Henri Weimerskirch

Henri Weimerskirch
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé (CNRS & La Rochelle Université)

PhD

About

583
Publications
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33,175
Citations

Publications

Publications (583)
Preprint
Body-mounted accelerometers provide a new prospect for estimating power use in flying birds, as the signal varies with the two major kinematic determinants of aerodynamic power: wingbeat frequency and amplitude. Yet wingbeat frequency is sometimes used as a proxy for power output in isolation. There is therefore a need to understand which kinematic...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the ecological mechanisms underpinning distribution patterns is vital in managing populations of mobile marine species. This study is a first step towards an integrated description of the habitats and spatial distributions of marine predators in the Natural Park of the Coral Sea, one of the world’s largest marine-protected areas at ab...
Preprint
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Flying seabirds are adapted for windy environments 1,2 . Despite this, storms can cause widespread strandings and wrecks, demonstrating that these seabirds are not always able to avoid or compensate for extreme conditions 3,4,5,6,7 . The maximum wind speeds that birds can operate in should vary with morphology and flight style ⁸ , but this has been...
Article
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Many animals form long‐term monogamous pair‐bonds, and the disruption of a pair‐bond (through either divorce or widowhood) can have significant consequences for individual vital rates (survival, breeding, and breeding success probabilities) and life‐history outcomes (lifetime reproductive success, life expectancy). Here, we investigated the causes...
Article
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Albatrosses are amongst the most globally-threatened species and fisheries bycatch is one of the major conservation issues worldwide. Among the albatrosses the Amsterdam albatross is listed as one of the most endangered species. Within the current National Plan of Actions framework, the present study outlines the first results of a multi-year surve...
Article
The largest extinct volant birds (Pelagornis sandersi and Argentavis magnificens) and pterosaurs (Pteranodon and Quetzalcoatlus) are thought to have used wind-dependent soaring flight, similar to modern large birds. There are two types of soaring: thermal soaring, used by condors and frigatebirds, which involves the use of updrafts to ascend and th...
Article
Full-text available
Interspecific introgression can occur between species that evolve rapidly within an adaptive radiation. Pachyptila petrels differ in bill size and are characterised by incomplete reproductive isolation, leading to interspecific gene flow. Salvin’s prion ( Pachyptila salvini ), whose bill width is intermediate between broad-billed ( P. vittata ) and...
Article
Breeding failure is expected to induce behavioural changes in central place foragers. Indeed, after a failed reproductive attempt, breeding individuals are relieved from having to return to their breeding site for reproductive duties and thus are less constrained than successful breeders in their movements during the remainder of the breeding seaso...
Article
Various environmental oceanic factors, such as ocean waves, affect seabird ecology; ocean waves are important, as most flying seabirds must land on ocean surfaces for foraging. However, the global ocean wave observation network is spatiotemporally poor compared to other parameters; fine-scale information on wave conditions is limited, and the influ...
Article
Full-text available
Every year, billions of birds undertake extensive migrations between breeding and non-breeding areas, facing challenges that require behavioural adjustments, particularly to flight timing and duration. Such adjustments in daily activity patterns and the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental conditions, moonlight) have received much mo...
Preprint
The transition to independent foraging represents an important developmental stage in the life cycle of most vertebrate animals. Juveniles differ from adults in various life history traits and tend to survive less well than adults in most long-lived animals. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain higher mortality including that of inadequ...
Article
Managing marine systems is challenging, as many marine species are highly mobile. Albatross exemplify this paradigm, overlapping multiple threats at sea, including bycatch. The typical characterization of bycatch, the number of individuals, ignores the long-term, population-wide repercussions of bycatch. Including an estimate of the reproductive va...
Article
Ocean circulation connects geographically distinct ecosystems across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales via exchanges of physical and biogeochemical properties. Remote oceanographic processes can be especially important for ecosystems in the Southern Ocean, where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transports properties across ocean ba...
Article
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Feral cats (Felis catus) are a potential threat for several seabird species including medium sized albatrosses, but studies documenting predation behavior, demographic impacts and effects of predator control are scarce. Here, we present data on feral cat predation behavior on one of the world’s largest seabirds, the wandering albatross (Diomedea ex...
Article
Full-text available
The study demonstrates the versatility of integration of inertial navigation and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) with its unique application to seabird biologging. Integrated navigation was originally developed in the field of aerospace engineering, which requires accurate and reliable position, velocity, and attitude information for the...
Article
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The period of emancipation, when juvenile seabirds change from a terrestrial existence to a life at sea, is associated with many challenges. Apart from finding favourable foraging sites, they have to develop effective prey search patterns and physiological capacities that enable them to capture sufficient prey to meet their energetic needs. Animals...
Article
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The ability of individuals and populations to adapt to a changing climate is a key determinant of population dynamics. While changes in mean behaviour are well studied, changes in trait variance have been largely ignored, despite being assumed to be crucial for adapting to a changing environment. As the ability to acquire resources is essential to...
Article
Full-text available
Background The internal environment of eggs in most birds is regulated by transferring heat energy through contact incubation, maintaining nest microclimate, and frequent egg turning by the incubating parent on its nest. However, we lack information about egg attendance patterns in birds that breed in polar environments where variations in life his...
Article
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Increasing human activities have detrimental consequences on marine ecosystems and their impact can have cumulative effects. Within marine ecosystems, seabirds respond to ecosystem variability and face multiple human pressures, especially threatened species. In long-lived species, juveniles and immatures could represent up to 50% of the total popul...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Seabirds are amongst the most threatened birds in the world (Dias et al. 2019). Albatrosses and petrels are particularly vulnerable as they are long-lived, have a delayed sexual maturity, and low annual reproductive output. They have a wide at-sea distribution, occurring across all oceans and adjacent coastlines and islands. These extensive ranges...
Article
Full-text available
Migratory marine species cross political borders and enter the high seas, where the lack of an effective global management framework for biodiversity leaves them vulnerable to threats. Here, we combine 10,108 tracks from 5775 individual birds at 87 sites with data on breeding population sizes to estimate the relative year-round importance of nation...
Article
Full-text available
Foraging distribution of flying seabirds is constrained by environmental factors influencing individual decision-making. This must be particularly true during the breeding period, when individuals face additional limitations imposed by their central-place foraging behaviour. We used GPS data loggers and Argos PTTs to track the foraging flights of B...
Article
Delord et al. Factors affecting adult body condition in the endangered northern rockhopper penguin. Mar Biol 168, 27 (2021) - Supplementary
Article
Full-text available
The first year of life is a period of high mortality in animals. Reduced foraging capacities of naive individuals might be the primary cause of their mortality. These capacities are supposed to be progressively acquired during the first months of life. In this study, we investigate the ontogeny of flight capacities, by day and night, of first‐year...
Article
Albatrosses attend fishing boats to feed on fishing discards but are often at risk of accidental bycatch. To examine whether populations (same species) and sexes differ in their overlap with fisheries due to differences in habitat use, we combined the use of recently developed loggers equipped with GPS and boat radar detectors with Automatic-Identi...
Article
Full-text available
Many seabirds are attracted to fishing boats where they exploit foraging opportunities , often involving bycatch-related mortality. Bycatch risk is generally estimated by overlapping seabirds foraging ranges with coarse-scale monthly maps of fishing efforts, but a more direct estimation would be the time birds actually spend attending fishing boats...
Preprint
The largest extinct volant birds ( Pelagornis sandersi and Argentavis magnificens ) and pterosaurs ( Pteranodon and Quetzalcoatlus ) are thought to have used wind-dependent soaring flight, similar to modern large birds. There are two types of soaring: thermal soaring, used by condors and frigatebirds, which involves the use of updrafts over the lan...
Article
Full-text available
Compensating for wind drift can improve goalward flight efficiency in animal taxa, especially among those that rely on thermal soaring to travel large distances. Little is known, however, about how animals acquire this ability. The great frigatebird (Fregata minor) exemplifies the challenges of wind drift compensation because it lives a highly pela...
Article
Full-text available
Two species breeding in sympatry are more likely to coexist if their ecological niches are segregated either in time, space or in trophic habits. Here, we combined GPS-tracking, stable isotope analysis and DNA metabarcoding analysis to understand how the rare Tahiti petrel Pseudobulweria rostrata (TP) copes with the very abundant (i.e. 500,000 bree...
Data
Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short-lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, i...
Article
Full-text available
Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short‐lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, i...
Article
Human activities generate food attracting many animals worldwide, causing major conservation issues. The spatio-temporal predictability of anthropogenic resources could reduce search costs for animals and mediate their attractiveness. We investigated this through GPS tracking in breeding black-browed albatrosses attracted to fishing boats. We teste...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2017, on Possession Island (part of the Crozet Archipelago in the southern Indian Ocean), we observed two breeding white‐chinned petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis ) with very high levels of tick (Ixodes kerguelenensis ) infestation on both eyes. This degree of infestation was likely responsible for the birds’ death. Although this rare...
Article
The reduced species richness typical of oceanic islands provides an interesting environmental setup to examine in natura the epidemiological dynamics of infectious agents with potential implications for public health and/or conservation. On Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean), recurrent die-offs of Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) n...
Article
Full-text available
Individual heterogeneity in diet and foraging behaviour is common in wild animal populations, and can be a strong determinant of how populations respond to environmental changes. Within populations, variation in foraging behaviour and the occurrence of individual tactics in relation to resources distribution can help explain differences in individu...
Article
Full-text available
Penguins are important top consumers in marine food webs and are one of the most threatened bird families, especially by climate change and food web alterations by marine fisheries. Yet, long-term population trends are lacking or are uncertain for many populations. Seven species of penguins breeding at the French Southern Territories in the souther...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic climate change is altering the geographical distribution and regular movements of species. Highly‐mobile pelagic seabirds, such as albatrosses, are particularly threatened by human activities, such as fisheries bycatch. Predicting the impact of climate change on how these animals roam the ocean is an important step towards making info...
Article
Full-text available
In a highly dynamic airspace, flying animals are predicted to adjust foraging behaviour to variable wind conditions to minimize movement costs. Sexual size dimorphism is widespread in wild animal populations, and for large soaring birds which rely on favourable winds for energy‐efficient flight, differences in morphology, wing loading and associate...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The timing of events in the early part of the breeding season is crucially important for successful reproduction. Long-lived animals that migrate large distances independently of each other meet at the breeding sites to re-establish their pair bonds and coordinate their breeding duties with their partners. Methods: Using miniature li...
Article
Full-text available
A widespread hypothesis for the ontogeny of behavior and decision-making is the early-exploration-later-canalization hypothesis. It postulates that juveniles are more exploratory and adults more consistent in their behavior. In addition, it is often assumed that naïve juveniles could overcome the costs of individual experience building by copying m...
Article
Full-text available
Southern Ocean ecosystems are under pressure from resource exploitation and climate change1,2. Mitigation requires the identification and protection of Areas of Ecological Significance (AESs), which have so far not been determined at the ocean-basin scale. Here, using assemblage-level tracking of marine predators, we identify AESs for this globally...
Article
Full-text available
The Retrospective Analysis of Antarctic Tracking Data (RAATD) is a Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research project led jointly by the Expert Groups on Birds and Marine Mammals and Antarctic Biodiversity Informatics, and endorsed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. RAATD consolidated tracking data for mul...
Article
The Retrospective Analysis of Antarctic Tracking Data (RAATD) is a Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research project led jointly by the Expert Groups on Birds and Marine Mammals and Antarctic Biodiversity Informatics, and endorsed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. RAATD consolidated tracking data for mul...
Article
Full-text available
With threats to nature becoming increasingly prominent, in order for biodiversity levels to persist, there is a critical need to improve implementation of conservation measures. In the oceans, the surveillance of fisheries is complex and inadequate, such that quantifying and locating nondeclared and illegal fisheries is persistently problematic. Gi...
Article
Lunar phase and illumination are known to affect nocturnal behavior of many organisms, particularly through predator-prey interactions. Visual predators can benefit from higher light levels to increase their activity, while prey may decrease their activity to avoid predation. The lower number of nocturnal seabirds observed on colonies during full m...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of geographic areas where the densities of animals are highest across their annual cycles is a crucial step in conservation planning. In marine environments, however, it can be particularly difficult to map the distribution of species, and the methods used are usually biased towards adults, neglecting the distribution of other li...
Article
Full-text available
Life-history theory predicts that, to optimize their fitness, individuals should increase their reproductive effort as their residual reproductive value decreases. Accordingly, several studies have shown that individuals downregulate their glucocorticoid stress response (a proxy of reproductive investment in vertebrates) as they age, and as the sub...
Article
Full-text available
1) The early‐life of animals is a period of high mortality, when foraging capacities are assumed to be improved progressively. In birds, this critical period involves the improvement of the flight. How do young birds gain these capacities has rarely been studied in natural conditions especially in seabirds that spend most of their life at sea. 2) W...
Article
Full-text available
The wedge-tailed shearwater (WTS) population of New Caledonia is one of the largest in the world, yet its biology and foraging ecology are poorly known. We studied WTS from 4 colonies in New Caledonia. We examined foraging behaviour and habitats using GPS receivers and light sensors during and outside the breeding season, respectively, and compared...
Article
Oceanic islands with reduced species richness provide an opportunity to investigate the emergence, maintenance and transmission of infectious diseases threatening wildlife. On Amsterdam Island, in the southern Indian Ocean, massive and recurrent mortality of the nestlings of Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) has been attributed t...
Data
1) The early-life of animals is a period of high mortality, when foraging capacities are assumed to be improved progressively. In birds, this critical period involves the improvement of the flight. How do young birds gain these capacities has rarely been studied in natural conditions especially in seabirds that spend most of their life at sea. 2)...
Article
Full-text available
• High juvenile mortality rates are typical of many long‐lived marine vertebrate predators. Insufficient development in dive and forage ability is considered a key driver of this. However, direct links to survival outcome are sparse, particularly in free‐ranging marine animals that may not return to land. • In this study, we conduct exploratory inv...
Data
The file contains tracking data of albatrosses from Crozet, Kerguelen, Amsterdam and Marion Islands, including identity, location, presence of vessels and detection of radar emission. The data are used in various papers. For additional information contact henri.weimerskirch@cebc.cnrs.fr or corbeau.alexandre@gmail.com
Article
The Paris Agreement is a multinational initiative to combat climate change by keeping a global temperature increase in this century to 2°C above preindustrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C. Until recently, ensembles of coupled climate simulations producing temporal dynamics of climate en route to stable global mean te...
Article
Full-text available
1. The spatial structure of host communities is expected to constrain pathogen spread. However, predators and/or scavengers may connect distant host (sub)populations when foraging. Determining whether some individuals or populations play a prominent role in the spread of pathogens is critical to inform management measures. 2. We explored movements...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The early life of marine apex predators is poorly known, particularly for diving species. The orientation and foraging skills are presumably less developed in juveniles than in adults, especially during their first year at sea when juveniles might disperse further than adults. Methods: Over two years of monitoring, we tracked the mov...
Article
Full-text available
Like all birds, penguins undergo periodic molt, during which they replace old feathers. However, unlike other birds, penguins replace their entire plumage within a short period while fasting ashore. During molt, king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) lose half of their initial body mass, most importantly their insulating subcutaneous fat and half...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals differ in many ways. Most produce few offspring; a handful produce many. Some die early; others live to old age. It is tempting to attribute these differences in outcomes to differences in individual traits, and thus in the demographic rates experienced. However, there is more to individual variation than meets the eye of the biologist....
Article
Full-text available
The distributions of migratory species in the ocean span local, national and international jurisdictions. Across these ecologically interconnected regions, migratory marine species interact with anthropogenic stressors throughout their lives. Migratory connectivity, the geographical linking of individuals and populations throughout their migratory...