Helmut Kettenmann

Helmut Kettenmann
Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin | MDC · Research Team Cellular Neurosciences

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479
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Publications

Publications (479)
Article
Background Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly malignant primary brain tumor with an average survival of 14 months and very limited therapeutic options. Glioma associated microglia and macrophages (GAMs) foster tumor growth by releasing several cytokines, which have only partly been identified. Here, we studied the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (...
Article
Factors released from glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) play a crucial role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression. Here, we study the importance of CCL18, a cytokine expressed in human but not in rodent GAMs, as a modulator of glioma growth. Since CCL18 signaling could not be studied in classical mouse glioma models, we develope...
Article
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In the adult uncompromised CNS, they have a highly ramified morphology and continuously extend and retract their processes. A subpopulation of microglial cells forms close soma‐to‐soma contacts with neurons and have been termed satellite microglia, yet the role of such inter...
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Microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system, express receptors for classical neurotransmitters, such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, suggesting that they sense synaptic activity. To detect microglial Ca²⁺ responses to neuronal activity, we generate transgenic mouse lines expressing the fluorescent Ca²⁺ indicator G...
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The chaperone protein Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) regulates internalization, trafficking, and stabilization of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) in peripheral immune cells. We sought to determine UNC93B1 expression and its functional relevance in inflammatory and injurious processes in the central nervous system (CNS). We found that UN...
Article
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly malignant brain tumor with a devastating prognosis. Resection followed by radio-chemotherapy leads to an overall survival of only 15 months. Up to 40% of the tumor mass consist of tumor-associated microglia and macrophages (TAMs). These cells were shown to promote tumor growth and invasiveness in many...
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Histamine is a monoaminergic neurotransmitter which is released within the entire brain from ascending axons originating in the tuberomammillary nucleus in a sleep state-dependent fashion. Besides the modulation of neuronal firing patterns, brain histamine levels are also thought to modulate functions of glial cells. Microglia are the innate immune...
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Thalamic astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are coupled via gap junctions and form panglial networks. Here, we show that these networks have a key role in energy supply of neurons. Filling an astrocyte or an oligodendrocyte in acute slices with glucose or lactate is sufficient to rescue the decline of stimulation-induced field post-synaptic potential...
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Glial cell line‐derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is released by glioma cells and promotes tumor growth. We have previously found that GDNF released from the tumor cells is a chemoattractant for microglial cells, the immune cells of the central nervous system. Here we show that GDNF increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP14 expression i...
Article
Aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a transmembrane protein that forms water channels, has previously been shown to facilitate growth and progression of many types of tumors by modulating tumor cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. Here, we determined the impact of AQP1 expression in the tumor environment on the progression of brain tumors. Primary micro...
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Microglia are the immune cells of the brain and become activated during any type of brain injury. In the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model, a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we have previously shown that microglia and invaded monocytes upregulate the expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (M3R) in the ischemic lesion. He...
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Microglia are the primary immune-competent cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and sense both pathogen- and host-derived factors through several receptor systems including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Although TLR5 has previously been implicated in different CNS disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, its mode of action in the...
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High trait anxiety is a substantial risk factor for developing anxiety disorders and depression. While neuroinflammation has been identified to contribute to stress-induced anxiety, little is known about potential dysregulation in the neuroinflammatory system of genetically determined pathological anxiety or high trait anxiety individuals. We repor...
Article
In murine experimental glioma models, TLR3 or TLR9 activation of microglial/macrophages has been shown to impair glioma growth, which could, however, not been verified in recent clinical trials. We therefore tested whether combined TLR3 and TLR9 activation of microglia/macrophages would have a synergistic effect. Indeed, combined TLR3/9 activation...
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As critical regulators of brain homeostasis, microglia are influenced by numerous factors, including sex and genetic mutations. To study the impact of these factors on microglia biology, we employed genetically engineered mice that model Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a disorder characterized by clinically relevant sexually dimorphic differences....
Article
Malignant tumours release factors, which attract myeloid cells and induce their polarisation to pro-invasive, immunosuppressive phenotypes. Brain-resident microglia and peripheral macrophages accumulate in the tumour microenvironment of glioblastoma (GBM) and induce immunosuppression fostering tumour progression. Macrophage colony stimulating facto...
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Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors with poor prognoses. These tumors are infiltrated by brain intrinsic microglia and peripheral monocytes which promote glioma cell invasion. In our previous studies, we discovered that the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on microglia/brain macrophages converts them into a protumorigenic phenotype...
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Microglial cells are considered as sensors of brain pathology by detecting any sign of brain lesions, infections, or dysfunction and can influence the onset and progression of neurological diseases. They are capable of sensing their neuronal environment via many different signaling molecules, such as neurotransmitters, neurohormones and neuropeptid...
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The original publication of this article [1] contained 3 minor errors in Figs. 1, 3 and 5. In this correction article the updated figures are published. The figure captions describe the updated information in these figures.
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Microglia express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense pathogen- and host-derived factors, including single-stranded RNA. In the brain, let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family members are abundantly expressed, and some have recently been shown to serve as TLR7 ligands. We investigated whether let-7 miRNA family members differentially control microglia biolo...
Article
BACKGROUND Glioma-associated microglia and blood-derived macrophages (GAMs) promote tumor growth in experimental mouse glioma models. Using microarray and RNA sequencing, we have previously shown that GAMs upregulate the expression of Glycoprotein NMB/Osteoactivin (GPNMB) when compared to naïve microglia. GPNMB is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotei...
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of 14.6 months. Recent efforts have focused on identifying clinically relevant subgroups to improve our understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms and patient stratification. Concurrently, the role of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment ha...
Article
Tenascin C (Tnc) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, expressed in the CNS during development, as well as in the setting of inflammation, fibrosis and cancer, which operates as an activator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Although TLR4 is highly expressed in microglia, the effect of Tnc on microglia has not been elucidated to date. Herein, we d...
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Monocytes/macrophages have begun to emerge as key cellular modulators of brain homeostasis and central nervous system (CNS) disease. In the healthy brain, resident microglia are the predominant macrophage cell population; however, under conditions of blood-brain barrier leakage, peripheral monocytes/macrophages can infiltrate the brain and particip...
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Sex differences in brain structure and function are of substantial scientific interest because of sex-related susceptibility to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is a common denominator of many of these diseases, and thus microglia, as the brain’s immunocompetent cells, have come into focus in sex-specific studies. Here, we...
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After stroke, macrophages in the ischemic brain may be derived from either resident microglia or infiltrating monocytes. Using bone marrow (BM)-chimerism and dual-reporter transgenic fate mapping, we here set out to delimit the responses of either cell type to mild brain ischemia in a mouse model of 30 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
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In the optic nerve, oligodendrocytes maintain axonal function by supplying lactate as an energy substrate. Here, we report that, in acute brain slices of the mouse corpus callosum, exogenous glucose deprivation (EGD) abolished compound action potentials (CAPs), which neither lactate nor pyruvate could prevent. Loading an oligodendrocyte with 20 mM...
Article
BACKGROUND Microglia and periphery-derived monocytes infiltrate human and mouse glioblastoma and their density is positively correlated with malignancy. Using microarray and RNA sequencing we have previously shown that glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (GAMs) express osteopontin/OPN. METHODS We used qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence stainings,...
Article
Background: Microglia and periphery-derived monocytes infiltrate human and mouse glioblastoma and their density is positively correlated with malignancy. Using microarray and RNA sequencing we have previously shown that glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (GAMs) express osteopontin/SPP1. Methods: We used qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence stain...
Article
As the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, microglia accumulate at Abeta plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and acquire a morphological phenotype of activated microglia. Recent functional studies, however, indicate that in mouse models of amyloidosis and AD, these cells are rather dysfunctional indicated by a reduced phagocytic ac...
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Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of neuronal signaling in the central nervous system....
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Microglial cells invade the brain as amoeboid precursors and acquire a highly ramified morphology in the postnatal brain. Microglia express all essential purinergic elements such as receptors, nucleoside transporters and ecto-enzymes, including CD39 (NTPDase1) and CD73 (5'-nucleotidase), which sequentially degrade extracellular ATP to adenosine. He...
Data
Constitutive deletion of CD39 and/or CD73 attenuates spatial distribution of microglial process. An example of a symmetric (A) and non-symmetric (B) microglia cell in somatosensory cortex of a wild-type mouse; pink dots represent cell soma, green dots show process terminals (terminal points), quadrants correspond to four directions (dorsal left, do...
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As the immune competent cells of the brain, microglia play an increasingly important role in maintaining normal brain function. They invade the brain early in development, transform into a highly ramified phenotype, and constantly screen their environment. Microglia are activated by any type of pathologic event or change in brain homeostasis. This...
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Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle ce...
Article
In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Previously, using this model we and others demonstrated the associa...
Article
The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus plays an important role in somatosensory information processing. It contains elongated cellular domains called barreloids, which are the structural basis for the somatotopic organization of vibrissae representation. So far, the organization of glial networks in these barreloid structures and its modulat...
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The word “glia” was coined in the mid-19th century and defined as “the nerve glue”. For decades, it was assumed to be a uniform matrix, until cell theorists raised the “neuron doctrine” which stipulated that nervous tissue was composed of individual cells. The term “astrocytes” was introduced in the late 19th century as a synonym for glial cells, b...
Article
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system and many of their physiological functions are known to be linked to intracellular calcium (Ca²⁺) signaling. Here we show that isolated and purified mouse microglia—either freshly or cultured—display spontaneous and transient Ca²⁺ elevations lasting for around ten to twenty second...
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The subventricular zone (SVZ) provides a constant supply of new neurons to the olfactory bulb (OB). Different studies have investigated the role of olfactory sensory input to neural precursor cell (NPC) turnover in the SVZ but it was not addressed if a reduced demand specifically for periglomerular neurons impacts on NPC-traits in the rostral migra...
Article
Microglial cells are the pathologic sensor of the brain, and any pathologic event triggers microglial activation, which involves migration of these cells to a lesion site. Employing different migration assays, we show that ligands for toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 stimulate random motility, while TLR7 ligands are chemoattractants. The subtype specific...
Article
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b+ human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b+ microglia isolated from non-tumor sam...
Article
Unlabelled: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating event of neuronal depolarization, which is considered as the cellular correlate of the migraine aura. It is characterized by a change in the intrinsic optical signal and by a negative DC potential shift. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS and act as sensors for patholo...
Article
Glioma regression requires the recruitment of potent anti-tumor immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a role in immune responses to these tumors. The fact that DC vaccines do not effectively combat high-grade gliomas, however, suggests that DCs need to be genetically modified especially to promote their migration...
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Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain. We have studied a subpopulation of microglia, called satellite microglia. This cell type is defined by a close morphological soma-to-soma association with a neuron, indicative of a direct functional interaction. Indeed, ultrastructural analysis revealed closely attached plasma membranes of satellite m...
Article
Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Usi...
Chapter
In the human brain glial cells are as abundant as neurons. The relative number of glial cells has increased with increasing complexity of brains during evolution. In vertebrates three types of glial cells can be distinguished in the central nervous system, namely astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. In the peripheral nervous system the Schwa...
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There is a growing recognition that gliomas are complex tumors composed of neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells, which each individually contribute to cancer formation, progression and response to treatment. The majority of the non-neoplastic cells are tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), either of peripheral origin or representing brain-intrinsic m...