Henrik Lund

Henrik Lund
Aalborg University · Department of Development and Planning

MSc.in Engineering,PhD., Dr.Techn.

About

219
Publications
120,645
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22,194
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1985 - present
Aalborg University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (219)
Article
Energy systems analyses are integrated elements in planning the transition towards renewable energy-based energy systems. This is due to a growing complexity arising from the wider exploitation of variable renewable energy sources (VRES) and an increasing reliance on sector integration as an enabler of temporal energy system integration, but it cal...
Article
Following the 2015 Paris Agreement and other agreements which have been signed after, sustainable energy development is becoming the major goal in many countries. EU have set the targets to reduce the annual greenhouse gas emission by 40% in 2030 and 80% for 2050 compared with 1990 levels. For achieving this ambitious energy policy, three major tec...
Article
The transport sector contributes to approximately one third of Danish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and almost half of emissions from the energy sector. A unified Danish parliament agreed to reduce total emissions with 70% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. This paper estimates the potential for reducing the national transport sector GHG emissions i...
Article
Trigeneration compressed air energy storage (TCAES) is one of the emerging solutions that will most likely find its market as a popular energy storage technology for sector coupling. The combination of a TCAES with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery has also been found much effective for enhanced round trip efficiency and is thu...
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China has set ambitious carbon emission reduction targets to combat climate change, however, there has been little scientific focus on the achievement of deep decarbonization at the provincial level. The contradiction between rapid economic development and increasing energy utilization exacerbates the difficulty of achieving this goal. Here, we exp...
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The literature emphasizes the important role of industrial excess heat (IEH) and heat pumps (HP) in future 4th generation district heating and smart energy systems. However, they can potentially have negative or positive effects on the integration of renewable energy sources (RES). It is necessary to find a trade-off between IEH and HP in the trans...
Article
The electrification of transportation is currently seen as one of the key strategies in the sustainable energy transition. This work aims to identify the role of the electrification of transportation from a perspective of the mid-to-long term. The main focus is on the coupling of the deployment of electric vehicles (EV) and power system decarboniza...
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Energy modeling and planning problems associated with technical, economic, political, and social development have been critical concerns in energy system planning and greenhouse gas emission control for both national and worldwide for many years. This paper modeled and analyzed the current and future energy supply and demand for an oil-rich energy...
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Addressing climate change with the rising global energy usage necessitates electricity sector decarbonization by rapidly moving towards flexible and efficient off-grid renewable energy systems (RES). This paper analyzes the wind and solar micro-grids, with batteries and pumped hydro storage for a robust off-grid RES techno-economic operation, while...
Article
Energy system models are crucial to plan energy transition pathways and understand their impacts. A vast range of energy system modelling tools is available, providing modelling practitioners, planners, and decision-makers with multiple alternatives to represent the energy system according to different technical and methodological considerations. T...
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This paper presents a new method based on the Smart Energy System concept to link the water infrastructure and the energy system of an island. The principal aim of this study is to determine whether this new method can increase the contribution of renewables (wind power and photovoltaic) to the primary energy supply of the island. The method consid...
Article
Fourth-generation district heating (4GDH) has been used as a label or expression since 2008 to describe a transition path for decarbonization of the district heating sector and was defined in more detail in 2014. During recent years, several papers have been published on a concept called fifth generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC). This a...
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The subject of this chapter is the governance system of the distribution system operators (DSOs), i.e. the companies that own, operate and develop regional and local electricity networks. These companies are natural monopolies, and subsequently need strong regulation by public authorities and/or by consumers. The role of the DSOs has been changing...
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District heating is important for the transition to sustainable energy systems. In order to implement district heating, consumers’ trust and acceptance of this technical monopoly structure is necessary. This necessity leads to the question of price regulation and ownership in the district heating sector, since these institutional structures are the...
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EnergyPLAN is an energy system analysis tool created for the study and research in the design of future sustainable energy solutions with a special focus on energy systems with high shares of renewable energy sources. The tool has been under development since 1999 and has formed the basis for a substantial number of PhD theses and several hundreds...
Article
To deal with the high penetration of renewable energy, modern energy systems strive to introduce flexible resources to provide more flexible and higher quality services. This paper focuses on the coordination of flexible resources across different energy carriers under the market environment to accommodate different levels of wind power. The integr...
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The goal of this work is to identify the influence which utilization of district heating systems coupled with the power-to-heat technologies based on the flexible operation of coal-based thermal power plants and limited electricity system interconnections can have on the maximum integration of variable renewables. An hourly deterministic tool Energ...
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District heating is a well-established system for providing energy efficient space and domestic hot water heating in dwellings in particularly in temperate and cold climate zones. Research has shown that going from the current 3rd generation district heating (3GDH) systems towards 4th generation district heating (4GDH) systems can facilitate a bett...
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Promoting cleaner heating is one of the key pathways towards future energy transition. One promising solution is to implement large-scale heat pumps into the existing heat supply system. This paper aims to investigate whether the integration of large-scale heat pumps can be the first feasible step for cities towards clean heating transition. As opp...
Article
This short paper gives some perspectives on the recent development in the concept of Smart Energy Systems while introducing the contents of selected papers from the 5th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems, 4th Generation District Heating, Electrification, Electrofuels and Energy Efficiency – SESAAU2019. All of the papers elaborate on o...
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Europe's capacity to explore the envisaged pathways that achieve its near-and long-term energy and climate objectives needs to be significantly enhanced. In this perspective, we discuss how this capacity is supported by energy and climate-economy models, and how international modelling teams are organ-ised within structured communication channels a...
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The transition towards renewable energy will operate on different geographical scales. Many of the concrete steps will address the local level; however, these have to align with the broader energy perspective. It is therefore necessary to develop methods that enable cities to assess the compatibility of the local renewable energy strategy to the su...
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As the rapid development of wind energy and electricity markets, wind farms (WFs) in mounting numbers join the electricity markets such as spot and regulating markets, etc. The large-scale integration of WFs into the power system may threaten the safe and stable operation of power systems due to the inherent fluctuation nature of wind power, and as...
Article
In many countries around the world district heating can play an important role in decarbonisation since it provides an efficient way of displacing fossil fuels and integrating renewable energy. Simultaneously, in some countries heating is based on the burning of biomass in individual stoves, which can be considered renewable but results in both ine...
Article
EnergyPLAN is an energy system analysis tool used worldwide for scientific analyses of national and regional energy planning strategies and alternatives. This work describes the MATLAB Toolbox for EnergyPLAN (MaT4EnergyPLAN), a set of functions developed to manage the EnergyPLAN software using MATLAB. The tool allows the user to take advantage of t...
Article
With increasing penetration of renewable energy, multi-energy systems constitute an effective mechanism to optimize energy distribution and improve social welfare. However, a centralized operation of the multi-energy system might not be appropriate under the existing energy markets. Therefore, this paper proposes an equilibrium model for improving...
Article
Sustainable urban energy planning depends on how renewable and local sources are integrated, how smart systems are implemented, and how synergies between regional and national policies are maximized. This study presents a methodology for the design of 100% renewable energy systems aiming to optimize the use of biomass and energy exchange with the n...
Article
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems are promising for the application of a standalone hybrid system. This study adopts a scenario-based bi-level programming method to design a standalone hybrid system that mainly contains wind turbines, diesel generators (DGs), and a CAES system. The demand response is considered as a deferrable load. The...
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This paper addresses economic aspects of heat savings in the context of strategic heat planning. The analysis uses the city of Aalborg, Denmark, as a case where municipalisation through a recent acquisition of a coal-fired cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) plant has made an update of a municipal strategic energy plan necessary. Combining dataset...
Article
This paper introduces the concept of Smart Energy Markets. Sustainable smart energy systems based on renewable energy cannot be implemented without addressing the issue of how to re-design existing electricity and gas markets. Moreover, markets for heating and transport fuels will also be challenged. In recent years, the re-design of the electricit...
Article
This short paper introduces the contents of selected papers from the 4th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating – SES4DH. All of the papers elaborate on or contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainabl...
Article
For a remote area or an isolated island, where the grid has not extended, a standalone hybrid energy system can provide cheap and adequate power for local users. However, with the development of society, the load demand will increase and the original system cannot completely meet the load demand. This situation occurs in Xiaojin, Sichuan, China. Th...
Article
The environmental impact of the energy sector and the security and economics of energy supply and utilisation have been raising increasing concerns, stimulating the search for innovative solutions for a sustainable use of resources. This article provides an overview of published research in this area, with a focus on papers contributed in special i...
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Energy systems in cities need to be decarbonized and are becoming more integrated via energy sector coupling. Today, cities often use simple methods to assess their low carbon targets, e.g., carbon calculators, and these methods use annualized carbon reduction potentials. For example, reductions from heat savings in buildings or fuel demand in tran...
Article
Integration of different energy infrastructures (heat, electricity and gas vectors) offers great potential for better managing energy sources, reducing consumption and waste as well as enabling a higher share of renewables, lower environmental impact and lower costs. This paper aims at reviewing the state-of-the-art energy system infrastructures in...
Article
Studies show that energy efficiency should play a significant role towards achieving cost-efficient 100% renewable energy systems. One way to attain cleaner heating solutions for the future is to utilise waste heat from power plants and industry through district heating. In the European Union, approximately 50% of thermal energy is lost in conversi...
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This article shows that research in the design of 100% renewable energy systems in scientific articles is fairly new but has gained increasing attention in recent years. In total, 180 articles published since 2004 have been identified and analysed. Many of these articles have a predominant focus on the electricity sector. However, an increasing num...
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Variable renewable electricity sources have been shown to reduce wholesale electricity market prices. This is expected to reduce the incentive for investments in new electricity production capacity, and might even make these investments infeasible, if relying only on the income from trade on the current electricity market paradigms. In this paper,...
Article
Smart energy systems are a concept to support the design of coherent and sustainable energy supply strategies. A smart energy system is a combination of the currently isolated energy sectors, such as electricity, heating and transport, and it includes three smart energy grid infrastructures, namely the electricity, thermal and gas grids. These grid...
Article
This paper presents a new method, based on the Smart Energy Systems concept. The aim is to increase the share of renewable energy penetration on islands. The method is applied to the island of Gran Canaria (Spain), considering the entire energy system of the island. Several smart renewable energy strategies are proposed following a cross-sectoral a...
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Local ownership models have proven to be an important way to avoid local resistance to onshore wind turbines. As wind power expands into onshore and nearshore wind farms, such ownership models become of increasing importance, while also undergoing further development. This paper uses the Choice Awareness theory to examine some of the barriers conne...
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A recent article ‘Burden of proof: A comprehensive review of the feasibility of 100% renewable-electricity systems’ claims that many studies of 100% renewable electricity systems do not demonstrate sufficient technical feasibility, according to the criteria of the article's authors (henceforth ‘the authors’). Here we analyse the authors’ methodolog...
Article
This paper provides a perspective on the development of future district heating systems and technologies and their role in future smart energy systems. The reviewed papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding of how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable en...
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This review article presents a description of contemporary developments and findings related to the different elements needed in future 4th generation district heating systems (4GDH). Unlike the first three generations of district heating, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as the integ...
Article
This editorial introduces the content of selected papers from the 2nd International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable...
Article
World market fuel prices vary and have historically been very difficult to predict. Especially the price of oil has shown remarkable and unexpected increases and decreases throughout the past 5 decades. The same kind of uncertainty can be seen in many of the new cross-border markets for the trade of electricity, which have been introduced in recent...
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This paper compares different strategies to transform the heating sector into a future 100% renewable energy solution. It focuses on the consequences for infrastructures in terms of grids and storage across the electricity, gas and heating sectors. The hypothesis is that these consequences are rarely taken into proper consideration, even though the...
Chapter
In 2006, a number of Danish energy experts proposed that Denmark should convert the supply of a specific town to 100% renewable energy by 2015. The experts suggested Frederikshavn in the northern part of Denmark for the following reasons. The town area of 25,000 inhabitants is well defined, the local support is high, and Frederikshavn already has a...
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In recent years, several tools and models have been developed and used for the design and analysis of future national energy systems. Many of these models focus on the integration of various renewable energy resources and the transformation of existing fossil-based energy systems into future sustainable energy systems. The models are diverse and of...
Article
In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, bui...
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The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that such developments can begin now with technologies curren...
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In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy, the energy system has to be more fl...
Article
In the transition to renewable energy systems, national plans are being created for several countries around the world. Concurrently, regions, municipalities and cities are planning for CO2 neutral and renewable energy systems. Both developments are necessary, which raises the question whether these two types of energy planning are coordinated. How...
Article
Energy systems are becoming increasing increasingly complex, integrating across traditionally separate sectors such as transportation, heating, cooling and electricity. Integration through the use of district heating is the main topic of this editorial introducing volume 10 of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management....
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It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the...
Article
Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Elect...
Article
This editorial gives an introduction to the important relationship between Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating and presents a number of selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the topic. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical scientific understanding on how we can design and i...
Article
This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact is presented in terms of energy (primary energy su...
Article
Recent studies show that a high share of district heating is an important part of a future sustainable energy system or smart energy system with a high renewable energy penetration. These studies also show socio-economic benefits of expanding the district heating coverage. However, in order to implement such an expansion, district heating needs to...
Article
The cost of heat savings in buildings increase as more heat savings are achieved and hence, alternatives other than savings typically become more economically feasible at a certain level of heat reductions. The challenge addressed in this paper is to identify when the cost of heat savings become more expensive than the cost of sustainable heat supp...
Article
In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point to various optimal levels of savings in the different sec...
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Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through an increase in the share of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work, the performance of a hybrid district energy sy...
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Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145 m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind and solar potential but practically no utilization wit...