Henry Heffner

Henry Heffner
University of Toledo · Department of Psychology

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134
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Publications

Publications (134)
Preprint
The behavioral audiogram and sound localization performance, together with the middle and inner ear anatomy, were examined in African pygmy hedgehogs Atelerix albiventris . Their auditory sensitivity at 60 dB SPL extended from 2 kHz-46 kHz, revealing a relatively narrow hearing range of 4.6 octaves, with a best sensitivity of 21 dB at 8 kHz. Their...
Article
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Despite the excitement that followed the report of infrasound sensitivity in pigeons 40 years ago, there has been limited followup, with only eleven species of birds having auditory thresholds at frequencies below 250 Hz. With such sparse data on low-frequency hearing, there is little understanding of why some birds hear very low frequencies while...
Article
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Cottontail rabbits represent the first wild species of the order of lagomorphs whose hearing abilities have been determined. Cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus, evolved in the New World, but have spread worldwide. Their hearing was tested behaviorally using a conditioned-avoidance procedure. At a level of 60 dB SPL, their hearing ranged from 300 Hz...
Article
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Bats use brief calls for echolocation, suggesting that they might be more sensitive to brief sounds than non-echolocating mammals. To investigate this possibility, absolute thresholds for brief tones were determined for four species of bats: The Common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the Greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus), both of...
Article
The Scn8amedJ mutation of the gene for sodium channels at the nodes of Ranvier slows nerve conduction, resulting in motor abnormalities. This mutation is also associated with loss of spontaneous bursting activity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. However initial tests of auditory sensitivity in mice homozygous for this mutation, using standard 400-ms...
Conference Paper
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In amphibians, reptiles and birds, the ears are internally coupled either through the mouth or through an interaural canal, an arrangement that makes the ears directional and enhances sound-localization cues. In the evolution of mammals, however, the two ears became isolated. Having lost the directionality of coupled ears, mammals evolved both the...
Article
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Branstetter and his colleagues present the audiograms of eight killer whales and provide a comprehensive review of previous killer whale audiograms. In their paper, they say that the present authors have reported a relationship between size and high-frequency hearing but that echolocating cetaceans might be a special case. The purpose of these comm...
Article
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The pure-tone thresholds of three budgerigars were determined from 8 Hz to 10 kHz. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends 6.6 octaves from 77 Hz to 7.6 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 1.1 dB at 3 kHz. Unlike pigeons and chickens, budgerigars do not have better low-frequency hearing than humans. This di...
Article
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Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e.,...
Article
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The pure-tone thresholds of four domestic female chickens were determined from 2 Hz to 9 kHz using the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends from 9.1 Hz to 7.2 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 2.6 dB at 2 kHz. Chickens have better sensitivity than humans for...
Chapter
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This chapter is a personal perspective on the neurobehavioral study of auditory cortex and the comparative study of mammalian hearing. These two lines of research have their roots in the cortical ablation studies of Dewey Neff and the comparative approach brought to it by Irving Diamond. Progress in these areas was accelerated by the development of...
Article
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Behavioral audiograms and sound localization abilities were determined for three alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Their hearing at a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) (re 20 μPa) extended from 40 Hz to 32.8 kHz, a range of 9.7 octaves. They were most sensitive at 8 kHz, with an average threshold of -0.5 dB SPL. The minimum audible angle around the...
Article
We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats...
Article
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Although the domestic pigeon is commonly used in learning experiments, it is a notoriously difficult subject in auditory psychophysical experiments, even those in which it need only respond when it detects a sound. This is because pigeons tend to respond in the absence of sound-that is, they have a high false-positive rate-which makes it difficult...
Article
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Tinnitus refers to the perception of sound in the absence of external sound. Although this can include the perception of internal sounds, it is most often used to designate the perception of sound in the complete absence of acoustic stimulation, which is the way it is used here (e.g., McFadden, 1982; Penner & Jastreboff, 1996). Of the various cause...
Article
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Rats were trained in a two-choice procedure to respond in the direction of left and right sounds. Silent trials, on which no sound was presented and for which the animals received no feedback, were interspersed among the sound trials to determine each animal's natural side preference. Following training, the rats were exposed to a loud tone in the...
Article
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Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability...
Article
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The authors determined the ability of two old-world non-echolocating bats, Eidolon helvum and Cynopterus brachyotis, to use binaural time and intensity difference cues for localization. The bats were trained to localize pure tones throughout most of their hearing range from loudspeakers located 30 degrees to the left and right of midline. Both spec...
Article
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The behavioral audiograms of two female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were determined using a conditioned-suppression avoidance procedure. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level, their hearing range extends from 115 Hz to 54 kHz with a best sensitivity of -3 dB at 8 kHz; increasing the intensity of the sound extends their hearing ran...
Article
The ability of Norway rats to use binaural time- and intensity-difference cues to localize sound was investigated by determining their ability to localize pure tones from 500 Hz to 32 kHz. In addition, their ability to use the binaural time cues present in the envelope of a signal was determined by presenting them with a 1-kHz tone that was amplitu...
Article
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Glossary: Azimuth – direction along the horizon relative to a listener Δt – difference in the time of arrival of a sound at the two ears Δfi – difference in the frequency-intensity spectra of a sound at the two ears Functional head size – the time it takes for sound to travel around the head from one ear to the Octave – an interval between two freq...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine how closely the auditory brainstem response (ABR) can estimate sensorineural threshold shifts in rats exposed to loud sound. Behavioral and ABR thresholds were obtained for tones or noise before and after exposure to loud sound. The results showed that the ABR threshold shift obtained with tone pips estima...
Article
Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of non-echolocating bats: the Straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a large frugivore, and the Dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a small frugivore. The mean minimum audible angle for two E. helvum was 11.7 degrees, and for two C. bra...
Article
Passive sound-localization acuity for 100-ms noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of bats: Phyllostomus hastatus, a large bat that eats fruit and vertebrates, and Carollia perspicillata, a small species that eats fruit and nectar. The mean minimum audible angle for two P. hastatus was 9 degrees , and that for two C. perspicillat...
Article
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The comparative study of mammals reveals systematic differences in their hearing abilities. First, the ability to hear above 10 kHz (which apparently evolved for using pinna cues to localize sound) varies inversely with the size of an animal’s head such that smaller animals usually have better high‐frequency hearing than larger ones. Second, low‐fr...
Article
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The use of binaural time and intensity cues to localize sound can be investigated by determining the ability of a subject to localize pure tones in a free‐field. Specifically, the ability to localize low‐frequency tones, which do not produce an intensity difference at the two ears, demonstrates the use of the binaural phase (time) cue whereas the a...
Article
Full-text available
Passive sound‐localization acuity (minimum audible angle) for brief noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of New‐World bats (Phyllostomidae): Phyllostomus hastatus, a large bat that eats fruit and preys on other vertebrates, and Carollia perspicillata, a small species that eats fruit and nectar. Both use echolocation calls of ver...
Article
Behavioral thresholds for 400‐ms pure‐tone pulses (2/s, 10 ms rise‐decay) were determined for monaural rats using the method of conditioned suppression. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds for 1‐ms tone pulses (27.7/s, 0.5 ms rise‐decay) were determined in the same animals for the same frequencies (2, 4, 8, 16, and 45 kHz). A hearing loss...
Article
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Any attempt to assess the effects of sounds on animals must consider species differences in hearing abilities. Although the hearing ranges of most species overlap to a large degree, considerable variation occurs in high- and low-frequency hearing as well as in absolute sensitivity. As a result, a sound that is easily audible to one species may be l...
Article
Comparing the hearing abilities of echolocating and non-echolocating bats can provide insight into the effect of echolocation on more basic hearing abilities. Toward this end, we determined the audiograms of two species of non-echolocating bats, the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), a large (230-350 g) African fruit bat, and the dog-faced f...
Article
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The method of conditioned suppression described in this unit involves training a thirsty mouse to make steady contact with a waterspout in order to receive a slow, but steady trickle of water and then pairing a sound with mild electric shock delivered through the spout. The mouse quickly learns to avoid the shock by breaking contact with the spout...
Article
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Hamsters were trained to go left and right to sounds on their left and right sides, respectively. Silent trials were occasionally given in which no sound was presented. Hamsters exposed to a loud 2- or 10-kHz tone in 1 ear often shifted their responding on the silent trials to the side of the exposed ear, suggesting that they perceived a sound in t...
Article
The comparative study of hearing is based on the ability to obtain valid behavioral measures of hearing in different species. This requires careful generation and measurement of sound, a behavioral task and reinforcer appropriate for the species, and a comparable definition of threshold. For audiograms, it is important to generate artifact‐free pur...
Article
We determined the audiogram of the Jamaican fruit-eating bat (Phyllostomidae: Artibeus jamaicensis), a relatively large (40-50 g) species that, like other phyllostomids, uses low-intensity echolocation calls. A conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward was used for testing. At 60 dB SPL the hearing range of A. jamaicensi...
Article
We determined the audiograms of two short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata), 18-g phyllostomids from Central and South America. For testing, we used a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward. At an intensity of 60 dB SPL, the hearing of C. perspicillata extends from 5.2 to 150 kHz, showing a best sensitivity o...
Article
We determined the audiogram of Phyllostomus hastatus (the greater spear-nosed bat), a large, omnivorous American leaf-nosed bat native to Central and South America. A conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit juice reward was used for testing. At an intensity of 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL re 20 microN/m(2)), the hearing range of...
Article
Complete behavioral audiograms were determined for med(J) mice (F1 offspring of C57BL/6JxC3HeB/FeJ) and unaffected controls from the same F1 background. The med(J) mutation results in greatly reduced levels of Scn8a voltage-gated sodium channels, which causes abnormal conduction of action potentials throughout the nervous system and may account for...
Article
Hamsters were trained with a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure to drink in the presence of a broadband noise and/or a tone and to stop drinking in the absence of sound. A variety of tones and loudspeaker locations were used during training so that the animals would respond to a sound regardless of its frequency or location. Four groups of...
Article
Potential auditory compensation in neonatally bilaterally enucleated Syrian hamsters was explored anatomically, electrophysiologically and behaviourally. Gross morphology of the visual cortex appeared normal and no obvious cytoarchitectural malformation was discerned. However, enucleation induced a significant increase in the spontaneous firing rat...
Article
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Behavioral audiograms were determined for five species of rodents: groundhog (Marmota monax), chipmunk (Tamias striatus), Darwin's leaf-eared mouse (Phyllotis darwinii), golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). The high-frequency hearing of these animals was found to vary inversely with interaural distance...
Article
Bilateral auditory cortex lesions in Japanese macaques result in an aphasia-like deficit in which the animals are unable to discriminate two forms of their coo vocalizations. To determine whether this deficit is sensory in nature, two monkeys with bilateral lesions were tested for their ability to discriminate frequency and frequency change. The re...
Chapter
Full-text available
There are two general approaches to assessing hearing in mice: electrophysiological and behavioral. A popular way of assessing hearing in mice is to use an electrophysiological measure; specifically, the auditory brainstem response or ABR (e.g., Q.Y. Zheng et al., 1999b). The popularity of this technique stems from the fact that it is relatively ea...
Article
Full-text available
Passive sound-localization acuity and its relationship to vision were determined for the echolocating Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis). A conditioned avoidance procedure was used in which the animals drank fruit juice from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but suppressed their behavior, breaking contact with the spout, wh...
Article
Full-text available
The audiograms of three Japanese macaques and seven humans were determined in a free-field environment using loudspeakers. The monkeys and humans were tested using tones ranging from 8 Hz to 40 kHz and 4 Hz to 22.4 kHz, respectively. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level the monkeys were able to hear tones extending from 28 Hz to 37 kHz with the...
Article
Full-text available
The passive sound-localization acuity of Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) was determined using a conditioned-avoidance procedure. The mean minimum audible angle for left-right discrimination for 3 bats was 11.6 degrees--very near the mean for terrestrial mammals. The bats also were able to localize low- and high-frequency pure tones, ind...
Article
Full-text available
The Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) is one of the few megachiropteran bats capable of echolocation. However, it uses rudimentary tongue clicks rather than laryngeally produced echo calls. We determined the audiogram of 2 bats using a conditioned avoidance procedure with fruit puree reward. At an intensity of 60 dB sound pressure level, t...
Article
The passive sound-localization ability (i.e. minimum audible angle) of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, was determined using a conditioned avoidance procedure in which the animals were trained to discriminate left sounds from right sounds. The mean threshold of three bats for a 100-ms broadband noise burst was 14 degrees, a value that is about...
Article
This paper reviews seven lines of auditory research which bear upon the issue of awareness in animals. First, comparative studies of auditory sensitivity have found important differences in the hearing abilities of animals such that sounds easily audible to one species may be inaudible to others. Second, studies of auditory attention indicate that...
Article
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The behavioral audiograms of 2 fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) were determined with a conditioned avoidance procedure. The squirrels were able to hear tones ranging from 113 Hz to 49 kHz at a level of 60 dB sound-pressure level or less, with their best sensitivity of 1 dB occurring at 8 kHz. Their ability to hear frequencies below 150 Hz indicates th...
Article
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The audiograms of three big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were determined using a conditioned avoidance procedure. The average audiogram ranged from 0.850 kHz at 106 dB to 120 kHz at 83 dB SPL, with a best threshold of 7 dB at 20 kHz and a distinct decrease in sensitivity at 45 kHz. The results confirm those of a previous study by Dalland (1965a) t...
Article
Bilateral ablation of auditory cortex in macaques results in both sensory and perceptual deficits. The sensory deficit is indicated by increased thresholds for left-right locus discriminations and an inability to discriminate locus within either the left of right hemifield. The perceptual deficit is indicated by the observation that the monkeys no...
Article
The ability of chinchillas to make left/right, front/back, and vertical locus discriminations was determined before and after surgical removal of the pinnae. The animals were tested behaviorally using a conditioned avoidance procedure. In the left/right localization tests, removal of both pinnae had no effect on localization acuity for broadband no...
Article
The ability of chinchillas to make front/back and vertical locus discriminations was examined behaviorally using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Their minimum audible angle for localizing single broadband noise bursts was 36 degrees for front/back localization and 23 degrees for vertical localization. Sound localization tests using filtered nois...
Article
Full-text available
The procedure described here involves training an animal to make steady contact with a reward spout in order to receive food or water and then pairing a stimulus with mild electric shock delivered through the spout. The animal quickly learns to avoid the shock by breaking contact with the spout whenever it detects the stimulus. The breaking of cont...
Chapter
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Ever since the latter half of the 19th century when it was discovered that sensory and motor functions could be localized in the cerebral cortex, the role of the cortex in auditory processing has been studied by observing the effects of brain damage in both humans and animals. Initially, it was envisioned that the study of experimental lesions in a...
Article
The ability of chinchillas to localize sound was examined behaviorally using a conditioned avoidance procedure in which the animals were trained to discriminate left from right sound sources. Their minimum audible angle was 15.6 degrees for 100-ms broadband noise making them one of the more accurate rodents, although they are not as accurate as pri...
Article
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Behavioral audiograms were determined for four black-tailed and one white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and C. leucurus) using a conditioned avoidance procedure. The hearing of black-tailed prairie dogs ranges from 29 Hz to 26 kHz and that of the white-tailed prairie dog from 44 Hz to 26 kHz (at sound pressure levels of 60 dB). Both spe...
Article
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The behavioral audiogram of the hooded Norway rat was determined for frequencies from 250 Hz to 70 kHz. The resulting audiogram is virtually identical to the albino rat audiogram obtained by Kelly and Masterton (1977), indicating that there is no detectable effect of albinism on the audiogram of the Norway rat. The two audiograms also indicate the...
Article
Behavioral tests of absolute sensitivity and sound localization in African naked mole rats show that, despite their communal social structure and large vocal repertoire, their hearing has degenerated much like that of other subterranean species. First, their ability to detect sound is limited, with their maximum sensitivity being only 35 dB (occurr...
Article
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Two blind mole rats were tested for their ability to detect and localize sound. The results indicate that blind mole rats have severely limited, and probably degenerate, auditory abilities. Although their 60-dB low-frequency hearing limit of 54 Hz is within the range for other rodents, the highest frequency they can hear at a level of 60 dB SPL is...
Article
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Sound localization acuity of 3 cattle (Bos taurus) and 2 goats (Capra hircus) was determined for brief complex sounds in a two-choice procedure. Thresholds around the median sagittal plane averaged 30 degrees and 18 degrees, respectively. For comparison, thresholds were obtained in the same test apparatus for humans (0.8 degrees) and a dog (8 degre...
Article
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Sound localization acuity of 3 cattle (Bos taurus) and 2 goats (Capra hircus) was determined for brief complex sounds in a two-choice procedure. Thresholds around the median sagittal plane averaged 30-degrees and 18-degrees, respectively. For comparison, thresholds were obtained in the same test apparatus for humans (0.8-degrees) and a dog (8-degre...
Article
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The ability of mammals to localize sound varies widely among species. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated that this variation cannot be accounted for simply on the basis of the availability of the physical cues for locus. Evidence is presented that a major factor in sound localization is the need to direct the field of best vision to a...
Chapter
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The ability to locate the source of a sound too brief to be either scanned or tracked using head or pinna movements is of obvious advantage to an animal. Since most brief sounds are made by other animals, the ability to localize such sounds enables an animal to approach or avoid other animals in its immediate environment. Moreover, it can be used t...
Article
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The audiograms of three chinchillas were determined using pure tones ranging from 32 Hz to 45 kHz. The animals were tested with a conditioned avoidance procedure in which their heads were fixed within the sound field by requiring them to place their mouths on a water spout. At a level of 60 dB SPL the average hearing range extended from 50 Hz to 33...
Article
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Behavioral audiograms were determined for three pigs and two goats. The hearing of the pigs ranged from 42 Hz to 40.5 kHz with a region of best sensitivity from 250 Hz to 16 kHz. Hearing in goats ranged from 78 Hz to 37 kHz with a well-defined point of best sensitivity at 2 kHz. Because these animals are unable to localize high-frequency tones, it...
Article
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1. The ability of four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) to localize sound was determined after bilateral ablation of auditory cortex. The animals were given two tests: a "midline" test in which they had to discriminate noise bursts presented from a loudspeaker located to the left from identical noise bursts presented from a loudspeaker located to...
Article
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A description is provided of a syringe-pump food-paste dispenser in which a veterinary dosing syringe is used to deliver meat paste continuously or in discrete amounts with little noise.
Article
Behavioral tests of hearing and sound localization in the North American pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius) show that it is unique among mammals. It has a severely attenuated range of hearing and only rudimentary ability to localize sound. In these respects, the hearing of gophers can be properly termed 'vestigial' and suggests that life underground...
Article
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1. The behavioral audiograms of four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were assessed before and after receiving two-stage bilateral lesions of auditory cortex. Thresholds were assessed for each ear with the use of insertion earphones. 2. The bilateral lesions resulted in a large initial hearing loss followed by partial recovery that left the anima...
Article
1. The behavioral audiograms of four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were assessed before and after unilateral ablation of auditory cortex. The tones were presented via insertion earphones so that each ear could be tested separately. 2. Each animal had a hearing loss in the ear contralateral to the lesion, whereas the ipsilateral ear showed no c...
Article
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The effect of small bilateral cortical lesions on pure-tone audiograms and on the ability to discriminate between two types of Japanese macaque coo vocalizations was determined in four Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). A lesion that included the middle portion of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres, that is, the primary and secondary...
Article
Bilateral ablation of the superior temporal gyrus in Japanese macaques results in a significant hearing loss (cortical deafness) as well as in an inability to discriminate between two types of their "coo" vocalizations. A two-part investigation was conducted to determine whether the hearing loss may itself affect the ability to discriminate vocaliz...
Article
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Noise localization thresholds and the ability to localize pure tones at 60 degrees separation were determined for three domestic pigs using a conditioned avoidance procedure. The average threshold for localizing a brief noise burst was 4.5 degrees which is much more accurate than the thresholds of other hoofed mammals, such as horses, cattle and go...