Henning Wackerhage

Henning Wackerhage
Technische Universität München | TUM · Faculty of Sport and Health Science

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133
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Publications (133)
Article
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Today, researchers, practitioners, and physicians measure the concentration of lactate during a graded exercise test to determine thresholds related to the maximal lactate steady state (maxLass) as a sensitive measure of endurance capacity. In the 1970s and 1980s, a group of Cologne-based researchers around Wildor Hollmann, Alois Mader, and Hermann...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine alterations of the metabolome in blood plasma in response to concentric-eccentric leg exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 3,500 m. To do so, we recruited 11 well-trained subjects and performed an untargeted metabolomics analysis of plasma samples obtained before, 20 min after as well as on day 8 afte...
Article
Many airborne pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are transmitted indoors via aerosol particles. During exercise, pulmonary ventilation can increase over 10-fold, and therefore, exercisers will exhale a greater volume of aerosol-containing air. However, we currently do not know how exercise affects the con...
Article
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Significance Airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or other pathogens is probably increased during indoor exercise, but data on the emission of aerosol particles by an exercising individual are lacking. Here, we report that aerosol particle emission increases on average 132-fold from 580 ± 489 particl...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance training promotes metabolic health and stimulates muscle hypertrophy, but the precise routes by which resistance exercise (RE) conveys these health benefits are largely unknown. Aim: To investigate how acute RE affects human skeletal muscle metabolism. Methods: We collected vastus lateralis biopsies from six healthy male untrained vo...
Article
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In 1924, Otto Warburg asked “How does the metabolism of a growing tissue differ from that of a non-growing tissue?” Currently, we know that proliferating healthy and cancer cells reprogramme their metabolism. This typically includes increased glucose uptake, glycolytic flux and lactate synthesis. A key function of this reprogramming is to channel g...
Preprint
Background : Adult muscle fibres are classified as type 1, 2A, 2X, and 2B muscle fibres based on the expression of the dominant myosin heavy chain isoform. Muscle fibre-specific gene expression and muscle fibre types change during development and in response to changes in contractile activity such as exercise, chronic electrical stimulation versus...
Article
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The Hippo signal transduction network regulates transcription through Yap/Taz-Tead1-4 in many tissues including skeletal muscle. Whilst transgenic mice have been generated for many Hippo genes, the resultant skeletal muscle phenotypes were not always characterized. Here, we aimed to phenotype the hindlimb muscles of Hippo gene-mutated Lats1−/−, Mst...
Poster
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Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative sampling method to blood plasma sampling. In contrast to blood plasma sampling, DBS are low-volume capillary blood samples obtained via pricking and collection on paper cards. DBS require less space and no cooling which is advantageous for exercise tests in the field. The aim of this project was to compare...
Article
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Injuries, high altitude, and endurance exercise lead to hypoxic conditions in skeletal muscle and sometimes to hypoxia‑induced local tissue damage. Thus, regenerative myoblasts/satellite cells are exposed to different levels and durations of partial oxygen pressure depending on the spatial distance from the blood vessels. To date, it is unclear how...
Article
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Low- and moderate-intensity exercise is safe and feasible during childhood cancer treatment. The feasibility of a bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in this population has not been analyzed to date. Pediatric cancer patients aged between 6 and 18 years were selected based on clinical conditions to perform ten sets of 15 s HIIT (>90% of...
Article
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Background Face masks are an effective, non-pharmacological strategy to reduce the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 and other pathogens. However, it is a challenge to keep masks sealed during exercise, as ventilation can increase from 5 to 10 L/min at rest to up to 200 L/min so that masks may be blown away from the fa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resistance training promotes metabolic health and stimulates muscle hypertrophy, but the precise routes by which resistance exercise (RE) conveys these health benefits is largely unknown. Aim: To investigate how acute RE affects human skeletal muscle metabolism. Methods: We collected vastus lateralis biopsies from six healthy male untrained volunte...
Article
Exercise, psychosocial stress, and drugs such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists increase the concentrations of catecholamines and/or alter adrenergic signaling. Intriguingly, exercise studies universally suggest that catecholamines are cancer-inhibiting whereas cancer stress studies typically report the opposite, whereas β-blocker studies show...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise improves the insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Due to that, exercise has become a cornerstone treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The mechanisms by which exercise improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity are, however, incompletely understood. We conducted a systematic review to identify all genes whos...
Article
Full-text available
A training plan, or an exercise prescription, is the point where we translate sport and exercise science into practice. As in medicine, good practice requires writing a training plan or prescribing an exercise programme based on the best current scientific evidence. A key issue, however, is that a training plan or exercise prescription is typically...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Face masks are an effective, non-pharmacological strategy to reduce the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other pathogens. However, it is a challenge to keep masks sealed during exercise, as ventilation can increase from 5-10 L/min at rest to up to 200 L/min so that masks may be blown away...
Article
Full-text available
In skeletal muscle tissue, oxygen (O 2 ) plays a pivotal role in both metabolism and the regulation of several intercellular pathways, which can modify proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells within the myogenic lineage. The concentration of oxygen in muscle tissue is reduced during embryogenesis and pathological conditions. Myogenic p...
Article
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Human metabolism is highly variable. At one end of the spectrum, defects of enzymes, transporters, and metabolic regulation result in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or inborn errors of metabolism. At the other end of the spectrum, favorable genetics and years of training combine to result in physiologically extreme forms of metabolism...
Article
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Vitamin B 12 deficiency has been shown to affect bone mass in rodents and negatively impact bone formation in humans. In this study using mouse models we define the effect of B 12 supplementation in the wild-type mother and B 12 deficiency in a mouse genetic model (Gif-/- mice) during gestation on the bone and muscle architecture, and mechanical pr...
Preprint
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Muscle fiber size and oxidative metabolism are inversely related, suggesting that a glycolytic metabolism may offer a growth advantage in muscle fibers. However, the mechanisms underlying this advantage remains unknown. Nearly 100 years ago, Warburg reported that cancer cells take up more glucose to produce glycolytic intermediates for anabolic rea...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 100 years ago, Otto Warburg investigated the metabolism of growing tissues and discovered that tumors reprogram their metabolism. It is poorly understood whether and how hypertrophying muscle, another growing tissue, reprograms its metabolism too. Here, we studied pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM), which can be spliced into two isoforms (PKM1, PK...
Article
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› No health emergency in living memory has ever had greater repercussions for our health, economy and the way we live than the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, commonly referred to as the “coronavirus”. › COVID-19 has many links to sport and exercise: sports events such as the champions league quarter final between Atalanta Bergamo and FC Va...
Article
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Exercise is recommended for the healthy population as it increases fitness and prevents diseases. Moreover, exercise is also applied as an adjunct therapy for patients with various chronic diseases including cancer. Childhood cancer is a rare, heterogeneous disease that differs from adult cancer. Improved therapeutic strategies have increased child...
Article
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Background: Exercise changes the concentrations of many metabolites, which are small molecules (< 1.5 kDa) metabolized by the reactions of human metabolism. In recent years, especially mass spectrometry-based metabolomics methods have allowed researchers to measure up to hundreds of metabolites in a single sample in a non-biased fashion. To summar...
Article
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VGLL proteins are transcriptional co-factors that bind TEAD family transcription factors to regulate events ranging from wing development in fly, to muscle fibre composition and immune function in mice. Here, we characterise Vgll3 in skeletal muscle. We found that mouse Vgll3 was expressed at low levels in healthy muscle but that its levels increas...
Article
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Endurance is not only a key factor in many sports but endurance-related variables are also associated with good health and low mortality. Twin and family studies suggest that several endurance-associated traits are ≈50% inherited. However, we still poorly understand what DNA sequence variants contribute to endurance heritability. To address this is...
Article
Full-text available
Endurance is not only a key factor in many sports but endurance-related variables are also associated with good health and low mortality. Twin and family studies suggest that several endurance-associated traits are ≈50% inherited. However, we still poorly understand what DNA sequence variants contribute to endurance heritability. To address this is...
Article
Full-text available
Persistent hyperactivity of the Hippo effector YAP in activated satellite cells is sufficient to cause embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) in mice. In humans, YAP is abundant and nuclear in the majority of ERMS cases, and high YAP expression is associated with poor survival. However, YAP1 is rarely mutated in human ERMS. Instead, the most common muta...
Article
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One of the most striking adaptations to exercise is the skeletal muscle hypertrophy that occurs in response to resistance exercise. A large body of work shows that a mTORC1-mediated increase of muscle protein synthesis is the key, but not sole, mechanism by which resistance exercise causes muscle hypertrophy. Whilst much of the hypertrophy signalin...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle mass differs greatly in mice and humans and this is partially inherited. To identify muscle hypertrophy candidate genes we conducted a systematic review to identify genes whose experimental loss or gain-of-function results in significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. We found 47 genes that meet our search criteria and cause m...
Article
Full-text available
Polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin gene cause Huntington's disease (HD). Huntingtin is ubiquitously expressed, leading to pathological alterations also in peripheral organs. Variations in the length of the polyglutamine tract explain up to 70% of the age-at-onset variance, with the rest of the variance attributed to genetic and environmenta...
Chapter
Während in Kap. 1 die genetischen Grundlagen und in Kap. 2 die generellen Mechanismen der Genexpression vermittelt wurden, widmen wir uns hier ganz allgemein der Frage, wie ein Signal von außen in das Zellinnere weitergeleitet wird. Die Zielzelle reagiert auf diese Signale mit einer Anpassung. In dieser Signalübertragung ist die Bindung der Signalm...
Chapter
Der Muskel ist neben dem Gehirn das wichtigste Sportorgan. Die Motorzentren im Gehirn und Rückenmark innervieren über Motoneurone die Muskelfasern, um die 640 Muskeln im menschlichen Körper zu aktivieren. Es wird geschätzt, dass es im Rückenmark ≈120.000 Motoneuronen gibt, die ≈100 Millionen Muskelfasern innervieren. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt den L...
Chapter
Transkription (das Ablesen bestimmter Gene von der DNA) und Translation (Übersetzen des Transkriptionsproduktes in ein Protein) werden unter dem Begriff Genexpression zusammengefasst Da bestimmte Proteine jeweils zum richtigen Zeitpunkt in den richtigen Zellen gebildet werden müssen, ist die Regulierung der Genexpression von essentieller Bedeutung...
Chapter
Ziel des Krafttrainings ist es, Muskelmasse und Kraft zu steigern. Um dies zu erreichen, führen Sportler ein progressives Krafttraining durch, um mit hohen Widerständen die Innervation der trainierten Muskeln, die Muskelmasse und die Kraft per Muskelquerschnitt zu erhöhen. Die Trainierbarkeit der Kraft und die absolute Kraft hängen zudem von dem Ta...
Book
Molekulare und zelluläre Vorgänge bei Bewegungs- oder Trainingsreizen Dieses Werk vermittelt Grundlagenwissen in Genetik, Molekular- und Zellbiologie, stellt molekulare Mechanismen in leistungsphysiologischen Systemen dar und verbindet sportmedizinische mit -wissenschaftlichen Aspekten der körperlichen Leistungsfähigkeit. Der Brückenschlag zwischen...
Article
BACKGROUND: We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provid...
Article
Full-text available
Background We previously measured the rate of regaining muscle strength during rehabilitation of lower leg muscles in patients following lower leg casting. Our primary aim in this study was to measure the rate of gain of strength in healthy individuals undergoing a similar training regime. Our secondary aim was to test the ability of MRI to provide...
Article
Full-text available
Hippo pathway downstream effectors Yap and Taz play key roles in cell proliferation and regeneration, regulating gene expression especially via Tead transcription factors. To investigate their role in skeletal muscle stem cells, we analysed Taz in vivo and ex vivo in comparison to Yap. siRNA knockdown or retroviral-mediated expression of wildtype h...
Article
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The Hippo effector YAP has recently been identified as a potent driver of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). Most reports suggest that the YAP paralogue TAZ (gene symbol WWTR1) functions as a YAP but in skeletal muscle, TAZ has been reported to promote myogenic differentiation, whereas YAP inhibits it. Here, we investigated whether TAZ is also a rh...
Data
Figure S4. Analyses of Myf5 expression in cancer cell lines and of MYF5 in different cohorts. (A) Myf5 expression in cancer cell lines; note the high‐level expression of Myf5 in the RH18 (ERMS) and RH30 (ARMS) cell lines. (B) MYF5 expression in human skeletal (sk.) muscle, ERMS, fusion gene‐negative ARMS (ARMS_Neg) and PAX3/7‐FOXO1‐positive ARMS (A...
Data
Figure S1. Examples of immunohistochemistry. (A) Higher magnification for strong positive TAZ staining with nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. (B) Example images of C2C12 myoblasts transduced with different constructs grown at high confluence and immunostained for the proliferation markers Ki67 and eGFP; scale bars (A, B) = 50 µm
Data
Figure S2. Analyses of levels of WWRT1 and YAP1. (A) WWTR1 expression is higher in ERMS than in PAX3/7‐FOXO1‐positive ARMS and skeletal muscle in both the ITCC/CIT and COG/IRSG datasets; WWTR1 expression increases during myogenic differentiation (FetMyob‐1–3); NB, neuroblastoma; ES, Ewing syndrome; WT, Wilms' tumour; MBL, medulloblastoma; these wer...
Data
Table S1. RT–qPCR primers used in this study Table S2. Name, description and ratio (firefly:Renilla) of the luciferase constructs used in dual‐luciferase reporter assays Table S3. Catalogue number and the target shRNA sequences of scramble control shRNA and TAZ shRNA
Data
Figure S3. Mutations in WWTR1 and YAP1, and survival analyses. (A) WWTR1 and YAP1 mutations in 24293 human tumour samples. (B) The association between WWTR1 and YAP1 expression and poor survival in 18 000 cases of cancer; BIRC5 and KLRB1 are also shown as genes whose expression is most and least associated with poor survival in human cancer, respec...
Article
The ubiquitous transcriptional co-activators Yap (gene symbol Yap1) and Taz (gene symbol Wwtr1) regulate gene expression mainly by co-activating the Tead transcription factors. Yap and Taz lie at the centre of the Hippo signalling network and are not only regulated by the Hippo kinase cassette itself but also by a plethora of exercise-associated si...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc finger motifs are distributed amongst many eukaryotic protein families, directing nucleic acid–protein and protein–protein interactions. Zinc finger protein 106 (ZFP106) has previously been associated with roles in immune response, muscle differentiation, testes development and DNA damage, although little is known about its specific function....
Article
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The control of differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) is crucial for tissue engineering strategies employing MSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the transcriptional co-factor Yes-associated protein (YAP) regulates chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Expression of total YAP, its paralogue transcriptional co...
Article
Purpose: Cancer of the upper digestive tract (uGI) is a major contributor to cancer-related death worldwide. Due to a rise in occurrence, together with poor survival rates and a lack of diagnostic or prognostic clinical assays, there is a clear need to establish molecular biomarkers. Experimental design: Initial assessment was performed on urine...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate muscle rehabilitation following cast immobilization. The aim was to explore MRI as an imaging biomarker of muscle function. Sixteen patients completed an eight-week rehabilitation programme following six weeks of cast immobilization for an ankle fracture. MRI of the lower leg was performed at...