Helga Hallgrimsdottir

Helga Hallgrimsdottir
University of Victoria | UVIC · School of Public Administration

PhD

About

42
Publications
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662
Citations

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Street sex work is deeply stratified, embedded in power imbalances and inequities; workers are multiply marginalized, relative to customers, in terms of race, class and gender. At the same time, these imbalances should not be equated with worker powerlessness. In this paper, we seek to counter the existing limited and polarized conceptualizations o...
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The focus in this paper is on understanding the complex intersections between crises and memory politics in shaping conversations about citizenship through an examination of the two defining crises of our time: the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2008 and the migrant crisis in the European Union (starting in 2011 and continuing). The paper looks a...
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Biometric security and screening systems have revolutionized border crossings. As bodies move across the physical space of the borderland, the border moves through them, scanning and cataloguing and scrutinizing bodies for irregularity. While such technologies have been scrutinized, they have largely been so through heteronormative and cisnormative...
Article
Globalization has challenged the role of borders in society, sparking interdisciplinary interest in the social reconstruction of the lines dividing the world’s population from one another. Border theorists have proposed that a few key factors promote cross-border integration: cross border policy-making, market forces, political clout, and culture [...
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The prevalence of human trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labour in the Pacific Northwest has been well documented in recent years. This paper focuses specifically on trafficking for sex work across the British Columbia and Washington State border and seeks to determine whether the border is an effective instrument or t...
Article
The “alternative right” or “alt-right” is a quintessentially twenty-first century phenomenon: a radicalized far right ideology that is proliferated and disseminated almost exclusively online with members drawn from all over the world. This paper argues that online debates within alt-right online communities about the acceptability of alt-right lang...
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The rise of the far-right poses a pressing challenge to democratic politics and the democratization of political participation in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue in the Scandinavian context, examining the importance of welfare chauvinism and gendered citizenship claims in the political rhetoric of the far-right. In so doing, we cont...
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In Canada, as elsewhere in the world, caesarean sections are the most common surgical procedure performed in hospitals annually. Recent national statistics indicate 28% of infants in Canada are born by c-section while in the United States that number rises to 33%. This is despite World Health Organization recommendations that at a population level...
Article
This article examines the narratives of men who purchase sex from street-level providers in a mid-sized city in Western Canada. We explore what men’s stories tell us about how masculinity is constructed in relation to street sex work. These men narrated their purchase of sex as attempts to exercise or lay claim to male power, privilege, and authori...
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Recent studies suggest that street-involved youth may have more robust and diverse social networks than previously thought. However, the supports offered by their social relationships have not been studied in detail. We analyzed descriptive quantitative data and open-ended interviews with 130 street-involved youth aged 14–18 in Victoria, Canada, to...
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Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high-and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form an...
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In 2008 Iceland experienced the deepest and fastest economic crisis ever recorded in peacetime, which included the total collapse of its financial sector, as well as significant erosion of its currency. This paper concerns a localized protest movement that occurred in the wake of the 2008 crash in Iceland: the mobilization of protest to a settlemen...
Article
The research literature indicates that problematic substance use as a form of health behaviour is poorly understood, being sometimes viewed as deviance, at other times as a disease, and most often as a combination of these states. The use of substances by women who are pregnant or new parents is often conceptualised within an individualised framewo...
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The notion that ‘older’ mothers experience elevated risks during pregnancy and childbirth has proliferated since the mid-twentieth century. In this article, we take the contemporary concern with age as a starting point from which to historicise and contextualise the concept of maternity risk. To this end, we examine maternal hygiene manuals (self-h...
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Research on the intimate partnerships of female sex workers (FSWs) tends to focus on the risks associated with these relationships. This paper takes as its starting point that the situation of FSWs is better understood by including knowledge of the benefits of their intimate partnerships. Specifically, we employ the conceptual framework provided by...
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L'État providence Canadien est déséquilibré: leader mondial dans certains domaines de l'investissement social—plus particulièrement en soins de santé et enseignement supérieur—il traîne dans d'autres domaines de la dépense d'aide sociale, y compris les politiques de garde d'enfants. Nous constatons qu'aujourd'hui la résistance dans la plupart des r...
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A basic ecological and epidemiological question is why some women enter into commercial sex work while other women in the same socio-economic environment never do. To address this question respondent driven sampling principles were adopted to recruit and collect data for 161 female sex workers and 159 same aged women who never engaged in commercial...
Article
Courtesy stigma, also referred to as 'stigma by association', involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with a stigmatised individual or group. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how courtesy stigma limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members of stigmatised individuals...
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This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of...
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Metaphors and analogies have long been used as heuristic and explanatory devices in the sciences. This focal review comments on the article "The Transmission of Genes and Culture: A Questionable Analogy" by Drs. Cladiere and Andre, and discusses the usefulness of the GTM analogy for understanding the transmission of culture.
Book
There are many forms of paid and unpaid labour encompassed in health care systems, including home care for the elderly or disabled, community health services, and the care family members provide for loved ones. Valuing Care Work is an international comparative study that examines economic organizations as well as intimate settings to show how perso...
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Since the 1970s, governments in many high-income countries have implemented a series of reforms in their health care systems to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Many of these reforms have been of a market-oriented character, involving the deregulation of key services, the creation of competitive markets, and the privatization of health and soc...
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In the last few decades there has been a resurgence of interest in the social causes of health inequities among and between individuals and populations. This \'social determinants\' perspective focuses on the myriad demographic and societal factors that shape health and well-being. Heeding calls for the mainstreaming of two very specific health det...
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Our final paper draws on the evidence presented in this supplement to discuss how policy trends in health care delivery are shaping health care work and health outcomes. As several contributors note, these policy trends have had heterogeneous effects across Canada and in other countries. Nevertheless, all of the cases discussed reveal a pressing ne...
Article
Social science and media depictions of youth living on our city streets typically focus on their “risk behaviours,” especially illicit drug use and unprotected sex, the social environmental challenges they face, in particular higher likelihood of sexual and physical assault and homicide (Tyler, Hoyt, & Whitbeck, 2000; Auerswald & Eyre, 2002; Peders...
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This article examines the mutability of symbolic sanctionsor stigmasapplied to sex industry work by examining newspaper narratives in one medium-sized Canadian city over two time periods: 18701910 and 19802004. The article's purpose is first to get a sense of what the authors call the ecology of stigmastheir relation to the temporal and spatial con...
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This paper examines the reasons behind a historic shift in the language couching the wage demands of two North American labor movements during the last twenty years of the 19th century — the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor. We trace how the once dominant imagery of “wage slavery” lost its connection to producerist labor ideolo...
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This article examines the reasons why the Knights of Labour, a labor movement that enjoyed enormous popularity and success during the penultimate decade of the 19th century, were unable to construct a resonant cultural frame in support of their platform of arbitration. The theoretical framework employed in this article is constructed by importing t...
Article
Cet article compare les portraits médiatiques de personnes qui travaillent dans l'industrie du sexe avec les représentations de soi de ces travailleurs, représentations qui incluent leurs origines personnelles et leurs expériences vécues au quotidien. Notre objectif est de jauger la distance empirique entre les descriptions médiatiques et la réalit...
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This article explores hegemonic and counterhegemonic ideas of masculinity as seen through the political campaigns and programmatic appeals of the Knights of Labor (KOL) in Ontario, 1882 to 1890. The KOL was a movement that sought to unite the working class in opposition to the exploitation of elites. Central to the KOL’s opposition was the creation...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
This Jean Monnet Network (2019-2022) addresses one of the major policy challenges facing the EU today: the impact of ‘fake news’, disinformation and ‘post-truth politics’ on the legitimation and delegitimation of European integration.
Archived project
Shift the research focus from (female) workers to (male) customers Better understand men's motivations to purchase sex on the street