase was 30% less than that of untreated α-chains. α-Chains digested with papain eluted in a single peak with a mol....
Article
Mast cells, basophils and a tumor analog, rat basophilic leukemia cells, have a surface receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE). Membranes from such cells should be highly useful for the study of how the α- and β-subunits of the receptor interact with the plasma membrane and function therein. Membranes were prepared from rat basophilic leukemia cells....
Article
Specific immune precipitation of immunoglobulin E(IgE)-receptor complexes from detergent extracts of 32P-labeled rat basophilic leukemia cells yielded a phosphoprotein of Mr approximately 35,000 on gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. This phosphoprotein was shown by several criteria to be the beta chain of the receptor for IgE. Phosphory...
Article
A 30,000 mol. wt component (beta) is associated in a 1:1 ratio with the 50,000 mol. wt glycoprotein (alpha) which binds immunoglobulin E (IgE) on mast cells and related tumor cells. We show that alpha and beta are associated in membrane preparations. This is consistent with previous results which showed labeling of beta with the hydrophobic probe 5...
Article
Mast cells and related rat tumor basophils have a surface receptor that binds monomeric IgE with high avidity. The receptor in situ is unclustered, mobile, and univalent, and its aggregation into dimers and higher oligomers triggers degranulation. It has two subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha chain has a molecular weight of about 50,000, of which...
Article
The membrane receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) and its ligand, IgE, were irradiated with high-energy electrons. Loss of binding activity was measured for each, and the size of the functional targets was assessed. In both cases, the target size was substantially smaller than the covalent structure of the molecule. The direction of this discrepancy...
Article
We have studied the effects of permanent oligomers of human IgE produced using the cross-linking reagent, dimethyl suberimidate, on histamine release from human basophils. IgE dimers were found to be sufficient stimuli for both release and desensitization of these cells; monomeric IgE had no effect. Histamine release was augmented by deuterium oxid...
Article
The high-affinity membrane receptor for immunoglobulin E on mast cells and on a tumor analogue, rat basophilic leukemia cells, consists of two polypeptide chains: an alpha chain of Mr congruent to 50,000 and a beta chain of Mr congruent to 30,000. In this study we reacted alpha chains purified from tumor cells with proteolytic and glycolytic enzyme...
Article
Previous experiments on the functional properties of rat basophilic leukaemia cells showed a major anomaly when compared to normal mast cells: though IgE-mediated secretion was dependent on external Ca2+ with both types of cells, substantial non-cytotoxic release with ionophore A23187 could be demonstrated with the normal cells but not with the tum...
Article
Mast cells, basophils and a tumour analogue--rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL) cells--have a surface glycoprotein (R epsilon) which specifically binds monomeric immunoglobulin E (IgE), and aggregation of R epsilon causes secretion. When isolated from non-ionic detergent extracts of surface-labelled RBL cells by IgE-specific immunoprecipitation R epsil...