Hely Tuorila

Hely Tuorila
University of Helsinki | HY · Department of Food and Environmental Sciences

Doctor of Science

About

190
Publications
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Publications

Publications (190)
Article
An alternative Food Neophobia Scale (FNS-A) was developed in three studies to measure food neophobia (reluctance to eat and avoidance of trying new foods). In Study 1, the original food neophobia scale, FNS (Pliner, & Hobden, 1992), was first critically examined leading to modifications in five and omission of two statements. Furthermore, eight pos...
Article
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The transition from childhood to adolescence is a sensitive period, triggering changes in health- and weight-related behaviours including eating habits which likely vary between girls and boys. We aimed to characterise the changes in the frequency of consumption of select sugary foods and drinks (‘sweet treats’) among 4237 Finnish girls and boys du...
Article
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Convincing evidence suggests diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well-studied. We, therefore, evaluated children’s consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n=8461; mean age, 11.1 years; SD 0...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Relatively convincing evidence suggests that diets with large amounts of added sugar, especially from sugar-sweetened beverages, are associated with excess weight in children. Less is known about the association of consumption frequency of sugary foods with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated frequency of sugary food consumption in children (n = 8,...
Article
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The demand for sustainable foods and an increased consciousness of health and well-being, as well as other societal changes, create opportunities to develop novel foods. However, consumers are programmed from early childhood to prefer familiar foods. We now know that individual variations in disposition determine responses to novelty. Disgust, alon...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of iodized table salt on the sensory quality of wheat bread, bologna sausage and pickled cucumber was studied. Table salt (NaCl) content of the products was 1.7, 1.2 and 1.7 g/100 g, respectively. Iodine, added as potassium iodide (KI), was incorporated at levels 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg per kg table salt. Odor, flavor, appearance, and textu...
Article
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Background There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Objective Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting fo...
Article
Responses to sweetness are reported in two populations, one segmented by gender and age, and the other one by gender only. The strength of the association between liking for specific sweet foods and liking for an aqueous sucrose solution (20% w/v) is also tested, and health attitudes examined. British adults (n = 1855, age 17-82, mean 55 years, 90%...
Article
Sensory characteristics of 17 apple cultivars commonly grown in Finland were compared over three harvest years (2009–2011). Descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 11–14) comprised 17 attributes rated from 0 (‘not at all’) to 10 (‘very’): four appearance (green, red, area of red colour, skin waxiness), three odour (intense, grassy, fruity),...
Article
Students (n=127) from grades 3, 6, and 8 (8-15-year-old) evaluated 13 school meals with special attention to main dishes. Hedonic ratings (1= really bad, 7 = really good) of 1109 meals, perceived hunger prior to eating, and aspects of the eating context were rated. Attitudes to school meals and food neophobia were measured. Considerable differences...
Article
Amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa are the most consumed Andean grains in Latin America, and possess high nutritional value as gluten-free substitutes for conventional cereals. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of these Andean grains on the sensory and physical properties of corn-based extruded snacks. Extrudates containing increasing con...
Article
The effects of written information of key sensory characteristics of apple cultivars on hedonic ratings and willingness to pay (WTP) were measured in an experimental auction. Participants (n = 118, 95F, 23M, mean age 37 y.) rated, in three subsequent rounds, pleasantness and WTP based on (1) appearance only (n = 25), (2) appearance, written informa...
Article
Acceptance of foods is affected by a multitude of factors, not least information. The objective was to ascertain the effect of description on the acceptance of a novel Emmental-type cheese. Participants (n = 229, 19–63 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics and psychographics and received a cheese sample for home-use. They were allocated...
Article
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A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics...
Article
We examined the views of army catering foods in 19-20-year-old Finnish male conscripts. Four to six weeks before starting their service, the conscripts (n=407) rated the pleasantness of 36 foods in general, and their expectation of pleasantness “when these foods are served in the army”. After two months of service, they rated the experienced pleasa...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated everyday odor experiences in 55 people (14-75 years old) who rated their sense of smell as far better than average. Compared to 55 gender- and age-matched controls, the self-reported hyperosmics scored higher on the Affective Impact of Odor Scale, rated negative consequences and unpleasant memories due to odors as more likely, rated...
Article
During the past decades, sensory evaluation of food quality has evolved and grown into a discipline that covers sensory and consumer research of foods and beverages. The present review deals with those aspects of the development in which I have been personally involved and have considered inspiring and important subject matters in the field. They a...
Chapter
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) provides stimulation for most of our senses: vision, smell, taste, touch, and chemesthesis. Some of its properties ? bitterness, pungency and astringency ? are inherently unpleasant for humans, and appreciating these core qualities of good EVOO requires learning. Mechanisms of learning that possibly lead to greater lik...
Article
Subgroups based on flavor preferences were identified and their genetic and behavior related characteristics investigated using extensive data from 331 Finnish twins (21-25 years, 146 men) including 47 monozygotic (MZ) and 93 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, and 51 twin individuals. The subgroup identification (hierarchical and K-means clustering) was based o...
Article
Storage induced sensory changes of Finnish apples were defined and quantified with descriptive analysis. Twelve cultivars were evaluated at 3-5 storage points during 8-17 weeks (+3 degrees C). The lexicon consisted of 15 attributes: two related to odour (fruity, intensity), five to texture (hard, crispy, mealy, juicy, soggy), five to flavour (sour,...
Article
Hedonic ratings and individual definitions of an ideal apple were used to explain repeated choices during one-week experiment. Participants (77 women, 31 men, mean age 45, range 19–65) rated the importance of six sensory attributes (red, green, sweet, sour, firm, crispy) in apples. Based on ratings, three clusters (CL) were identified: CL1 preferre...
Article
The perceptions of differences in the aroma of high quality Italian red wines were compared in experts and consumers by Projective Mapping. Quality and typicality assessments from experts, and liking ratings from consumers, were collected on the same wine set. The sensory profiles of the wines were described by a panel of trained subjects. The resu...
Article
The study investigated the effects of a pre-processing routine on the sensory and chemical properties of Emmental cheese and the suitability of temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) in analysing dynamic sensory changes during mastication. Cheeses were produced with milk homogenised at various pressures (0, 5 and 10 MPa and a control), incubated at...
Article
Reduced-fat cheese may suffer from flavour and texture problems. The improvement of such aspects using low-pressure homogenisation in a pre-processing routine in cheesemaking was investigated. Reduced- and full-fat Finnish Emmental cheeses were produced with milk homogenised at 10 MPa or without homogenisation (control), incubated and pasteurised....
Article
Although potential environmental influences on hedonic responses to oral pungency have been identified, little is known of the possible role of genetics underlying these responses. We explored the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the pleasantness of oral pungency and spicy foods. Respondents were young adult Finnish twins (n=...
Article
A lexicon and procedure for the descriptive analysis of Finnish apples was developed to be used in research, horticulture and marketing. The lexicon developed by 13 panellists consisted of 20 attributes: four related to appearance (green, red, area of redness, amount of skin wax), five to odour (intensity, grassy, sour, sweet, fruity), six to textu...
Article
Genetic contribution to individual differences in sour taste perception and preference was investigated in a cohort of young adult Finnish twins (n=328, 21-25 years) including 46 complete monozygotic and 92 dizygotic twin pairs and 52 twin individuals without their co-twin. Responses to sour taste were recorded as pleasantness and intensity ratings...
Article
The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food...
Article
The genetics of astringency perception and the contribution of astringency to the pleasantness and use frequency of phenol-rich foods and beverages were studied in a Finnish twin cohort of young adults (aged 22–25 years). A total of 194 participants (96 males, 98 females) comprised of 81 full pairs (24 monozygotic, 57 dizygotic) and 32 twin individ...
Article
The study explores young men's (n=290) attitudes towards food and eating before and during military service and their associations with eating of sweet and fatty foods. Before service eating of sweet foods was associated negatively with health interest and positively with craving for sweet foods and using food as a reward, and eating of fatty foods...
Article
Full-text available
Androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) and other androstenes, body odor components occurring in apocrine secretions, may play a role in human chemosignaling. We hypothesized that the odor of androstenone may gain hedonic value from sexual intercourse experiences via associative learning. Young adults (N = 397, 61.5% women, age 21-24 years, randomly...
Article
Sensory responses greatly vary between individuals, and individual sensory experiences influence eating behaviour. Three groups responding differently to phenolic astringent stimuli (Low Responding, LR, n=20, Medium Responding, MR, n=37 and High Responding, HR, n=20) were identified from a population of 77 subjects, based on the maintenance vs fluc...
Article
Full-text available
Food neophobia has been studied extensively in children, but its causal origins and relationship to eating behavior in adults are not well understood. We studied genetic and environmental effects on variation in food neophobia, measured using the Food Neophobia Scale, and explored associations between food neophobia and personality, pleasantness an...
Article
The effects of salt (0% or 0.5% of NaCl) and umami compounds (0% or 0.3% of monosodium glutamate (MSG)+0.15% of disodium salts of ribonucleotides) on odour and flavour attributes of beef broth model systems (BG) were studied at two serving temperatures (25 and 50°C). Flavoured BG samples were prepared using 1-octen-3-ol (35mgl−1) and 2,6-dimethylpy...
Article
Temporal changes of flavour (mushroom-like and saltiness) and texture (juiciness) in cooked bologna type sausages with different fat and salt content and containing selected volatile compounds (100 mg kg(-1) of 1-octen-3-ol and 200 mg kg(-1) of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine) were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) method. Preceding the TI study, descriptiv...
Article
The effects of sensory education on food-related traits and responses to food were examined over a period of 1.5 years in school children. Children (N = 164, 8- and 11-year-old at baseline) from two schools in Helsinki were divided in an education group (E; N = 92) receiving up to two waves of sensory lessons, and a control group (C; N = 72) partic...
Article
Sorting method, a simple procedure to evaluate sensory differences in cucumbers and tomatoes, requiring minimal training and labour, was applied to cucumbers and tomatoes grown under natural and artificial light in Finland and natural light in Spain, and evaluated after set storage times of up to 22d. Descriptive sensory profiling was also performe...
Article
Full-text available
Six unfamiliar foods were introduced to children (8-11 years old, n=72) who responded (yes/no) to questions as to whether they (1) had earlier seen, (2) had earlier tasted, (3) were willing to try, and (4) actually tried each food when given the opportunity. Pleasantness (if not tasted, expected pleasantness) of the foods was also rated. Children w...
Article
Full-text available
The extent of the change in salivary protein characteristics after repeated stimulations was shown to be correlated to differences in perceived astringency. Salivary characteristics of 77 subjects were compared after masticatory (S1) and taste/masticatory (S2) stimulations. The variations (S2 minus S1) of protein concentration and saliva haze-formi...
Article
Hedonic ratings of lunch items belonging to 20 school meals were collected from 71 children, 4 to 5 years old, over 2 months. During the subsequent lunch, the leftovers of each individual and menu item were recorded. The most preferred dishes were second courses (mainly based on meat or fish) and the least preferred dishes were vegetables. For all...
Article
We studied the effect of sensory education on taste and odor awareness and food ratings in school children. Second and fifth graders (n = 244, 7–11 years at the baseline) from two schools in Helsinki area participated in the study. At the completion of the study at two years, the groups consisted of 96 (education, school one) and 79 (control, schoo...
Article
Sensory food science has evolved from the need for scientifically sound and systematic sensory evaluation of foods. Capitalising on its multidisciplinary nature, it has to accommodate to many research traditions and interests. In the past 15–20 years the field has made substantial progress in developing new methods and approaches and in advancing o...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory quality and pleasantness are important determinants of food choice. Nutritionally controver-sial foods, such as those high in fat or sodium, can be consumed excessively due to their sensory at-tractiveness. The present review addresses sensory and hedonic characteristics in such foods, focus-ing on Finnish research around the issue. Fat mai...
Article
Self-ratings of olfactory function often correlates poorly with results of objective smell tests. We explored these ratings relative to self-rating of odor annoyance, to odor identification ability, and to mean perceived intensity of odors, and estimated relative genetic and environmental contributions to these traits. A total of 1,311 individual t...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have investigated how children use their sense of smell in the varied contexts of their everyday life. In the present study, we used the Children’s Olfactory Behaviors in Everyday Life questionnaire (COBEL) to investigate developmental and inter-individual differences in attention and reactivity to odors. A total of 130 children (half m...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between body weight and energy-dense foods remains unclear. We estimated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on cognitive and emotional aspects of dieting behavior, body mass index (BMI), and responses to fatty foods and on their relations. A total of 1326 adult twin persons (aged 17-82 y; 17% M and 83% F) from the United...
Article
Full-text available
Human genes encoding odorant receptors have been identified, but the contribution of genetic effects to total variation in specific odor perceptions is largely unknown. We estimated the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to variation in the perceived intensity and pleasantness of cinnamon, chocolate, turpentine, and isovale...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated the genetic and environmental components of variation in perceived intensity and pleasantness of androstenone, an odorous compound showing specific anosmia, by modeling twin data from Finland, Denmark, the UK, and Australia. The pooled data comprised 917 twin individuals (338 are male and 579 are female; aged from 10 to 83years) includ...
Article
The contribution of genetic factors to individual differences in food use was estimated in a large population-based twin cohort of young adults (22- to 27-year-old). Male and female twins (n=2009 complete twin pairs) evaluated use-frequencies of 24 food items using 5 categories (1=never-5=several times a day) in a postal questionnaire. Foods were c...
Article
Full-text available
A consumer panel (n = 669) rated ten familiar and unfamiliar (ethnic, nutritionally modified, functional) foods, with food names as stimuli, using 7 categories for pleasantness (“very unpleasant”–“very pleasant”) and liking (”not at all”–“very much”), reported use frequencies (“never”–“2–4 times a day”) and likelihood of buying (“very unlikely”–“ve...
Article
Full-text available
Sweet taste preferences are measured by several often correlated measures. We examined the relative proportions of genetic and environmental effects on sweet taste preference indicators and their mutual correlations. A total of 663 female twins (324 complete pairs, 149 monozygous and 175 dizygous pairs) aged 17-80 y rated the liking and intensity o...
Article
Background: Sweet taste preferences are measured by several often correlated measures. Objective: We examined the relative proportions of genetic and environmental effects on sweet taste preference indicators and their mutual correlations. Design: A total of 663 female twins (324 complete pairs, 149 monozygous and 175 dizygous pairs) aged 17–80 y r...
Article
Food neophobia refers to reluctance to eat unfamiliar foods. We determined the heritability of food neophobia in a family and a twin sample. The family sample consisted of 28 Finnish families (105 females, 50 males, aged 18-78 years, mean age 49 years) and the twin sample of 468 British female twin pairs (211 monozygous and 257 dizygous pairs, aged...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have an innate preference for sweet taste, but the degree of liking for sweet foods varies individually. The proportion of inherited sweet taste preference was studied. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed to locate the underlying genetic elements in the genome. A total of 146 subjects (32% men, 68% women) aged 18-78 y from 26 Finnis...
Article
The association between liking and choices of six cheeses was examined. Particular attention was in hedonic flexibility, i.e. the range of liking ratings, within an individual, leading to a choice. Second, the ability of respondents to predict their future liking and choices was studied. Respondents (62 females, 20-64 years) initially tasted and ra...
Article
Yoghurts containing approximately 0.1, 1.5, 3.2, or 5.2% dairy fat were sweetened with 6, 8, 10, or 12% sucrose and flavoured with strawberry jam. the sweetness, fattiness, and sourness of the resulting 16 samples were rated by a laboratory panel (n= 14), and the hedonic responses by a consumer panel (n= 41). As expected, the sweetness and fattines...
Article
SummaryA vocabulary for the description of the sensory properties of Finnish rye breads was developed as a basis for the design of a practical quality control/product development system to be used in a later study.Six samples, selected from thirty-two commercial rye breads, were evaluated for the intensity of twenty-nine attributes and for similari...
Article
Full-text available
Although potential odorant receptor genes have been identified, the precise genetic component of perception of odours is still obscure. Although there is some evidence for heritability of a few olfactory-related traits, no genome-wide search for loci harboring underlying genes has been published to date. We performed a genome-wide scan to identify...
Article
The effects of product information on responses to frankfurter sausages and chocolate bars were studied by comparing sensory and hedonic ratings in two conditions: blind tasting and tasting with information present. Furthermore, the effect of information alone was investigated by having the subjects rate the expected sensory and hedonic intensities...
Article
Four combinations of cookie and juice were presented to 42 subjects for ratings of pleasantness of the items and their combinations (Experiment 1). Pleasantness of juice contributed to the pleasantness of a combination more than that of cookie (multiple regression analysis). In Experiment 2, subjects (N=41) rated each combination after ad libitum c...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare how similar results are achieved by three different procedures of measuring liking for ice cream. Subjects (N=56) assessed their liking for three brands of vanilla ice cream on a 9-point scale in seven sessions within three weeks. The examined procedures were (1) tasting and rating all three brands simultane...
Article
Four types of spread with 80% fat, but varying in the origin of the fat (milk/vegetable) and in the proportion of oil versus solid fat (0–90% vegetable oil), were manufactured at NaCl concentrations of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%. Their saltiness and degree of melting in the mouth were rated using the time-intensity (TI) procedure. The perceived maximum salt...
Article
Approximately 70 texture and mouthfeel descriptive words were studied in English and in Finnish for their conceptual categorization via sorting, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Two groups were tested within each language, a consumer group and a group of food professionals. Categories for texture terms were generally similar for the...
Article
Four thickeners (pectin, gelatin, starch and gelatin + starch) and two aroma concentrations (1.4 and 0.7 mL aroma / 1 kg candy base) were used for manufacturing high viscosity gel systems, i.e. strawberry candies. The salient texture and flavor attributes of the samples were identified and evaluated by a trained descriptive panel. The thickeners st...
Article
Four different strawberry candies with varying thickening agents (pectin, gelatin, starch, and gelatin + starch) were rated by three consumer age groups: teenagers (13–14 years), young adults (19–23 years) and the middle-aged (40–63 years) (n = 60 in each group). Age, gender, use frequencies and hedonic ratings often commercial candy types were col...
Article
Descriptive sensory analysis, time-intensity (TI) profiling and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the textural and thermal properties of a confectionary-like model food system consisting of cocoa butter, sucrose and an aromatic flavorant. Varying amounts of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and guar gum were substituted for...
Article
The capability of an electronic nose, MGD-1, in the detection of aroma differences among 5 samples of strawberry ice cream of varying fat content (0,9, or 18% dairy or vegetable fat) was compared with the human nose. R-indices were determined to detect sensory differences. In addition, the headspace compositions of samples were determined with stat...
Article
The relationship between domain specific innovativeness scale (DSI) and social representation (SR) components of new foods (suspicion of new foods; adherence to natural food; adherence to technology; eating as an enjoyment; eating as a necessity) was explored in a survey with Finnish consumers (N = 1156). Both DSI and SR were used to predict willin...
Article
Previous research has given inconsistent results about how categorization influences hedonic ratings. This study used social representation theory to explore the role of categorization, derived attributes, and degree of liking in predicting acceptance, measured as post-exposure liking and preferred frequency to use a new functional drink. Two categ...
Article
Three data sets, collected in 2001 (N = 734), 2002 (N = 1156), and 2004 (N = 1113), were compared to verify the structure and identify changes in the social representation (SR) of new foods in Finland, based on a 27-item questionnaire. The three data sets indicated a great stability of five SR components: suspicion of new foods, adherence to techno...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to examine whether performance on the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC, 16 odors to be detected and identified) can predict ortho- and retronasal odor intensity ratings. In Experiment 1 (Exp1), vanilla (0–0.31%) in a beverage (whey drink) was rated for ortho- and retronasal intensity and the ETOC was perf...
Article
Means to boost food intake of the elderly (n = 60, age range 61-86 years) varying in olfactory and mood status were studied during home-use of cold cuts. Enhancement group (n = 28) received regular smoked ham and smoked ham flavored with extra strong smoke aroma or with pepper mix, and Variety group (n = 32) received four different cold cuts: smoke...