Helga Stopper

Helga Stopper
University of Wuerzburg | JMU · Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology

Professor

About

296
Publications
25,536
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7,061
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Introduction
Current research interests are genetic toxicology, micronuclei, comet assay, human biomonitoring, oxidative stress, impact of obesity and weight loss on genomic damage, botanicals

Publications

Publications (296)
Preprint
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Collecting labeled data for many important tasks in chemoinformatics is time consuming and requires expensive experiments. In recent years, machine learning has been used to learn rich representations of molecules using large scale unlabeled molecular datasets and transfer the knowledge to solve the more challenging tasks with limited datasets. Var...
Article
The comet assay is widely used for quantification of genomic damage in humans. Peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the most often used cell type for this purpose. Since the comet assay can be performed in an enhanced throughput format, it can be applied to large sample collections such as biobanks. The European Prospective Invest...
Article
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The comet assay is widely used in basic research, genotoxicity testing, and human biomonitoring. However, interpretation of the comet assay data might benefit from a better understanding of the future fate of a cell with DNA damage. DNA damage is in principle repairable, or if extensive, can lead to cell death. Here, we have correlated the maximall...
Article
Micronucleus (MN) analyses in peripheral blood lymphocytes and exfoliated cells from different organs (mouth, nose, bladder and cervix) are at present the most widely used approaches to detect damage of genetic material in humans. MN are extranuclear DNA-containing bodies, which can be identified microscopically. They reflect structural and numeric...
Article
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The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis, is the most common method used to measure strand breaks and a variety of other DNA lesions in human populations. To estimate the risk of overall mortality, mortality by cause, and cancer incidence associated to DNA damage, a cohort of 2,403 healthy individuals (25,978 person-years) screened in 16...
Article
Thebaine is an alkaloid and can be found in poppy seeds in relatively high concentrations. Acute toxicity of thebaine is fairly high, but not much is known about chronic toxicity. To investigate the genotoxicity of thebaine, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and comet assay were conducted in TK6 cells. In addition, effects of putative thebaine me...
Article
The purpose of the “Micronuclei and Disease” special issue (SI) is to: (i) Determine the level of evidence for association of micronuclei (MN), a biomarker of numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations, with risk of specific diseases in humans; (ii) Define plausible mechanisms that explain association of MN with each disease; (iii) Identify k...
Article
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A phytochemical investigation of the liana of Artabotrys thomsonii led to the isolation of a new oxoberberine alkaloid, 2,10-dihydroxy-3,9-dimethoxy-8-oxo-protoberberine (7), along with six known compounds. Their chemical structures were elucidated by 1 D and 2 D NMR spectroscopic methods and HRESI-MSⁿ data analysis. Compounds 4 and 7 were selected...
Article
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The comet assay is a commonly used method to determine DNA damage and repair activity in many types of samples. In recent years, the use of the comet assay in human biomonitoring became highly attractive due to its various modified versions, which may be useful to determine individual susceptibility in blood samples. However, in human biomonitoring...
Article
DNA damage and repair activity are often assessed in blood s#38les from humans in different types of molecular epidemiology studies. However, it is not always feasible to analyse the s#38les on the day of collection without any type of storage. For instance, certain studies use repeated s#38ling of cells from the same subject or s#38les from differ...
Article
The alkaline comet assay, or single cell gel electrophoresis, is one of the most popular methods for assessing DNA damage in human population. One of the open issues concerning this assay is the identification of those factors that can explain the large inter-individual and inter-laboratory variation. International collaborative initiatives such as...
Article
Introduction Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are found in many plant species as secondary metabolites which affect humans via contaminated food sources, herbal medicines and dietary supplements. Hundreds of compounds belonging to PAs have been identified. PAs undergo hepatic metabolism, after which they can induce hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity....
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Neurodegenerative diseases show an increase in prevalence and incidence, with the most prominent example being Alzheimer’s disease. DNA damage has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis, but the exact mechanisms remain elusive. We enrolled 425 participants with and without neurodegenerative diseases and analyzed DNA damage in the form of...
Article
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Investigation of processes that contribute to the maintenance of genomic stability is one crucial factor in the attempt to understand mechanisms that facilitate ageing. The DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair mechanisms are crucial to safeguard the integrity of DNA and to prevent accumulation of persistent DNA damage. Among them, base excision...
Article
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Celecoxib is used widely for the acute treatment of pain and for pain relief in various diseases. Furthermore, it shows potential in chemoprevention, although chronic treatment with celecoxib could lead to adverse effects like cardiovascular events. New derivatives of celecoxib were synthesised that may be suitable as chemopreventive agent without...
Article
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The comet assay is a widely used test for the detection of DNA damage and repair activity. However, there are interlaboratory differences in reported levels of baseline and induced damage in the same experimental systems. These differences may be attributed to protocol differences, although it is difficult to identify the relevant conditions becaus...
Article
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Micronuclei are small nuclear cellular structures containing whole chromosomes or chromosomal fragments. While there is a lot of information available about the origin and formation of micronuclei, less is known about the fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Possible fates include extrusion, degradation, reincorporation and persistence. Li...
Article
Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as a gradual loss of renal function progressing from very mild damage, with no obvious symptoms in stage one, to complete kidney failure in stage five, which ultimately requires kidney replacement therapy by organ transplantation or dialysis. Cancer incidence and other health problems, mainly diabe...
Article
Delphinidin (DEL) is a plant-derived antioxidant with clinical potential to treat inflammatory pain but suffers from poor solubility and low bioavailability. Aims: To develop a well-tolerated CD-DEL complex with enhanced bioavailability and to investigate the mechanisms behind its an-tinociceptive effects in a preclinical model of inflammatory pa...
Article
Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cancer in women; the survival rates depend strongly on its early detection. The Pap-test is the most frequently used diagnostic tool, but due to its limited sensitivity/specificity, additional screening tests are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the use of micronucleus (MN) assays with cervical cells fo...
Article
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Metabolism and signaling of cytokinins was first established in plants, followed by cytokinin discoveries in all kingdoms of life. However, understanding of their role in mammalian cells is still scarce. Kinetin is a cytokinin that mitigates the effects of oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The effective concentrations of exogenously applied kine...
Article
Arsenolipids, especially arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC), are an emerging class of seafood originating contaminants. Here we toxicologically characterize a recently identified oxo-AsHC 332 metabolite, thioxo-AsHC 348 in cultured human liver (HepG2) cells. Compared to results of previous studies of the parent compound oxo-AsHC 332, thioxo-AsH...
Article
The comet assay is a popular assay in biomonitoring studies. DNA strand breaks (or unspecific DNA lesions) are measured using the standard comet assay. Oxidative stress-generated DNA lesions can be measured by employing DNA repair enzymes to recognise oxidatively damaged DNA. Unfortunately, there has been a tendency to fail to report results from a...
Article
Endogenous hormones systemically regulate the growth and metabolism and some prior studies have shown that their imbalance can have a potential to induce genomic damage in in vitro and animal models. Some conditions that are associated with elevated levels of endogenous hormones are hyperinsulinemia and intense exercise-induced stress causing incre...
Article
Obesity is associated with elevated cancer risk, which may be represented by elevated genomic damage. Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity related detrimental health consequences including DNA oxidation damage. The elevated cancer risk in obesity may be a consequence. Weight loss has been shown to reduce genomic damage, but the role of oxid...
Article
The “Micronuclei and Disease” workshop was organized by the HUMN Project consortium and hosted by the European Environmental Mutagen and Genomics Society at their annual meeting in Rennes, France, on 23 May 2019. The program of the workshop focused on addressing the emerging evidence linking micronucleus (MN) frequency to human disease. The first o...
Article
Recently, it was reported that ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin, produced by a number of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungal species, may cause neuropsychological impairment or mental and emotional disorders but the mechanism of neurotoxicity remains unknown. Adverse effects of OTA in human (SHSY5Y) and mouse (HT22) neuronal cell lines were studied in v...
Chapter
While the mechanisms of micronucleus induction have been the objectives of many investigations, the fate of micronuclei or micronucleus-containing cells is still very uncertain. They may be the origin of malignant transformation resulting in tumor development or they may be prone to cell death, not harming the organism. Available information regard...
Article
The comet assay is widely used in studies on genotoxicity testing, human biomonitoring and clinical studies. The simple version of the assay detects a mixture of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites; these lesions are typically described as DNA strand breaks to distinguish them from oxidatively damaged DNA that are measured with the enzyme-mod...
Article
Diabetes represents one of the major health concerns, especially in developed countries. Some hormones such as the stress hormone adrenaline can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may worsen the diabetes. Therefore, the main aim of the investigation was to find out whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal persons have le...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cell differentiation status on the sensitivity to genotoxic insults. For this, we utilized the comet assay to test the DNA damage after treatment with 5 different substances with different mechanism of action in human promyelocytic HL60 cells with or without cell differentiation. A 4-hour M...
Article
This review describes the use of the comet assay for assessment of DNA damage in human colon cells. We screened 98 papers, which employed human colon -derived cells to analyse DNA damage induced by different insults with the comet assay. In most cases tumour cell lines were used, and only a few studies were performed with primary colon cells. The c...
Article
The potential protective effect of tricetinidin as novel antioxidant is investigated and compared with selected known antioxidant substances in vitro. Dihydroethidium staining was performed to detect intracellular ROS formation and the protective effect of the antioxidant substances in combination with the superoxide-inducer antimycin a (AMA). Glut...
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The number of bariatric surgeries being performed worldwide has markedly risen. While the improvement in obesity-associated comorbidities after bariatric surgery is well-established, very little is known about its impact on cancer risk. The peripheral lymphocyte micronucleus test is a widely used method for the monitoring of chromosomal damage leve...
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
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Micronuclei occur after mitosis and are a sign of genomic instability. Comprehensive studies about the fate of micronuclei are lacking, but several possibilities have been described: extrusion, reincorporation into the nucleus, degradation, persistence of the micronucleus and/or the cell, apoptosis and chromothripsis. It is not verified, if and to...
Article
Background: Vinca alkaloids are important cancer drugs belonging to the class of antimitotic agents. The most commonly used substances are vinblastine and vincristine, other compounds are vinorelbine and vinflunine. All of them are very effective drugs but their use is limited by severe side-effects including neurotoxicity and bone marrow depressi...
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Introduction Marine sponge‐associated actinomycetes are potent sources of bioactive natural products of pharmaceutical significance. They also contributed to the discovery of several clinically relevant antimicrobials. Objective To apply the non‐targeted metabolomics approach in chemical profiling of the sponge‐derived bacterium Rhodococcus sp. UA...
Article
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For mutagenicity testing, primary lymphocytes or mammalian cell lines are employed. However, the true target for carcinogenic action of mutagenic chemicals may be stem cells. Since hematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents originate at the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) stage and since one of the side effects of chemotherapeutic cancer treatm...
Article
Obesity is associated with several detrimental health consequences, among them an increased risk for development of cancer, and an overall elevated mortality. Multiple factors like hyperinsulinemia, chronic microinflammation and oxidative stress may be involved. The comet assay has been proven to be very sensitive for detection of DNA damage and ha...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major current health problems due to lifestyle changes. Before diagnosis and in the early years of disease, insulin blood levels are elevated. However, insulin generates low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are integral to the regulation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, but excess l...
Article
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A new cyclic dipeptide, petrocidin A (1), along with three known compounds-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (3), and maltol (4)-were isolated from the solid culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT348. The strain Streptomyces sp. SBT348 had been prioritized in a strain collection of 64 sponge-associated actinomycetes based on its distin...
Article
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Agriculture is a mainstay of many developing countries’ economy, such as Brazil. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Brazil is the major global consumer of pesticides. Irrespective of the fact that the International Agency for Research on Cancer suggests that pesticides promote human cancer risk, a prospective...
Article
Poor water solubility of drugs fuels complex formulations and jeopardizes patient access to medication. Simplifying these complexities we systematically synthesized a library of 36 sterically demanding counterions and mapped the pharmaceutical design space for amorphous ionic liquid strategies for Selurampanel, a poorly water soluble drug used agai...
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In this paper we describe the design of an exposure setup used to study possible non-thermal effects due to the exposure of human hematopoietic stem cells to GSM, UMTS and LTE mobile communication signals. The experiments are performed under fully blinded conditions in a TEM waveguide located inside an incubator to achieve defined environmental con...
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Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid–liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferri...
Article
Gestational diabetes (GD) is a disorder in pregnant characterized by high blood glucose and insulin levels and associated with changes in female hormones. Previous in vitro studies showed a high insulin level stimulates ROS production resulting in DNA damage and mutation. Herein, we aim to investigate the effect of female hormones and diabetes duri...
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The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threateni...
Article
The present review describes available evidence about the fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cells. Micronuclei are small, extranuclear chromatin bodies surrounded by a nuclear envelope. The mechanisms underlying the formation of micronuclei are well understood but not much is known about the potential fate of micronuclei and micronucleated cel...
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Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials...
Article
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Modulating key dynamics of plant growth and development, the effects of the plant hormone cytokinin on animal cells gained much attention recently. Most previous studies on cytokinin effects on mammalian cells have been conducted with elevated cytokinin concentration (in the μM range). However, to examine physiologically relevant dose effects of cy...
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Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity are frequently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and with an elevated cancer incidence. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in this context are only partially understood. High blood insulin levels are typical in early T2DM and excessive insulin can cause elevated reactive oxygen spec...
Data
Raw data belonging to Tables 1, 2 and 3 and Figs 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8. (XLSX)
Article
Exposure to electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency range is ubiquitous, mainly due to the worldwide use of mobile communication devices. With improving technologies and affordability, the number of cell phone subscriptions continues to increase. Therefore, the potential effect on biological systems at low-intensity radiation levels is of grea...
Article
One new phenoxazin analogue, strepoxazine A (1), along with two known antibiotic phenazines phencomycin (2) and tubermycin B (3) were isolated from the solid culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT345 which had previously been recovered from the Mediterranean sponge Agelas oroides. The structures of compounds 1, 2, and 3 were determined by spectroscopic an...