Helena Sork

Helena Sork
University of Tartu · Institute of Technology

PhD

About

29
Publications
7,724
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1,286
Citations

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes and hold great potential for therapeutic and diagnostic use. Despite significant advances within the last decade, the key issue of EV storage stability remains unresolved and under investigated. Here, we aimed to identify storage conditions stabilizi...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be functionalized to display specific protein receptors on their surface. However, surface-display technology typically labels only a small fraction of the EV population. Here, we show that the joint display of two different therapeutically relevant protein receptors on EVs can be optimized by systematically screeni...
Article
Full-text available
Splice-switching therapy with splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) has recently proven to be a clinically applicable strategy for the treatment of several mis-splice disorders. Despite this, wider application of SSOs is severely limited by the inherently poor bioavailability of SSO-based therapeutic compounds. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) a...
Article
Full-text available
The extracellular environment consists of a plethora of molecules, including extracellular miRNA that can be secreted in association with extracellular vesicles (EVs) or soluble protein complexes (non-EVs). Yet, interest in therapeutic short RNA carriers lies mainly in EVs, the vehicles conveying the great majority of the biological activity. Here,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extracellular environment consists of a plethora of different molecules, including extracellular miRNA that can be secreted in association with extracellular vesicles (EVs) or soluble protein complexes (non-EVs). Yet, it is generally accepted that most of the biological activity is attributed to EV-associated miRNAs. The capability of EVs to transp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as a highly promising cell-free bio-therapeutics. While a range of engineering strategies have been developed to functionalize the EV surface, current approaches fail to address the limitations associated with endogenous surface display, pertaining to the heterogeneous display of commonly used EV-l...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review We provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the natural history of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the documented associations between virus infections (in particular the enteroviruses) and disease development. We review studies that examine whether T1D-specific risk alleles in genes involved in the function of the i...
Data
Document S1. Supplemental Materials and Methods, Figures S1–S19, and Tables S1–S3
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), are promising biomarkers for diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), although their biological relevance is largely unknown. To investigate the relationship between intracellular and extracellular sRNA levels on a global scale, we performed sRNA sequencing in four muscle ty...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication by delivering or displaying macromolecules to their recipient cells. While certain broad-spectrum EV effects reflect their protein cargo composition, others have been attributed to individual EV-loaded molecules such as specific miRNAs. In this work, we have investigated the contents o...
Article
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The advantages of lipid-based transfection reagents have permitted their widespread use in molecular biology and gene therapy. This study outlines the effect of cryo-manipulation of a cationic lipid-based formulation, Lipofectamine 2000, which, after being frozen and thawed, showed orders of magnitude higher plasmid delivery efficiency throughout e...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in a diverse range of biological processes. For future therapeutic applications and for EV biology research in general, understanding the in vivo fate of EVs is of utmost importance. Here we studied biodistribution of EVs in mice after systemic delivery....
Article
Full-text available
While small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been rapidly appreciated to silence genes, efficient and non-toxic vectors for primary cells and for systemic in vivo delivery are lacking. Several siRNA-delivery vehicles, including cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), have been developed but their utility is often restricted by entrapment following endocyto...
Article
Full-text available
Finding suitable nonviral delivery vehicles for nucleic acid-based therapeutics is a landmark goal in gene therapy. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are one class of delivery vectors that has been exploited for this purpose. However, since CPPs use endocytosis to enter cells, a large fraction of peptides remain trapped in endosomes. We have previou...
Article
Full-text available
Human identification systems such as criminal databases, forensic DNA testing and genetic genealogy require reliable and cost-effective genotyping of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers from different biological materials, including venous blood and saliva. Although many such assays are available, few systems are capable of simultaneo...
Article
Full-text available
Detection of DNA sequence variation is critical to biomedical applications, including disease genetic identification, diagnosis and treatment, drug discovery and forensic analysis. Here, we describe an arrayed primer extension-based genotyping method (APEX-2) that allows multiplex (640-plex) DNA amplification and detection of single nucleotide poly...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Type 1 diabetes is the main focus of our research efforts. This is the most common, life-threatening chronic disease in children. The disease is associated with severe secondary complications and a dramatically shortened life expectancy, especially for those who develop the disease as a child. The MFT group has a strong experience in type 1 diabetes research, with expertise in pancreatic beta cell biology, immunology and virology. Our studies focus on the etiology of the disease. We are also actively involved in the development of new vaccines targeting a group of viruses (enteroviruses) that are suspected to contribute to type 1 diabetes. We have ongoing studies aimed at identifying biomarkers for early diseases, which can identify individuals even before entering stage 1 of the disease.