Henry Etzkowitz

Henry Etzkowitz
International Triple Helix Institute

PhD Sociology New School Graduate Faculty 1969

About

187
Publications
71,278
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14,180
Citations
Citations since 2017
53 Research Items
7934 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
The author explicates the cultural DNA and take-off trajectory of an exemplary entrepreneurial university and its emerging focus on sustainability. Entrepreneurial initiatives, emanating from the engineering school in the late 19th century, spread to the physical sciences in the 1930s and to the biological sciences and medicine by the 1970s. A conc...
Article
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) gives policy recommendations based on scientific research and agreed climate targets. We outline the concepts and requirements for implementing the sustainability goals. The Triple Helix Twin model is tested as method to analyze the governance of environmental policy formation and implementatio...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to propose a performance measurement system to evaluate the key aspects of entrepreneurial activities in Brazilian universities. Design/methodology/approach This study was developed in two phases. Both phases consisted of a survey sent to Brazilian universities (public, private and not-for-profit) whose technology transfer...
Article
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The potential of the arts and sciences for economic and social development is under conceptualized. However, the recent development of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), justifying increased support for training in the sciences, shows a parallel pathway forward for the arts. The arts are increasingly relevant to the economy,...
Article
The purpose of this article is to deepen knowledge about Stanford University technology transfer and academic entrepreneurship. Technology transfer, including venture creation, is central to an iconic entrepreneurial university's development. Comparative case study, utilizing interviews, archival research and participant observation, conducted over...
Article
Purpose This study aims to understand the socio-cultural context of Indian women's high-tech entrepreneurial experience. Despite a small proportion of women entrepreneurs, and the traditional gender dynamics among the educated middle-classes that appears to be antithetical to female entrepreneurship; women-led high-tech start-ups are on the rise....
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Full-text available
This study invents a Triple Helix of university-public-government for sustainable development, as a complement to the Triple Helix of university-industry-government for innovation. Twinning the two retains the dynamic properties of a tertius gaudens in the framework which addresses environment, resource protection, social change and equality issues...
Article
The paper delineates three elements of an entrepreneurial university in practice through innovations demonstrating the academic entrepreneurial transition: the Novum Trivium, Professors of Practice (PoPs) and Link initiatives. The Novum Trivium provides a model for the integration of entrepreneurship into a liberal arts curriculum, so that students...
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Academic interdisciplinarity has become a powerful means of addressing challenges facing contemporary society as well as offering opportunities to advance knowledge. To better understand the role of university interdisciplinary organizations (IDOs), the authors studied 18 IDOs at Stanford University in the USA. They propose that IDOs not only enhan...
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The Triple Helix of university-industry-government interactions, highlighting the enhanced role of the university in the transition from industrial to knowledge-based society , has become widespread in innovation and entrepreneurship studies. We analyze classic literature and recent research, shedding light on the theoretical development of a model...
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Universities play a unique role in ecosystems of innovation. They interact with the other agents of the Triple Helix model, developing their functions in relation to each other and together with industry and government. Grounded in key conceptual frameworks—Triple Helix, Regional Innovation Systems and Entrepreneurial University—we analyze how the...
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This paper explores activities undertaken by Science Parks to attract talent for their tenants. Despite the importance of accessing talent, there are very few studies focusing on this research area. The data in this investigation comes from seven cases studies on talent attraction activities carried out by three Science Parks in Sweden. We show tha...
Article
A boundary-spanning regional innovation model of permeability among university, industry and government is abstracted from Boston, Silicon Valley and Research Triangle and used to assess Newcastle Science City. Early history may provide a better guide for aspiring regions than abstracting elements from the contemporary Silicon Valley ecosystem with...
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Silicon Valley’s innovation ecosystem has evolved in the last decade. In this study we aim to understand how and why Silicon Valley evolves by identifying changes on the role played by the Triple Helix Agents. We also aim at identifying if changes in one of the agents trigger evolution of the others. Taking the startup as the unit of analysis and a...
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This article introduces various aspects of technology business incubators (TBIs), emphasizing their increasing role in the spatial context where they are used as platforms and drivers of regional entrepreneurial ecosystems. It outlines the key themes of the emerging role of TBIs in sustainable regional development: TBI biodiversity of ecosystems; a...
Article
Stanford University's world leadership as an entrepreneurial university induced a “paradox of success,” inhibiting further development of its organizational infrastructure for entrepreneurship support. Nevertheless, some prospective academic entrepreneurs realized that there were invisible persisting gaps in the university's innovation system. We d...
Chapter
A triple helix of university-industry-government relations, as the basis of innovation policy, is identified in both statist and laissez-faire regimes. Direct links in the United States among university, industry, and government formed during World War II were dismantled immediately after the war but have since been revived in a looser format. A tr...
Article
This paper analyses the 60-year-long dynamics of triple helix relations in the development of cleaner power generation technologies of a large state-owned Chinese power equipment manufacturer. It opens the black box of the firm and provides a whole picture of the firm's triple helix relations and the changes in the process. It addresses two researc...
Article
In a Triple Helix framework, independent hybrid organizations can be created at the intersection of overlapping yet separate institutional spheres to address innovation blockages. However, the formation process of these organizations, which incorporate and combine elements from the Triple Helix spheres, has seldom been investigated. We address this...
Book
The triple helixof university-industry-government interactions is a universal model for the development of the knowledge-based society, through innovation and entrepreneurship. It draws from the innovative practice of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with industry and government in inventing a regional renewal strategy in early 20th-cent...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers the propensity for women academics to become entrepreneurs and to commercialise their research in comparison to male academics. A review of the academic literature and published reports suggests that women constitute a very small proportion of academic entrepreneurs; this is especially the case in science, technology, enginee...
Article
This article outlines a counter-cyclical innovation strategy to achieve prosperity, derived from an innovative project, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). We identify an ‘innovation paradox’ in that the very point in the business cycle, when legislators are tempted to view austerity as a cure for economic downturns and to re...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The literature in female entrepreneurship has witnessed significant development in the last 30 years, with the research emphasis shifting from purely descriptive explorations towards a clear effort to embed research within highly informed conceptual frameworks. With contributions from leading and emerging researchers, The Routledge C...
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RESUMO A Hélice Tríplice tornou-se um modelo reconhecido internacionalmente, que está no âmago da disciplina emergente de estudos de inovação, e um guia de políticas e práticas nos âmbitos local, regional, nacional e multinacional. As interações universidade-indústria-governo, que formam uma “hélice tríplice” de inovação e empreendedorismo, são a c...
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The gap between science park aspiration and accomplishment is conceptualized as 'innovation incommensurability,' the persisting dilemma of a physical structure oriented innovation mechanism. A typology of science park impetuses and growth-analyzing critical elements, goals/ends and paths/means-suggests an appropriate balance between 'exogenous' and...
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Pick up any recent policy paper on women’s participation in science and you will find assurances that gender diversity enhances knowledge outcomes. Universities and science-policy stakeholders, including the European Commission and the US National Institutes of Health, readily subscribe to this argument (1⇓–3). But is there, in fact, a gender-diver...
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Background: Faculty departure can present significant intellectual costs to an institution. The authors sought to identify the reasons for clinical and non-clinical faculty departures at one academic medical center (AMC). Method: In May and June 2010, the authors surveyed 137 faculty members who left a west coast School of Medicine (SOM) between...
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Following a pause, with a relatively flat rate, from 1998 to 2008, the long-term trend of university patenting rising as a share of all patenting has resumed, driven by the internationalization of academic entrepreneurship and the persistence of US university technology transfer. The authors disaggregate this recent growth in university patenting a...
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Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science...
Article
This article analyzes the stages and phases of development of the entrepreneurial university, incorporating the classic Humboldtian dualistic academic model that unites teaching and research, into a Triple Helix of university–industry–government interactions. The MIT and Stanford cases provide empirical data for the extrapolation of a knowledge-bas...
Article
Forged in different academic and national traditions, the university is arriving at a common entrepreneurial format that incorporates and transcends its traditional missions. The academic entrepreneurial transition arises from the confluence of the internal development of higher education institutions and external influences on academic structures...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and...
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Full-text available
Book synopsis: Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of academia to US patents has become increasingly global. Following a pause, with a relatively flat rate, from 1998 to 2008, the long-term trend of university patenting rising as a share of all patenting has resumed, driven by the internationalization of academic entrepreneurship and the persistence of US university technology tran...
Book
Universities have become essential players in the generation of knowledge and innovation. Through the commercialization of technology, they have developed the ability to influence regional economic growth. By examining different commercialization models this book analyses technology transfer at universities as part of a national and regional system...
Article
The Triple Helix, representing university–industry–government interactions, was mooted in a 1993 International Workshop on University–Industry Relations at UNAM's Centro Para la Innovacion Technologica in Mexico City. Impelled by Mexican reality, where university–industry interactions and the institutions themselves operated within a governmental f...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The world has changed profoundly since the publication of the influential book Technopoles of the World. As policy-makers and practitioners attempt to harness science, technology and innovation to create dynamic and vibrant cities many wonder how relevant Manuel Castells and Peter Hall's messages are today. Twenty years later, this b...
Article
Although innovation policy usually follows the business cycle, it is both desirable and possible to reverse this trend. Perhaps the most telling commentary on contemporary Europe is the silence that met the presentation, at the recent European Parliament Innovation Conference, of the Chinese R&D spending curve passing the European Union curve in 20...
Chapter
An entrepreneurial wave is spreading across the academic universe. If not a tsunami, it is certainly more than a ripple as evidenced by the increasing attention to the model by policy makers, universities, and researchers since I initially set it in motion 30 years ago (Etzkowitz, 1983). As awareness and interest grow, a university wants to play a...
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Full-text available
Knowledge-infused clusters, involving governmental and university, as well as firm actors are the epitome of contemporary economic development strategy. The role of Southern Oregon University (SOU) in the inception of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival (OSF) gives rise to a model for education-focused universities to play a significant role in local e...
Article
Our attention in this paper is to the relationship between society and science in science-based innovation processes. We propose that citizens’ and scientists’ actions are interlaced and that civil society provides a platform on which novel approaches to innovation may be formed. The empirical focus is set on stem cells and regenerative medicine in...
Chapter
A significant number of academic scientists have broadened their professional interests from contributing to the literature to making their research the basis of a firm. These scientists have taken some or all of the steps necessary to start scientific firms by writing business plans, raising funds, leasing space, recruiting staff, etc. (Blumenthal...
Article
An entrepreneurial university with multiple missions for teaching, research and economic and social development is superseding the research university as the academic paradigm. Traditional academic roles are revised to include entrepreneurial elements, both to attract external resources and to see that knowledge is put to use. As a remit for region...
Chapter
A triple helix regime typically begins when an existing innovation regime, whether a single helix, based on industry, or a double helix of government-industry falls into a crisis that cannot be resolved within the existing framework. Involving new actors, not traditionally directly involved in innovation like the university, restructuring others to...
Article
The increasing dependence of Silicon Valley on external sources of human capital and technological innovation is a potential Achilles’ heel if competitive regions achieve ‘stickiness’ and retain these assets. Silicon Valley developed in a successive triple helix format, each helix building upon and reinforcing the other. A single helix university d...
Article
Stanford University’s legendary success in technology transfer, based upon a relatively small group of serial faculty entrepreneurs, masked unrealized potential residing in the underutilized inventions of less entrepreneurially experienced faculty and students. An optimum academic entrepreneurship and technology-transfer regime matches various leve...
Article
This paper examines research collaborations in the field of business and management in Malaysia, a fast-developing economy in Southeast Asia. The country aims to become a developed nation by the year 2020, guided by its well-charted Wawasan 2020 ...
Article
Recent studies on first- and second-order similarities have shown that the latter one outperforms the first one as input for document clustering or partitioning applications. First-order similarities based on bibliographic coupling or on lexical approaches ...
Article
This article analyzes the evolution of the entrepreneurial university from a narrow focus on capturing the commercializable results of the ‘meandering stream of basic research’ to a broader interest in firm formation and regional economic development. No longer limited to schools like MIT, specialized for that purpose, entrepreneurial aspirations h...
Article
There has been debate over whether a teaching university can be an entrepreneurial university (Clark, 1998). In a traditional conception of academic entrepreneurship focused on achieving commercial profit, a research base may be a pre-requisite to creating spin-offs. However, if we expand entrepreneurship into a broader conception to map its differ...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to investigate knowledge‐capital relationship through tracking the history of knowledge commercialization. Design/methodology/approach – Theoretical exploration, historical evidence and interviews are used in this research. Firstly it recalls the convergence of academic knowledge and industrial capital. Then the knowledge...
Article
With this paper I discuss the importance of permeability among university-industry-government boundaries based on the experience of MIT and Boston, Stanford and Silicon Valley, the Research Triangle and North Carolina, and Newcastle University and Northeast UK. Encouraging permeability in university boundaries is a first step to creating an entrepr...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore an expanding venture capital (VC) system beyond economic capital concept, based on “triple bottom line” of enterprises. Design/methodology/approach A complete VC system is given, first of all, and then the gap in the existing VC system is explored. To develop a VC system, the gaps must be filled base...
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Full-text available
The causes and cures of the contemporary economic crisis have been a matter of intense debate since 2007–2008, but the persisting signs of decline in virtually all economic sectors question the effectiveness of the measures adopted so far. Stimulus packages have been the most common policy tool for government intervention aimed to revive economic g...
Article
This paper provides insights into a science-based strategy aimed to address the Great Depression of the 1930s and examines its relevance to policies addressing the contemporary economic crisis. This early science-based strategy was not accepted at the national level at the time, but was enacted at the regional level in New England and became the ba...
Article
A series of organisational mechanisms have been invented to foster innovation, typically inspired by the need to facilitate boundary crossing within and among organisations. In the past, many of these initiatives were relatively isolated from each other with, for example, clusters focusing on business development, centres on inter-disciplinary acad...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the triple-helix model of university-industry-government interactions and its contribution to entrepreneurship, and economic and social development. Design/methodology/approach – This paper draws upon international case studies and interviews to delineate the development of the triple-helix model an...
Article
Women and minorities face problems in all stages and phases of their scientific life course. The taken-for-granted norms, the structure of society, especially the relationship between family and work, and the organisation of scientific institutions create a series of interrelated dilemmas for women in science that must be addressed in a comprehensi...
Article
Knowledge is increasingly ‘polyvalent’ as theoretical, practical and interdisciplinary implications form a common center of gravity. The changing nature of knowledge drives the institutional spheres of university and industry together in advanced industrial societies and developing countries, alike. Government policy lags and leads a shift from mon...
Article
We focus on the interdependence between regional conditions and the design of university technology transfer offices (TTOs). The traditional activities of TTOs range from identification of research results from the university setting and transferring them to the market. At least three factors are needed in the vicinity of a TTO; active university a...
Book
'This book is an authoritative confirmation of the critical role that knowledge plays in economic transformation. It is an indispensable roadmap for new research programmes and a guidepost for policy makers around the world.' © The Editors and Contributions Severally 2010. All rights reserved.

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Projects (3)
Project
The Triple Helix Conference aims at providing an international and multidisciplinary venue with outstanding scholars, policy makers and practitioners for discussing and advancing our understanding of the SDGs and ESGs challenges and solutions and the relationship between entrepreneurial Universities, smart Governments, efficient Industry and committed Civil Society. Call For papers is available until January 31. https://triplehelixconference.com/
Project
It is broadly acknowledged that while EU policies are well appreciated, they most often fail to deliver to their full potential on the ground. The project entitled “Boosting the European integration process in a time of crisis through the Triple Helix: strengthening the delivery of EU policies for growth and jobs” (HLX4EU) will seek to improve the delivery of three key EU policies in the real world through the concept, method and approach of the Triple Helix. These policies are: (a) Reforming the higher education institutions (HEIs) through social responsibility and entrepreneurship (HEIs in this respect could be well playing the role of efficient innovators and multipliers of the key concepts that build together the European ideal); (b) Boosting innovation and entrepreneurship, supporting the business growth strategies of the European Commission (in particular young innovative SMEs) (c) Supporting the European Commission strategies on smart specialisation for a place-based innovative regional development, boosting growth and jobs.