Helge Bruelheide

Helge Bruelheide
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg | MLU · Institute of Biology / Geobotany and Botanical Garden

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594
Publications
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16,214
Citations

Publications

Publications (594)
Article
Full-text available
1. Tree survival affects forest biodiversity, structure and functioning. However, little is known about feedback effects of biodiversity on survival and its dependence on functional traits and interannual climatic variability. 2. With an individual‐based dataset from a large subtropical forest biodiversity experiment, we evaluated how species richn...
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Citizen scientists play an increasingly important role in biodiversity monitoring. Most of the data, however, are unstructured—collected by diverse methods that are not documented with the data. Insufficient understanding of the data collection processes presents a major barrier to the use of citizen science data in biodiversity research. We develo...
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Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., β-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance...
Article
1. Interspecific niche complementarity is a key mechanism posited to explain positive species richness—productivity relationships in plant communities. However, the exact nature of the niche dimensions that plant species partition remains poorly known. 2. Species may partition abiotic resources that limit their growth, but species may also be speci...
Preprint
Vegetation-plot resurvey data are a main source of information on terrestrial biodiversity change, with records reaching back more than one century. Although more and more data from re-sampled plots have been published, there is not yet a comprehensive open-access dataset available for analysis. Here, we compiled and harmonised vegetation-plot resu...
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Large‐scale biodiversity databases have great potential for quantifying long‐term trends of species, but they also bring many methodological challenges. Spatial bias of species occurrence records is well recognized. Yet, the dynamic nature of this spatial bias – how spatial bias has changed over time – has been largely overlooked. We examined the s...
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1. Niche filtering predicts that abundant species in communities have similar traits that are suitable for the environment. However, niche filtering can operate on distinct axes of trait variation in response to different ecological conditions. Here, we use a trait-based approach to infer niche filtering processes and (1) test if abundant and rare...
Preprint
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In this report, we present the analysis of the different available biodiversity data streams at the EU and national level, both baseline biodiversity data and monitoring data. We assess how these biodiversity data inform and trigger policy action and identify the related challenges the different European countries and relevant EU agencies face and...
Preprint
Addressing global biodiversity loss requires an expanded focus on multiple dimensions of biodiversity. While most studies have focused on the consequences of plant interspecific diversity, our mechanistic understanding of how the diversity within a given plant species (genetic diversity) affects plant productivity remains limited. Here, we use a tr...
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Soil microorganisms are essential for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Although soil microbial communities and functions are linked to tree species composition and diversity, there has been no comprehensive study of the generality or context dependence of these relationships. Here, we examine tree diversity–soil microbial biomass and resp...
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Nitrogen (N) is a main nutrient limiting plant growth in most terrestrial ecosystems, but so far it remains unknown which role plant N uptake plays for the positive relationship between species richness and productivity. An in situ15N labeling experiment was carried out by planting four subtropical tree species (i.e., Koelreuteria bipinnata, Lithoc...
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Climate warming and increased disturbance (resulting from intensified land use) are expected to enhance the invasibility of plant communities and the performance of exotic species also at high elevations, and thus pose additional threats to mountain ecosystems. The invasion success of introduced genotypes will also depend on their degree of pre-ada...
Preprint
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Observations are key to understand the drivers of biodiversity loss, and the impacts on ecosystem services and ultimately on people. Many EU policies and initiatives demand unbiased, integrated and regularly updated biodiversity and ecosystem service data. However, efforts to monitor biodiversity are spatially and temporally fragmented, taxonomical...
Preprint
Insular woodiness (IW)-the evolutionary transition from herbaceousness towards woodiness on islands-is one of the most iconic features of island floras. Since pioneering work by Darwin and Wallace, five IW drivers have been proposed: (i) favourable aseasonal climate and (ii) lack of large native herbivores promote plant longevity that (iii) results...
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Extreme climatic events threaten forests and their climate mitigation potential globally. Understanding the drivers promoting ecosystem stability is therefore considered crucial for mitigating adverse climate change effects on forests. Here, we use structural equation models to explain how tree species richness, asynchronous species dynamics, speci...
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Forest restoration increases global forest area and ecosystem services such as primary productivity and carbon storage. How tree species functional composition impacts the provisioning of these services as forests develop is sparsely studied. We used 10-year data from 478 plots with 191,200 trees in a forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical C...
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Tree species diversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions and services. However, little is known about how above- and belowground resource availability (light, nutrients, and water) and resource uptake capacity mediate tree species diversity effects on aboveground wood productivity and temporal stability of productivity in European forests and w...
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National and local governments need to step up efforts to effectively implement the post‐2020 global biodiversity framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity to halt and reverse worsening biodiversity trends. Drawing on recent advances in interdisciplinary biodiversity science, we propose a framework for improved implementation by national...
Preprint
Ecological and economic systems both comprise of autonomous adaptive agents. It is thus possible that similar mechanisms determine the organization of both these complex systems. Indeed several economic theories have already been successfully applied in an ecological context. Here we show that 'efficient market theory' in economics, where future ea...
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Symbiotic foliar fungal endophytes can have beneficial effects on host trees and might alleviate climate-induced stressors. Whether and how the community of foliar endophytes is dependent on the tree neighborhood is still under debate with contradicting results from different tree diversity experiments. Here, we present our finding regarding the ef...
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The mechanisms driving species co‐occurrence are varied and include biotic interactions, abiotic factors and scale dependent processes. Based on a comprehensive dataset of lepidopteran herbivores recorded from a large‐scale forest biodiversity experiment, we tested the contribution to herbivore species co‐occurrence of herbivore phylogenetic relate...
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Plant endemic species are the result of continuous evolution under the combined action of long-term climatic and geological conditions. There are 534 bamboo species in China, and 371 endemic species account for about 70% of all bamboo species. However, little is known about the differences in the rhizome evolution rate between endemic and non-endem...
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Reversing the decline of biodiver-sity in European agricultural land-scapes is urgent. We suggest eightmeasures addressing politics, eco-nomics, and civil society to instigatetransformative changes in agricul-tural landscapes. We emphasizethe need for a well-informed societyand political measures promotingsustainable farming by combiningfood produc...
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Ecological theory is built on trade-offs, where trait differences among species evolved as adaptations to different environments. Trade-offs are often assumed to be bidirectional, where opposite ends of a gradient in trait values confer advantages in different environments. However, unidirectional benefits could be widespread if extreme trait value...
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Aim Recent studies suggest insect declines in parts of Europe; however, the generality of these trends across different taxa and regions remains unclear. Standardized data are not available to assess large-scale, long-term changes for most insect groups but opportunistic citizen science data are widespread for some. Here, we took advantage of citiz...
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Litter decomposition is a key process for carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems and is mainly controlled by environmental conditions, substrate quantity, and quality as well as microbial community abundance and composition. In particular, the effects of climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on litter decomposition and its...
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Christensen et al. criticized the application of Beals’ index of sociological favourability to adjust for incomplete species lists when comparing repeated surveys. Their main argument was that using Beals’ conditional occurrence probabilities would systematically underestimate biodiversity change compared to using observed frequencies. Although thi...
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Plant trait variation drives plant function, community composition, and ecosystem processes. However, our current understanding of trait variation disproportionately relies on aboveground observations. Here we integrate root traits into the global framework of plant form and function. We developed and tested an overarching conceptual framework that...
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As of 2020, the world has an estimated 290 million ha of planted forests and this number is continuously increasing. Of these, 131 million ha are monospecific planted forests under intensive management. Although monospecific planted forests are important in providing timber, they harbor less biodiversity and are potentially more susceptible to dist...
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There is limited knowledge on how the association of trees with different mycorrhizal types shapes soil microbial communities in the context of changing tree diversity levels. We used arbuscular (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) tree species as con‐ and heterospecific tree species pairs (TSPs), which were established in plots of three tree diversity l...
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Aim The number of naturalized (i.e. established) alien species has increased rapidly over recent centuries. Given the differences in environmental tolerances among species, little is known about what factors determine the extent to which the observed size of the naturalized range of a species and hence the extent to which the observed richness of n...
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As woody plants provide much of the trophic basis for food webs in forests their species richness, but also stand age and numerous further variables such as vegetation structure, soil properties and elevation can shape assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). However, the combined impact of these numerous variables on ground beetle di...
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Searching for scientific datasets is a prominent task in scholars' daily research practice. A variety of data publishers, archives and data portals offer search applications that allow the discovery of datasets. The evaluation of such dataset retrieval systems requires proper test collections, including questions that reflect real world information...
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1. Biodiversity experiments have identified both complementarity and selection as important drivers of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. However, their relative importance in above‐ and belowground ecosystem compartments of mature forests remains yet to be explored. 2. We adopted a trait‐based approach to partition bi...
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There is increasing concern regarding how plant diversity affects litter decomposition. However, few experiments have simultaneously investigated the independent effects of litter species composition and the richness of above-ground tree communities on litter decomposition. To elucidate the two facets of diversity effects on leaf litter decompositi...
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Aim Plant functional traits summarize the main variability in plant form and function across taxa and biomes. We assess whether geographic range size, climatic niche size, and local abundance of plants can be predicted by sets of traits (trait syndromes) or are driven by single traits. Location Eurasia Methods Species distribution maps were extrac...
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Aim This work explores whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad‐leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we ask whether the 10 extant Fagus species’ niche breadths and climatic tolerances are under p...
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• Recent studies found that the majority of shrub and tree species are associated with both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. However, our knowledge on how different mycorrhizal types interact with each other is still limited. We asked whether the combination of hosts with a preferred association with either AM or EM fungi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances, i.e., β-diversity, is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional turnover in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distances. We p...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This work explores whether the commonly observed positive range size–niche breadth relationship exists for Fagus, one of the most dominant and widespread broad-leaved deciduous tree genera in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we ask whether the 10 extant Fagus species’ niche breadths and climatic tolerances are under...
Article
Biodiversity is considered to mitigate the adverse effects of changing precipitation patterns. However, our understanding of how tree diversity at the local neighbourhood scale modulates the water use and leaf physiology of individual trees remains unclear. We made use of a large-scale tree diversity experiment in subtropical China to study eight t...
Article
In plant ecology, community-weighted trait means are often used as predictors for ecosystem functions. More recently, also within-species trait variation has been confirmed to contribute to ecosystem functioning. We here go even further and assess within-individual trait variation, assuming that every leaf in a plant individually adjusts to its mic...
Article
Questions What are the functional trade‐offs of vascular plant species in global alpine ecosystems? How is functional variation related to vegetation zones, climatic groups and biogeographic realms? What is the relative contribution of macroclimate and evolutionary history in shaping the functional variation of alpine plant communities? Location G...
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Leaf fungal pathogens alter their host species' performance and, thus, changes in fungal species composition can translate into effects at the tree community scale. Conversely, the functional diversity of tree species in a host tree's local neighbourhood can affect the host's foliar fungal infestation. Therefore, understanding the factors that affe...
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Herbivorous insects acquire microorganisms from host plants or soil, but it remains unclear how the diversity and functional composition of host plants contribute to structuring herbivore microbiomes. Within a controlled tree diversity setting, we used DNA metabarcoding of 16S rRNA to assess the contribution of Lepidoptera species and their local e...
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Fungal pathogens have the potential to affect plant biogeography and ecosystem processes through their influence on the fitness and functioning of their plant hosts. Simultaneously, changes in plant communities can influence fungal pathogen communities. Exactly which host plant attributes determine the composition of fungal pathogen communities on...
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In plants, secondary metabolite profiles provide a unique opportunity to explore seasonal variation and responses to the environment. These include both abiotic and biotic factors. In field experiments, such stress factors occur in combination. This variation alters the plant metabolic profiles in yet uninvestigated ways. This data set contains tra...
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1. Plant diversity begets diversity at other trophic levels. While species richness is the most commonly used measure for plant diversity, the number of evolutionary lineages (i.e. phylogenetic diversity) could theoretically have a stronger influence on the community structure of co-occurring organisms. However, this prediction has only rarely been...
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Aim Bogs and transition mires in Central Europe have undergone tremendous changes in the last decades, declining in spatial extent and favourable conservation status. However, species extinctions have been documented only rarely because of a lack of reliable floristic data. Here, we assessed species losses of bog complexes and analysed their potent...
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Global change exposes forest ecosystems to many risks including novel climatic conditions, increased frequency of climatic extremes and sudden emergence and spread of pests and pathogens. At the same time, forest landscape restoration has regained global attention as an integral strategy for climate change mitigation. Owing to unpredictable future...
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Tree growth is the most important factor in determining the carbon sequestration processes of forest ecosystems. However, the growth phenology (seasonal growth pattern) and responses of tree growth to climatic variables vary considerably among different species, especially between deciduous and evergreen species. Thus, it is crucial to explore the...
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Aims Positive biodiversity ecosystem functioning relationships have been widely reported, predominately from grassland ecosystems. However, this does not necessarily have to apply accordingly in more complex situations such as in forests across different vertical strata. For instance, overstorey tree species richness has been shown to be associated...
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Aims The machine‐readable formal language of the classification expert systems has become a standard for applying plot assignment rules in vegetation classification. Here we present an efficient algorithm implementing the vegetation classification expert system in the statistical programming language R. Methods and results The principal idea of th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extreme climatic events threaten forests and their climate mitigation potential globally. Understanding the drivers promoting ecosystems stability is therefore considered crucial to mitigate adverse climate change effects on forests. Here, we use structural equation models to explain how tree species richness, asynchronous species dynamics and dive...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation Trait data are fundamental to the quantitative description of plant form and function. Although root traits capture key dimensions related to plant responses to changing environmental conditions and effects on ecosystem processes, they have rarely been included in large‐scale comparative studies and global models. For instance, root trai...
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Based on plant occurrence data covering all parts of Germany, we investigated changes in the distribution of 2136 plant species between 1960 and 2017. We analyzed 29 million occurrence records over an area of ~350,000 km2 on a 5 × 5 km grid using temporal and spatiotemporal models and accounting for sampling bias. Since the 1960s, more than 70% of...